The apparatus for teachingscience and engineering is an interactive multimedia computer system which is used to simulate the performance of scientific experiments on the computer screen. An experiment is a method for determining the value of one experimental parameter by measuring the value of another using an experimental configuration of devices and apparatus. The interactions of the devices and apparatus in the experimental configuration are governed by a relationship among the experimental parameters that define the configuration. The user of the teachingapparatus assembles a pictorial representation of the experimental configuration on the computer screen and interacts with the pictured experimental configuration to simulate the performance of an experiment. The pictured experimental configuration is governed by the same relationship among experimental parameters as the real configuration and thus, the results of the simulated experiment match the results of the experiment performed in the laboratory. Still images and short motion pictures relating to the subject matter of the experiment can be accessed by the user as an aid to his understanding of the subject matter.
According to Khairi (1990) effective teaching gives meaning and bearing, which is have a permanent and continuous value that can be applied by a student for dealing with future challenges. Thus, effective teaching can be defined as a system of activities that can improve learning outcomes required in the final in a healthy, democratic and vibrant. Engineering Technology is one of the elective subjects (option) offered to students who are at levels four and five are interested in technology. It is performed in the Academic School Day (SMA), National Religious Secondary Schools (SMKA) and School of Science (SMS). Engineering Technology subjects include lesson plans and learning, laboratory experiences and project work that will provide students with basic education related to the industry. It is arranged in order so that the students can understand and contribute significantly to community-oriented technology. This subject aims to provide students who understand the technology, productive, innovative, creative and moral (Technology Engineering Syllabus, 2002).
The list of activities is found in Appendix A. The list was made up of (a) activities mentioned by scientists and science majors in previous studies (The Bayer Corporation/ National Science Foundation, 1988; Jarrett & Burnley, in press; Jarrett & Burnley, 2003), (b) activities with obvious connections to science or engineering, and (c) non-science items as fillers. For purposes of this study, the following activities were considered science related: LEGO bricks or robotics, computer programming, building with wooden blocks, taking things apart, TV nature or science programs, chemistry kit, microscope or telescope, planting in a garden, care of animals, care of house plants, mixing up “kitchen chemicals”, exploring the outdoors, playing in sand, visiting a science museum, visiting zoos/nature centers/aquaria, playing with doctor/nurse kits, risky play (making explosive, etc.), making science collections, making models, camping, star gazing, snorkeling or SCUBA diving, beach combing, and science club.
Existing research has found that engineering practices are beneficial to student learning if implemented correctly (Cantrell, Pekcan, Itani, & Velasquez-Bryant, 2006; Katehi, Pearson, & Feder, 2009; Schunn, 2009). Therefore, examining how science educators are implementing engineering content and practices in their teaching is pertinent to providing the proper pre- and in-service support to help these teachers properly integrate such concepts. Previous studies have investigated teachers‘ delivery and feedback during engineering design lessons (Kendall, & Portsmore, 2013) and their pedagogical content knowledge of engineering (Hynes, 2012). One such study involved three elementary classroom teachers defining engineering and asking students to undertake an engineering design challenge (Kendall & Portsmore, 2013). Findings included teachers‘ difficulty in adequately defining engineering to students, challenges in responding to students‘ added requirements during engineering design problems, and struggle with trial and error approaches over scripted planning. This is not surprising, given very few elementary teachers are trained in programs of study addressing any form of engineering topically. Most elementary education teachers have no formal coursework in engineering, and very likely neither did their teacher preparation instructors who taught them how to congruently deliver science, and in the rarer case, engineering content. Although such findings aid science educators in their pedagogical practices, minimal studies have explored the effect of teacher education, including professional development (PD) opportunities, and the influence it has on redelivery. Moreover, minimal studies have been conducted examining perceptions, beliefs, instructional design, and delivery across a large scale project. The authors of this publication surmise that if elementary teachers have been prepared in programs of study in colleges of education that included integration of engineering, these are rare instances. Without a basic assessment and understanding, researchers are blindly proposing methods lacking an adequate conception of what is currently taking place. To recognize how to better collaborate, both fields can benefit from an understanding of previous K-12 educational reform efforts that attempted to enhance the STEM education knowledge of students and teachers.
