Top PDF A microprocessor based control system for an electric vehicle

A microprocessor based control system for an electric vehicle

A microprocessor based control system for an electric vehicle

This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Thesis/Dissertation Collections at RIT Scholar Works. It has been accepted for inclusion in Theses by an authorized administrator of RIT Scholar Works. For more information, please contact ritscholarworks@rit.edu. Recommended Citation Moffatt, Ronald C., "A microprocessor based control system for an electric vehicle" (1980). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology.

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CAN Control System for an  Electric Vehicle

CAN Control System for an Electric Vehicle

2 BACKGROUND Until recently, various control systems within a vehicle were completely independent of one another, preventing the chance of sharing information around the vehicle. Sharing information between independent control systems within a vehicle can make the vehicle safer, more reliable and more fuel efficient. Traction control, which is almost a necessity in modern vehicles, is a safety example, where four sensors are employed around the vehicle, each measuring the rotational speed of a wheel and sending the readings to a main control system. The main control system then assesses the information received from all four sensors and determines, by calculating rotational speed differences, whether or not one or more of the wheels has lost traction. If the main controller finds that one of the wheels is spinning faster than the others, it sends a message to the brake control system telling it to apply the brakes to that specific wheel. In doing so, the main controller ensures that the vehicle will always be in contact with the road, thus, providing a safer ride for all passengers onboard.
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TO PREVENT SPEED VIOLATIONS AND TO PROVIDE TRAFFIC SAFETY WITH MICROPROCESSOR-BASED AUTOMATIC VEHICLE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM

TO PREVENT SPEED VIOLATIONS AND TO PROVIDE TRAFFIC SAFETY WITH MICROPROCESSOR-BASED AUTOMATIC VEHICLE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM

Emails: hasbiapaydin@hotmail.com, sukrukitis@dpu.edu.tr ABSTRACT The last two decades, according to the rate of increase in the number of vehicle traffic accident rates and accident death rates have declined as a relative. This is due to the relative decline in both the legal regulations, as well as over the years due to developments in traffic control and vehicle security systems. Causing traffic accidents occurred in Turkey in the last decade the investigation of defect rates, accidents caused by driver errors, the values of the total accident rate has reached 95%. These rates are among the speed of the driver failures, as the direct and indirect impact of accidents is estimated to be approximately 30%. For the continuity of traffic and driving safety, the speed defects required to be controlled by various reduction and control methods. Microprocessor-based tools developed for this study, the RF (radio frequency) receiver-transmitter through an electronic system without driver intervention, according to the state highway speed limit is set, and the tool by the perceived value of the vehicle without exceeding the set speed, vehicle speed of the road, weather and traffic conditions in accordance with the requirements automatic adjustment is provided. Thus, it is aimed to reduce the driver speed defects and to reduce the accidents caused by the speed defects.
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Monitoring System and Control of University of Jember Electric Vehicle Based on Radio Frequency

Monitoring System and Control of University of Jember Electric Vehicle Based on Radio Frequency

ABSTRACT: Electric vehicle is one choice to developed clean pollution countries. In this research a electric vehicle is monitor and control to get best performance of University of Jember electric vehicle. The voltage sensor, current sensor, speed sensor, and dynamic characteristic testing with control mode and driver mode. In the control mode test, there are four road condition that is straight road, turn road, down road, and ramp. In these test, the high current value happen in the 7.93 A. In the speed control mode, the electric vehicle runs well on the road condition straight value reference speed is of 250 RPM. In the condition of the turning road with the speed of reference is 250 RPM, the average velocity value is of 245.79 RPM, and in the decrease elevation of road, the velocity value is 206.55 rpm, and finally for increase elevation of road, the speed is 99.63 rpm. All of this numerical can show on master control, because all of parameter send by radio frequency of the system. These results have low error and have high accuracy.
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Microprocessor based system for the development of control and protection of HVDC convertors

Microprocessor based system for the development of control and protection of HVDC convertors

However, in the presence of harmonic filters the operation of the fault development control technique has proved to be erratic on all systems with short circuit [r]

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Integrated vehicle control of in-wheel electric vehicle

