Simply put, The SimpleMath of WritingWell is a breakthrough in writing guides — and in twenty-seven years of teaching writing, I have tried many different strategies and texts. Students today need a new kind of instruction for the environment of technology in which they are immersed, and they need to know that we writing instructors can respond to that with a clear and proven method for the assignments they need to do. The SimpleMath of WritingWell accomplishes that by combining brief definitions with thorough explanations, followed by exercises that connect concept to practice very effectively. The equations, such as topic sentence + evidence = paragraph, are the kind of simple guide students can grasp while applying those equations to develop complex ideas. Technology has not only changed how students find information but also how they read and think.
The purpose of this study was to provide a broad examination of salient course assignments designed to explore how to use technology for the teaching of writing. While this study demonstrated aspects of growth, and preservice teachers were able to report course experiences that influenced their understanding of the teaching of writing, there were still issues and concerns to contend with. For example, many of the preservice teachers viewed technology as a way to simply engage students rather than a critical component to the teaching of writing. Although preservice teachers pointed to specific benefits of incorporating technology during writing instruction, they still viewed technology as an external construct, not as a fully integrated pedagogical component to the teaching and process of writing. This is consistent with other research findings that highlight how preservice teachers’ deeply ingrained beliefs about literacy influence their experiences in methods courses and their ideas about future instruction (Kist & Pytash, 2015; Hudley & Holbrook, 2013). In other words, the inherent beliefs and experiences that preservice teachers bring to the teaching of writing can have a causal effect on the role technology plays in the teaching of writing. Preservice teachers that have experienced technology as an external construct of the writing process may be more apt to carry that same experience over into their own classrooms. Conversely, if preservice teachers have experienced technology as a fully integrated and critical component to the writing process, these experiences will construct a very different idea of what it means to be a teacher of writing. Regardless of what preservice teachers initially believe about the teaching of writing and the importance of technology within the process, it is evident that the time spent in methods courses is fundamental to exposing and challenging perceptions about what it means to be a writing teacher in the 21stcentury.
Teaching/Writing: The Journal of Writing Teacher Education Fall 2020 (9:2)
13 students through digital peer review, digital color-coding activities to identify specific kinds of revisions, and online writer reflections. Despite her attention to digital composing, she was surprised to discover that the majority of her students submitted text-only manuscripts of stories rather than the audiobooks, graphic novels, children’s picture books, and Google Slides she had expected when she assigned the open-media writing task. Even after extending the deadline and reviewing the range of media their stories could take, she reported that “50% [of the students] still came in with a printed Google Doc and they were like, ‘This is my chapter book.’” Callie found that her digital approach to teaching writing had been successful in the writing process, but not in producing what she would consider 21st-centurywriting products.
By utilizing sociocultural learning theory (Vygotsky, 1978) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2001) the researcher formulated the research questions and study design. Vygotsy's (1962) theory on the way that people learn has influenced pedagogy in many ways; it has its roots in classroom strategies that teachers utilize to enhance student learning. Instructional strategies such as reciprocal teaching, scaffolding, small group instruction, group problem solving, and tutoring, have promoted engagement and student learning (Blake & Pope, 2008). Vygotsky placed a great emphasis on the social environment of where learning takes place. Discussion with a purpose is allowed to take place through interactions with others. Many teaching strategies have unfolded through this theoretical lens, such as student collaborative efforts, peer sharing, discussion-based learning, and students' private speech (Winsler, Abar, Feder, Schunn, & Rubio, 2007; Ostad, & Sorensen, 2007). Vygotsky argued that language is the basis for developing reading and writing skills. When teachers utilize social learning theory in their classrooms, the opportunity for debate, collaborative learning, conferencing and dialogue take place. The foundation of 21stcentury learning skills utilizes collaboration as a main
In implementing a 21stcentury approach to learning creative writing, we need to create a learning situation which has curiosity and gives the students a real creative reason to learn. To do this, set up projects a round. Each project has several sets of creation that the students are led to experiment with, so that they can find out more about writing creatively by themselves. The teacher’s role through-out the activities are to guide the students and to keep challenging them to think creatively to discover their ideas and products. They sometimes collaborate with other students to compare, contrast and share their learning experiences and discoveries. Finally, they write creatively and display it skillfully. So, the study was designed by getting the data from the teacher’s projects to analyze and evaluate. The method used is Qualitative-Descriptive. The observations were taken from the teaching-learning process of English Department students of Indraprasta PGRI University. Literatures and some personal resources of teaching and learning process are also designed to support our aim in this study.