Learning styles constitute a major research branch in Aboriginal education both in the United States (American Indian Society for Engineering and Scien- ces, 1994; Chavers, 2000; Wilcox, 1996) and Canada (MacIvor, 1995). Learning styles were defined by Hodgson-Smith (2000) as “an individual’s characteristic strategies of acquiring knowledge, skills, and understanding” (p. 159). A learn- ing style would in fact refer to a superordinate construct (Shade, 1997) that would explain a set of differences in processing information (Hale, 2002). It is generally accepted that “the approach to learning and the demonstration of what one has learned is influenced by the values, norms, and socialization practices of the culture in which the individual has been enculturated” (Swisher & Deyhle, 1989, p. 2). Consequently, some authors (Deyhle & Swisher, 1997; St. Charles & Costantino, 2000) contend that learning styles may vary across cultures.
pedagogy questions per quiz) contained 13 individual responses on a daily basis. A mean was tabulated with standard deviations. A t-test shows with greater than 99% confidence that the two pre and posttest content knowledge quiz scores data sets are statistically different. Although the number of participants was small, the number of data points compared was large and the apparent relative normal distribution among the responses suggests that a t-test is a reasonable measure, particularly when used as part of a triangulation with other artifacts. Artifacts contained at least 13 individual lesson plans and final LEGO MindStorm® robotic programs. Some of the pre-collegiate teachers wrote several lessons and several final robotic programs. In relation to the artifacts (lesson plans and robotic programs) themes were inductively generated based on repetition of words for the lesson plans and success of the program for the robots. This approach, used in grounded theory, is consistent with the analysis methods advocated in the seminal work by Glaser and Strauss (1967). Emerging major lesson plan themes included: STEM integration, engineering and design, and encoding.
8) We organize and guide our students to participate in science activities that are relevant to their professional knowledge, and will enrich their lives after class. One of the students’ science activities that we organized last year was the solar energy lifeboat concept design. Around this theme, students studied about the solar energy principle and solar energy battery board themselves. Students combined the new knowledge with the knowledge of body craftwork, hydrodynamics, ship design and so on what they have learned in the classroom. They finished the drawing design and modeling design with the help of their tutor. The solar energy lifeboat was awarded the bronze prize in the national competition of all undergraduates with “Challenge Cup” in 2002. This activity inspired students’ positivity.
separate programs. Future researchers could increase the sample size of inservice teachers and build in years of teaching and grade level taught as independent variables. Also, for inservice teachers, effectiveness of different training strategies such as: workshops, field trips, science museum visits, and directly reading concepts from textbooks could be investigated to see which strategy or combination is most helpful for teachers to develop their knowledge on particular concepts, their attitudes toward teaching these concepts, and their skills in developing appropriate activities to teach these concepts. Although the rubrics for the six earth science concepts were clear and descriptive, scoring of open- ended questions according to rubrics might not be practical if the sample size is bigger. Therefore, multiple-choice questions might be more practical to evaluate the scores of higher number of participants.
Electrically assisted methods of transdermal penetration enhancement include iontophoresis, ultrasound, electroporation, magentophoresis, radio waves and photomechanical waves. Iontophoresis uses a low electric field to create a potential gradient across the membrane in order to transfer charged drugs and most recently neutral and zwitterionic drugs across the SC. 12 The success of iontophoresis is limited by the size of the drug. Some drugs are also able to overcome the barrier of the SC by ultrasound techniques known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis. Ultrasound is vibration at frequencies beyond the human audible range. The force of these sonic waves can increase the fluidity of the SC lipids or the drugs, apply pressure and force molecules through the skin, or perturb the SC lipids to facilitate the movement of drugs across the skin barrier 1000 times greater than normal flux in absence of the sound waves. 13 In a similar manner
Finally, and this will no doubt come as something of a relief to my initial readers given the fact that I am a Victorianist seeking a Ph.D. in literature, I will be able to turn my attention to actual texts, for I think that at this point, whether you agree with me or not, you will at least have some sense of the mountains of evidence arguing against the “Standard Social Science Model” that have been compiled in disciplines other than our own, and also the institutional pressures within our own field that are discouraging their incorporation into literary scholarship. 55 My first chapter devoted to art, however, will be broad and theoretical, and will take off on Paul Hernadi‟s excellent article “Why is Art?” In it, I will examine exactly what art accomplishes and speculate as to how it fits into a theoretical framework that is evolutionarily informed, for I think the very expression of art, as opposed to simpler forms of communication, involves a complex interblending of evolutionary functionalism and cultural knowledge. Though this chapter will be shorter than the chapters surrounding it, it seems like a good idea to present in one setting all of the disparate strands of thought about the origins of art itself since a model of causation at the ultimate, as well as proximate, level seems both possible and desirable before I tackle specific contexts of cultural transmission. In an earlier footnote I addressed one of my main concerns for this chapter, and that is nailing down the precise location of culture. In contrast to the common model that sees culture as an external source impressing itself upon individual members of a social group, I will forward a model that locates culture more in the evolved interests and capabilities of individuals, so that the causal flow also
120 schools, the department of Science in the SCERT (now DERT) was set up. The department provided coaching classes in science and maths for tribal students and also provide in-service training in science and maths for primary and middle school teachers in the state. The department is also involved in developing model questions and textual materials in science and maths under the guidance of experts from NCERT. The State Council of Science, Technology and Environment (SCSTE) was constituted by the Government of Meghalaya and registered under the Societies Registration Acts, 1983 to ensure effective utilisation of Science and Technology for all round development of the state. The society is responsible for popularisation of science programme, sponsored students‟ project programme, etc. 4
The elective courses must be chosen with the assistance and formal approval of the Faculty Advisor and the Dean of Engineering. Elective courses may be chosen from the six elective areas listed below, but must form a coherent plan of study. Approval of the elective program must be established before the student completes three graduate-level courses.