Integrated vehicle control of in-wheel electric vehicle

For the measurement of the lateral position, differential GPS data, magnetometers or in-vehicle camera systems are used (Rajamani). The control design is based on a weighting strategy, which is formulated through a closed-loop interconnection structure, see in Fig. 2. Input and output weighting functions are typically selected to the specifications of disturbances and the inverse of the specifications on the outputs. Usually the purpose of weight- ing function W p is to define the performance specifications in such a way that a trade-off is guaranteed between them. They can be considered as penalty functions, i.e. weights should be large where small signals are desired and small where large per- formance outputs can be tolerated. The purpose of the weight- ing functions W w and W n is to reflect the disturbance and sensor noises. ∆ block contains the uncertainties of the system, such as unmodelled dynamics and parameter uncertainty. The mag- nitude of the neglected dynamics is handled by a weighting W u . In the trajectory tracking problem two performance signals are introduced in order to guarantee the tracking of the reference veloc- ity and lateral displacement with an acceptably small error. The weighting function is selected as a second-order proportional form:
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Research on skid control system of small electric vehicle : (the effect of regenerative brake control on in-wheel small electric vehicle with anti-lock brake system)

Research on skid control system of small electric vehicle : (the effect of regenerative brake control on in-wheel small electric vehicle with anti-lock brake system)

The objective of this research is to validate a control method for complex mathematical model of a four wheel steering small electric vehicle by investigating the steering performance [r]

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Artificial Intelligence Application’s for 4WD Electric Vehicle Control System

Artificial Intelligence Application’s for 4WD Electric Vehicle Control System

Research has shown that EV control methods such as, PI control are able to perform optimally over the full range of operation conditions and disturbances and it is very effective with constant vehicle torque, Moreover these non-linear vehicle torque are not fixed and change randomly. However EV with conventional PI control may not have satisfactory performance in such fast vary- ing conditions, the system performance deteriorates. In addition to this, it is difficult to select suitable control parameters K p and K i in order to achieve satisfactory compensation results while maintaining the stability of EV traction, due to the highly complex, non-linear nature of controlled systems. These are two of the major draw- backs of the PI control. In order to overcome these diffi- culties, adaptive PI controller by fuzzy control has been applied both in stationary and under roads constraints, and is shown to improve the overall performance of 4WD electric vehicle.
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The design and control system of small electric vehicle (EV): A review

The design and control system of small electric vehicle (EV): A review

In response to concerns about energy cost, energy dependence, and environmental damage, a rekindling of interest in electric vehicles (EV’s) has been obvious [7]. The progress and features of different propulsion systems are reviewed. Power semiconductor devices suitable for electric vehicle controller applications are compared [6]. This paper explores the benefits and discusses control schemes of the cascade inverter for use as an EV motor drive and the diode-clamped inverter as a series motor drive [8]. The controls of two power stages are properly designed and digitally realized using a common digital signal processor [6]). The requirements of EVs on electric motor drives are presented. The efficiency and response of the power train, namely of the electric motor (EM), are very important aspects on the correct sizing and project of an electric vehicle [8]. With the aim to assess power electronic architectures for electric vehicles, modeling of power electronics is discussed in this paper. Drive train topologies are introduced, the investigated power electronic components are described, and the modeling process is discussed. The development of a model of an electric vehicle (EV) with a battery-powered inverter controlled induction machine drive system. A maximum
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Fuzzy based temperature and humidity control for HVAC of electric vehicle

Fuzzy based temperature and humidity control for HVAC of electric vehicle

Tss, Tr, To Fig. 9 Tss, Tr and To vs time with controller Fig. 10 RHr and Rho vs time with controller Conclusion The temperature control based on PD-fuzzy logic has been designed and developed to control the car compartment’s temperature. The fuzzy rules are designed such that the actuators will settle when the set-point temperature has been achieved within the comfort zone region of the relative humidity and climate. The PD-Fuzzy logic based controller is able to work well regardless any car compartment initial conditions (Tr_init and RH_init) or at different outside conditions (To, Rho) achieving the targeted temperature within the comfort zone of RH. HVAC system in EV is required to be more energy efficient while adhering to an ever-increasing demand for better indoor air quality and comfort. Therefore this PD-Fuzzy control approach can be applied with consideration on the energy consumption by incorporating with optimisation tools such genetic algorithm in future control development. Thus a balance between indoor comfort and energy efficiency can be obtained.
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Fuzzy-based temperature and humidity control for HVAC of electric vehicle

Fuzzy-based temperature and humidity control for HVAC of electric vehicle

Tss, Tr, To Fig. 9 Tss, Tr and To vs time with controller Fig. 10 RHr and Rho vs time with controller Conclusion The temperature control based on PD-fuzzy logic has been designed and developed to control the car compartment’s temperature. The fuzzy rules are designed such that the actuators will settle when the set-point temperature has been achieved within the comfort zone region of the relative humidity and climate. The PD-Fuzzy logic based controller is able to work well regardless any car compartment initial conditions (Tr_init and RH_init) or at different outside conditions (To, Rho) achieving the targeted temperature within the comfort zone of RH. HVAC system in EV is required to be more energy efficient while adhering to an ever-increasing demand for better indoor air quality and comfort. Therefore this PD-Fuzzy control approach can be applied with consideration on the energy consumption by incorporating with optimisation tools such genetic algorithm in future control development. Thus a balance between indoor comfort and energy efficiency can be obtained.
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GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System

GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System

The vehicle tracking system is an electronic device that tracks the vehicle‟s location. Most of the tracking systems use GPS module to locate the vehicle‟s position [1].Many systems also combines communication components such as satellite transmitters to communicate the vehicle‟s location to a remote user [2]. Google maps are used to view the vehicle‟s location. The design of the tracking system is divided into three parts; basic design, intermediate design and an advance Design. The basic design of the vehicle tracking system consists of a GSM module, a GPS module, a MCU (ATMEL), a Relay circuit and a LCD. The user sends SMS and the system responds to the user‟s request by providing the coordinates of a location in accordance to the requirements of mobile phone users through the GPRS network. The intermediate and advance design is an improvement of the basic design. There are five features introduced in the project. SMS codes are specifically assigned to each of these features. For example, if the user sends „555‟ to the tracking system. The GSM modem will receive the SMS and transmit to the MCU unit, where the SMS code will be compared against the codes stored in the library. In this project, the code ‟555‟ is assigned to find the location of a vehicle. So, the MCU will get the location from the GPS module and reply back
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ELECTRIC VEHICLE PROPULSION SYSTEM

ELECTRIC VEHICLE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Complete electric vehicle traction system usually consists of BLDC motor, inverter bridge, rotor position sensor, controller and driver circuit. A BLDC motor is synchronous motor with permanent magnets on the rotor and armature windings on the stator. It is powered by a DC electric source via an integrated inverter/switching power supply, which produces an AC electric signal to drive the motor, i.e. the motor accomplishes commutation electronically. The commutation instants are determined by the rotor position. Detecting the rotor position in BLDC motors is performed either by position sensors like Hall sensor, position encoder and resolver etc. or by sensorless techniques. A three-phase BLDC motor has three stator windings, which are oriented 120 o apart. When the motor rotates, each winding generates a voltage called back-EMF, which has an opposite polarity to the energized voltage. There are two types of stator windings: trapezoidal and sinusoidal, which refers to the shape of the back-EMF signal. Trapezoidal motor is a more attractive alternative for most applications due to its simplicity, lower price and higher efficiency [7]. The Simulink diagram; Fig. 2, is drawn based on the standard electrical and mechanical equations of the BLDC motor found in a variety of standard references (see for example [8, 9]).
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Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

Control of PM BLDC motor can be accomplished by the control of either phase or dc-link variables voltage or current. Current control schemes for PM BLDC motor drive are popular due to their capability to maintain the phase currents near to square wave type. For the present case dc-link current control is considered. Figure 4.2.2 shows the schematic of dc-link current control. In the case of dc-link current control switches of the VSI are controlled as per the information of rotor position obtained from the Hall sensors in terms of six different hall-states. Once a Hall-state is over switches are left under the influence of forced commutation circuits to get turn OFF. Under such a control two switches conduct at time. The current reference I ref is compared with the feedback current i d coming from the dc-link before being manipulated by the PI regulator. The latter one outputs the duty- cycle  for chopping one of the two conducting transistors. In the study, I ref is set at the rated current magnitude I R and the current regulator is assumed to deliver the maximum effort in presence of a small current error.
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Intelligent Control Of An Electric Vehicle (ICEV)

Intelligent Control Of An Electric Vehicle (ICEV)

In this work, we are interested in the implementation of intelligent strategies based on fuzzy controllers to ensure optimal operation of an electric vehicle.we can say that the design and optimization of the traction chain of an electric vehicle is a multidisciplinary problem that must take into consideration, at a minimum, batteries, mechanical transmission and electromagnetic powered electronics. The search for a minimal cost is added to the scientific and technological difficulties. The future electric vehicle must be able, with appropriate control, to use the energy stored in the batteries in order to sustain the electricity network during periods of peak consumption or in case of emergency (shutdown of a production plant) . The energy stored in the battery of the vehicle could also supply the electrical requirements of the dwelling. This technology requires that the charger embedded in the vehicle as well as the interface between the vehicle and the electrical network are bidirectional. The results obtained are extremely encouraging and prove that the more we refine the electromagnetic model of the electric vehicle the more we obtain a favorable ground for a better implementation of the strategies of control especially the fuzzy strategies.
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Design and control of inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle charging