85 the National Commission on Writing (2006), "Thinking on the screen" is as important as "thinking on paper" in the 21stcentury (p. 15). Video is regarded a composing tool that shares analogous features with print and involves the same stages: planning, drafting, editing and publishing. Bruce (2008a, p. 17) places emphasis on the commonalities that different composing tools have, and argues that video may be a “complimentary” rather than a “competing” writing tool that can be included in the writing instruction in what Leander (2009) terms as “parallel pedagogy”. Using print literacy as a thinking device and transferring their understanding and experiences about print composing through a different sign language system-video is the literacy strategy of “transmediation” (Albers, 2006, p.90). The concept was first introduced by Suhor (1984) who asserted that transferring knowledge across sign systems “stretches the receptive and productive capacities of the students” (p. 254). Transmediation can be a powerful tool for digital native learners who constantly move across sign systems while using new media literacies. Twenty first century learners use emoticons in their posts and text messages and express themselves by combining the format of Youtube videos with audio messages. It is a familiar practice for students to use smartphone or ipad apps such as wondershare or animoto video editor where they can create and edit video, photos and audio and use versatile text effects. Siegel (1995) supports that transmediation can used to shift the “verbocentric ideology. The graph below illustrates the research gap in the literature that drove the first Cycle of this action research project, which was based on the implementation of the “digital nosis model”.
in this context, let me identify three tasks that those of us who care about literacy and who are literacy educators need to take up.
one: Articulate the new models of composing developing right in front of our eyes. Through research documenting these new models, we can create the theory that has too often been absent from composition historically, and we can de- fine composition not as a part of a test or its primary vehicle, but apart from testing. In creating these new models, we want to include a hitherto neglected dimension: the role of writing for the public. As Doug Hesse has argued, the public is perhaps the most important audience today, and it’s an audience that people have written for throughout history. If this is so, we need to find a place for it both in our models of writing and in our teaching of writing.
Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families (1997), which gave official imprimatur to the history and included the testimony of many of the removed. 4 But as the first work of the narrative imagination I encountered on removal, Noyce’s film impressed a cognitive surface not yet informed by the series of memoirs and other works, or by the wealth of historical and critical material, that had appeared on the subject in the two decades before Rabbit-Proof Fence. 5 Noyce’s film continues to orient my analysis of writing and film on the “stolen generations”. As I understand it, this is because melodrama, like the other popular narrative genres with which it combines in the film, will parade on its surface phantasies that, elsewhere, tend to be less overtly displayed—for example, in official discourse, political debates, protest literature, and even in serious narrative fiction. Although I think it is a necessary first step, as will become clear, I do not think that diagnosing a given act of government or of meaning-making as phantasy is the end point of critical analysis. My guiding question has instead become: how much explanatory authority does one grant the interpretation of a given policy or narrative morphology as the setting to work of phantasy?
communicated. If the College Board English Composition Test is to be an acceptable test of writing ability, it needs to differentiate beyond the pedestrian level of simple mechanics. (Godshalk et al. 21)
As White and others began to realize some of the problems inherent in holistic scoring of essays, however, they reconsidered how students and educational institutions could be better served by these ubiquitous assessments, and developed new methods to determine students’ proficiency upon entering college – methods including portfolios and directed self-placement. That implementation, reflection, and revision is not only a guiding practice within writing assessment, but it is one of the most central beliefs in writing studies and pedagogy. Now, firmly planted in the twenty-first century, we are witness to two camps of placement methods: one in search of cost efficiency, the other in search of cost effectiveness. Directed Self Placement (DSP) and Automated Essay Evaluation (AEE) continue the twentieth century disciplinary tension between teacher-scholars and psychometricians and, in their current applications, could not be much farther apart on the assessment spectrum. But each method demonstrates some of the possibilities that exist within assessment, and pushes us to continually re-envision what placement does and can do for students.