In this respect, experimental activities have been used in scienceteaching since the early 20th century, with different approaches emerging, such as the “la main a la pâte” (hands- on) technique introduced in France in 1995. This method consists mainly of students discovering objects and phenomena in nature, thereby stimulating their imagination and mastering scientific language. According to Pavão (2005), science must be demystified, and it must be taught and disseminated by doing, making it more accessible, which could also helpindividuals become fully functioning citizensin their communities.Hodson (1982) believed that teaching young people to think scientifically is important because it helps them better understand how scientists work and how scientific knowledge is produced. Morreira (1999) stated that for significant learning to occur, new information based on relevant concepts or propositions that already exist in the cognitive structure of students is needed.Thus, teachers should focus on student learning and use content that favors the construction of important scientific tenets. According to Araújo (2017, p. 7): “knowledge is socially referenced and immersed in a cultural melting pot”.Silva (1999) wrote that schools are not the only “place of knowledge” and
teaching rhetoric. He argues that rhetoric should not be taught because it is inferior to philosophy, and the pathos of such crafts is dangerous to society. This Platonic method of teaching has impeded the progress of media literacy groups to educate young students how to interpret visual rhetorical appeals. Wysocki attributes this halt of progress to our scholarly “assumption behind the critique of the visual,” saying, “we each take in what we see, automatically and immediately, in the exact same way as everyone else, so that the visual requires no interpretation and in fact functions as though we have no power before it” (Wysocki 43). Visual rhetoric’s power lies in our own simple self-deception concerning its ability to communicate deeply, made more potent by our arrogance. Here commercialism of the medium comes in – the commodification of television through advertising spots allows visual rhetoric to influence us and our students through ubiquity, and media literacy becomes a necessary tool for textual analysis.
a very e ffi cient method with guaranteed service although it may waste some bandwidth if no data transmission takes place in the allocated slots. Surprisingly, the cost of tracking beacons is almost 1/3 of energy consumption in all three transmission methods as shown in Table 2. Although the transmission of short data packets is a partial reason, tracking beacons is still a big overhead. Therefore, although superframe beacons from the PAN coordinator play the key role in channel access synchronization, they are also the over- head contributing to lower power e ffi ciency. Periodical transmission and tracking of the beacons consume a substantial amount of energy. In next section, we will investigate how to improve energy e ffi ciency. We acknowledge that the three transmission methods serve di ff erent purposes. Our objective is to show which method favors low power devices, and examine the procedures of each transmission method in order to propose new mechanisms to improve their e ffi ciency.
As computing evolves into new domains, we need methods of understanding how humans interact within them. The fundamental task of generating references seems nearly trivial; after all, we are well equipped to do this in the physical world and only rarely experience difficulty. With the arrival of CSCW, researchers began to realize some of the difficulties of referencing in computer-mediated environments; it is now understood that references comprise a critical part of communication, and must be supported if successful collaboration is to occur. Collaborative desktop applications exposed the fundamental difference between working in the physical and computer- mediated worlds; participants often have disparate views, and can no longer rely on many non-verbal forms communication, such as gesturing and eye gaze. As computing transitioned into 3D environments, it brought with it new possibilities in supporting collaborative tasks. In its initial concept, VR was supposed to provide us a synthetic world that closely parallels our own, but as researchers discovered, even basic tasks could be problematic; the non-tangible nature of virtual objects in combination with new spatial properties introduced interaction challenges. Just as in early CSCW, VR researchers realized that participants had difficulty making references, but the problem seemed to have compounded.
In this chapter, longitudinal curves for VABS scaled scores are presented and discussed. Two methods are applied to find the proper curves. One is fractional polynomial transformation with mixed regression model (‘Transformation’ will represent this method in this thesis). Another method is Gompertz non-linear mixed model (‘Gompertz’ will represent this method in this thesis), which is a common used method for growth curve. We will use PRESS as the criterion to compare these two methods.