Design and control of inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle charging

In all such IPT systems thus far, energy has been coupled from a primary to a secondary across an air gap of significant but small proportions that stays relatively constant, even in the presence of movement. In manufacturing application, one primary circuit was able to drive a multitude of secondary circuits. Track guidance systems allow vehicles without drivers to move along a current carrying conductor. The inductive method has the advantage that it is not sensitive to oil, dirty, tire abrasion etc. Thus, their use has gained acceptance in harbors and industrial plants. Reference frequency and current as well as lateral separation and height from guide conductor can be selected from a large scope of variants. This type of systems are called automated guide vehicle. An AGV is a driverless transport system used for horizontal movement of material. They are most often used in industrial application to move materials around a manufacturing facility or warehouse. AGVs are employed in nearly every industry, including, pulp, paper, metals, newspaper and general manufacturing. The first AGV was brought to market in the 1950s and it was simply a tow truck that followed a wire in floor instead of a rail. The use of AGVs has grown enormously since their introduction. The primary coil on a monorail has the form of an elongated loop that is loosely coupled to a pickup coil on a vehicle and may transfer 1-10 kW of power across a 4-10 mm gap. With an AGV, the air gap may be 10-20 mm, and there may be a possible misalignment of similar magnitude.
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Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Control System for Electric Vehicle Air Conditioning Compressor Based on Vector Control

Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Control System for Electric Vehicle Air Conditioning Compressor Based on Vector Control

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has the advantages of small size, light weight, simple structure, reliable operation, high power factor, easy heat dissipation and easy maintenance. It has become the best choice for electric vehicle air conditioner compressors, but in actual working conditions, the air conditioner compressor has the problem of excessive noise and serious system turbulence, which makes the air conditioner compressor unable to work normally, which has serious consequences. The method of using the field oriented control can overcome the problems existing under actual working conditions, so it proposed the design of permanent magnet syn- chronous motor control system for electric vehicle air conditioner compres- sor.
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A GSM Based Vehicle Theft Control System

A GSM Based Vehicle Theft Control System

The 89C52 has been specifically developed for control applications. As mentioned earlier, out of the 128 bytes of internal RAM, 16 bytes have been organized in such a way that all the 128 bits associated. With this group may be accessed bit wise to facilitate their use for bit set/reset/test applications. These are therefore extremely useful for programs involving individual logical operations. One can easily give example of lift for one such application where each one of the floors, door condition, etc may be depicted by a single hit. The 89C52 has instructions for bit manipulation and testing. Apart from these, it has 8-bit multiply and divide instructions, which may be used with advantage. The 89C52 has short branch instructions for 'within page' and conditional jumps, short jumps and calls within 2k memory space which are very convenient, and as such the controller seems to favor programs which are less than 2k byte long. Some versions of 8751 EPROM devices have a security bit which can be programmed to lock the device and then the contents of internal program EPROM cannot be read. The device has to be erased in full for further alteration, and thus it can only be reused but not copied. EEPROM and FLASH memory versions of the device are also available now.
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Arduino Based Automatic Vehicle Control System

Arduino Based Automatic Vehicle Control System

If the driver’s eye is closed for next 2 seconds then the vehicle will reduce the speed and will take a specified degree of turn to the left to get the vehicle to the side of the road. This will automatically align the vehicle to the roadside and will stop eventually. The braking aspect of the system is realised through a servomotor, as the movement of the motor depicts the application of brake. The servomotor operates a mechanical shaft to apply brake to stop the vehicle instead of manual pedal braking which is not possible when the driver has fallen asleep [16][17].
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Battery and Inverter System for V2G Based Solar Electric Vehicle

Battery and Inverter System for V2G Based Solar Electric Vehicle

A. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF LEAD ACID BATTERY In systems, where the low power load is present, the power supply battery may often be treated as an ideal or real voltage source. Figure 2 shows the mathematical model of lead acid battery, which comprises an ideal voltage source or a voltage source with serially connected resistor that represents the internal resistance of the battery. One of the most accurate mathematical models used to analyze the battery performance is the electric circuit consisting of the voltage source Em and the pairs of capacitors and resistors joined in parallel RnCn.The electric charge losses caused by the self-discharge of the battery are represented by the occurrence of the P-N branch, through which the parasitic current Ip flows. Depending on the expected model accuracy, the appropriate number of pairs of RC dynamic branches must be selected. The number as such also depends on the dynamics of changes in the load of the analyzed battery.
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