hacia el siglo xix, la dicotomía entre experiencia y conocimiento queda vinculada a un efecto maniqueo entre el mal y el bien respectivamente; la experiencia se subsume a la ciencia por no poderse constatar, medir o verificar constantemente, mientras que el experimento resulta la vía adecuada para acceder al conocimiento. Agamben considera que el efecto de extrañeza es el procedimiento que sistematiza esta nueva experiencia (en el sentido de experimentar): «El extrañamiento, que les quita su experimentabi- lidad a los objetos más comunes, se convierte así en procedimiento ejemplar de un proyecto poético que apunta a hacer de lo Inexperi-mentable el nuevo «lugar común», la nueva experiencia de la huma- nidad. Proverbios de lo experimentable son en tal sentido Las flores del mal» (56). Esta idea es la que gesta parte del impulso vanguardista europeo de las primeras dos décadas del siglo xx. En consonancia con un proyecto de modernidad tecnológica, la poe- sía deja de sentirse para comenzar a experimentarse. En ese sentido mucha de la poesía surgida hacia fines de este siglo y en los albores del xxi 7 realiza la expe- rimentación de la experiencia experimentada ya sea en las vanguardias o neovanguardias donde se nota la «copia», fundamento del uncreative writing, a través de un gesto como la parodia o el pastiche.
CC11-12WH/SS/S/TS7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self- generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
CC11-12WH/SS/S/TS8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
underscore the contemporaneity and severity of such concerns, and make salient the most important fact about Lex Informatica, which is that people themselves write the laws that all are governed by.
The kind of solution offered by Lex Informatica is one WPAs are badly in need of as well, as our programs increase in scale and we are confronted by the same conflicts around distribution and ownership of intellectual property and personal information as are governments and corporations. How, for example, should we treat the privacy of students who produce web-based electronic portfolios? Are these public documents to be viewed on the Internet at large, or are they protected documents to be kept private as strict interpretations of FERPA direct? To what extent can we rely on the Fair Use Doctrine of Intellectual Property law to protect non-commercial educational work in the era of the DMCA, automated takedown notices, and massive copyright litigation? When it comes to who can have access to systems that contain privileged data, must all access be restricted? Or what levels of access can be allowed for individuals with different levels of need? Furthermore, WPAs have pressing need for the technological and digital
Handwriting versus typing answers to complete classroom activities and projects was another major point of discussion brought up by the students. Surprisingly, 5 of the 8 students responded that they preferred handv.'fiting to typing on a computer for certain activities. The general consensus of why this is so, they told me, was because they were able to remember more from the lesson when handwriting their answers. One of them told me, ·'I feel like I don't retain the information as much. Like as I am typing it.,. Now. the idea that typing versus handwriting could impact the student" s learning had not really occurred to me before the student made this comment. A classmate joined in on this conversation of the idea of handwriting being preferable to typing, and suggested writing by hand was not better because she could type faster than handwriting. Following this statement! a different classmate chimed in and explained that she understands concepts more when she can write them down. and the only student who refrained from commenting for the first part of the cf.:scussion said she liked the Chrome book more because it was easier to copy and paste information for an assignment or project. Again. it was obvious that the students had drastically differing opinions on whether to handwrite versus type on the Chromebooks. similar to the first group. These opinions showed that students legitimately had strong attitudes and beliefs about using the computers in class.
Concerning the second research question, the results seem promising as almost one-third of the participants corrected their students’ written works every time. One possible explanation for this result is that EFL teachers are mandated to correct and give written feedback on students’ works, which are frequently checked by their school principals and supervisors. Another possible reason may be the students’ desire to learn through their mistakes and to improve their knowledge of writing mechanics. The findings could also be attributed to teachers’ belief in the importance of correcting students’ works and providing the necessary feedback to students, since the responses to the fourth and seventh questions show that giving corrections is a top priority for the teachers. These results are in line with those of Balderas and Cuamatzi (2018), which showed that students’ writing skills are enhanced when different methods of correction are implemented.
principal = principal * (1 + apr) Output the value of principal
If you know a little bit about financial math (or just some basic algebra), you probably realize that the loop in this design is not strictly necessary; there is a formula for calculating future value in a single step using exponentiation. I have used a loop here both to illustrate another counted loop, and also because this version will lend itself to some modifications that are discussed in the pro- gramming exercises at the end of the chapter. In any case, this design illustrates that sometimes an algorithmic approach to a calculation can make the mathe- matics easier. Knowing how to calculate the interest for just one year allows us to calculate any number of years into the future.
Because it is more and more common to conduct business on the Internet through e-mail, blogs, and websites, as opposed to in person, it remains highly advantageous that people know how to write well. E-mail, which at its inception seemed best used like a telegram—short, con- cise messages, containing abbreviations and sometimes only lowercase letters—is now used to communicate just about anything to anyone for any reason. For example, in business, e-mails are used to apply for employment, to write a thank-you note, to distribute meeting minutes, to request vacation time, to communicate in a collective setting, to hold individual exchanges, to place an order, to generate a receipt, to provide product support, and myriad other uses that were once achieved primarily through telephone calls and face-to-face interactions.
And everywhere, though it was still so early, there was a beating, a stirring of galloping ponies, tapping of cricket bats; Lords, Ascot, Ranelagh and all the rest of it; wrapped in the soft mesh of the grey-blue morning air, which, as the day wore on, would unwind them, and set down on their lawns and pitches the bouncing ponies, whose forefeet just struck the ground and up they sprung, the whirling young men, and laughing girls in their trans- parent muslins who, even now, after dancing all night, were taking their absurd woolly dogs for a run; and even now, at this hour, discreet dowagers were shooting out in their motor cars on errands of mystery; and the shop- keepers were ﬁdgeting in their windows with their paste and diamonds, their lovely old sea-green brooches in eighteenth-century settings to tempt Americans (but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth), and she, too, loving it as she did with an absurd and faithful passion, being part of it, since her people were courtiers once in the time of the Georges, she, too, was going that very night to kindle and illuminate; to give her party. (v i rg i n i a wo o l f , Mrs Dalloway)
not only on the rectitude of their contents. Their books thus sought to defend, or even legitimize, the process of historical production, in addition to its results. This effort was, of course, political. As Angela Wilson observes, to consider histories like these as more than “simple disseminations of historical fact” is to recognize their consequence as “transmissions of culture upon which our survival as a people depends” (36). In their consideration for the process of historical production, rather than the product, these authors argued not only for historical redress, but also for the right to experience, represent, and distribute their histories in accord with their expressive traditions. 13 At the same time, however, these authors understood the difficulties inherent in their task. Their written defense of these traditions was fraught, not because the written word was somehow inimical to oral and semasiographic expressions, but rather because the translative labor required of these authors was a real hardship, one compounded by a dearth of educational opportunities. 14 Cusick notes in the preface to Sketches that he has “taken much pains in procuring the materials, and translating into English language” (3). Johnson echoes this claim, admitting to his audience that he “enter[s] upon the task with much distrust” (4). So too Copway, who couches his appeals for the uplift of indigenous peoples in an assertion of his own authorial inadequacy (vii). Nicolar laments that though his education inhibits him from arousing “the feelings of the people,” still he has “undertaken the work and have done it my own way” (96). Clarke mourns likewise that “it is no easy task to write a work of this kind” (iii). These are standard, even expected, expressions of authorial humility, but they also operated for these authors as tacit acknowledgments that written
29 two other secular clerks, named Wulfsige and Wilstan, who also converted to monasticism and joined the community. 38
It is interesting that these secular canons were reconciled with the monastic community that expelled them, given the rhetoric that later reformers used to describe them. In 964 Ӕthelwold expelled the clerics at the Old Minster, helped by Edgar‟s military support, and replaced them with monks. Wulfstan‟s Vita Ӕthelwoldi says that the canons married illicitly, were „involved in wicked and scandalous behaviour‟, were too drunk to celebrate mass and even tried to poison Ӕthelwold. 39 The fact that Eadsige as well as two other former canons later took up the monastic habit after being expelled is perhaps further evidence that the reformers exaggerated the decadence of the clerks in the minsters whom they displaced. Antonia Gransden has shown that whilst the reformers were scathing of clerks‟ behaviour and morals in their writings, in practice many clerks were kept on by the new regime. As we have seen, Ӕthelwold retained some clerks in his reformed community at Winchester, Oswald kept on the clerks in the cathedral of Worcester and Dunstan never replaced the community at Christ Church at Canterbury with Benedictine monks. 40 This was not a phenomenon restricted to English reform monasticism. For instance, Patrick Wormald has written that tenth-century reform movements on the Continent as well as in England also „gave too desolate and/or dissolute an impression of pre-reform conditions‟ and gives the example that at Gorze a charter was issued despite the fact that later reformers claimed the minster was full of dung. 41
So it is the hardware’s job to ensure that the appropriate cells, or sub-cell colour areas, get subjected to appropriate electrical field to reconstruct the desired image on the screen. This side of hardware is best left to specialist electronic engineers, but there will be a controller chip, ideally with well defined functionality that is described in the chip’s datasheet, on the device or motherboard with which the CPU can interact to direct the hardware. In reality, for reasons of backward compatibility, TFT monitors usually emulate older CRT monitors, and so can be driven by the motherboard’s standard VGA controller, which generates a complex analog signal that directs an electron beam to scan across the phosphor-coated screen, and since there isn’t really a CRT beam to direct, the TFT monitor cleverly interprets this signal as a digital image.