Top PDF Simulation of Solar Collector Performance under Different Operating Conditions

Simulation of Solar Collector Performance under Different Operating Conditions

Simulation of Solar Collector Performance under Different Operating Conditions

of FPSC are shown in Fig. 1 and 2, respectively. The collector specifications are given in Table 1. When solar radiation of halogen lamps passes through a glass cover and hitting the blackened absorber surface of high absorptive, a large part solar energy is absorbed by the plate heat up, changing solar energy into heat energy. The heat is transferred to the transport medium in the fluid tubes to be carried away for storage or use. The fluid circulates in a closed system with using the water pump. Experimental procedure: The solar collector performance has experimentally investigated in Karbala, Iraq latitude 32.6°N and longitude 44.02°E data is recorded under transient conditions. The solar collector is tilted to South facing with 12° 22, 32, 42, 52 in Summer, the beam component is more than the diffuse component and thus the the main contribution comes from the beam component that leading to the optimum tilt is less usually latitude -10° (Gunerhan and Hepbasli, 2007) (Table 2).
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Exergy Analyses for Parabolic Solar Collector at Different Conditions: PAPSC Software

Exergy Analyses for Parabolic Solar Collector at Different Conditions: PAPSC Software

arrangements. They found maximum instantaneous efficiency, maximum/minimum temperature differences of flowing fluid and maximum/minimum inlet exergies at different operating conditions. Sharma and Geete [12] fabricated various experimental setups with mirror collector, aluminum sheet collector and preheater aluminum sheet collector. After analyses, they concluded copper is the best material for absorber pipe and antifreeze ethylene glycol (coolant) absorbs more radiative energy than water at some conditions. Liang et al. [13] developed transient heat transfer model for analysis and found net heat rate is more in horizontal North-South orientation than horizontal East-West orientation of parabolic solar collector. Qu et al. [14] prepared a prototype with rotating axis and performed experiments in summer and autumn sessions. After analyses, they found solar collector efficiency in autumn is more than summer. Hachicha et al. [15] found effects of various wind velocities and pitch angles on the performance of parabolic through solar collector and for that, they used Large Eddy Simulations.
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Appliance of Simulation Modelling in Wastewater Treatment

Appliance of Simulation Modelling in Wastewater Treatment

The features of the actual systems are transferred to a simulation model under different operating conditions. Adaptive simulation model is created using conceptualisation and parameterization. Adaptive models enable portability in terms of the application of such systems to other locations, i.e. with different values of input concentrations of contamination. Innovative model has been developed to acquire knowledge about wastewater treatment in drinking water on large and inexpensive systems. Simulation modelling methods contribute significantly to the preservation of the environment and human health.
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An experimental investigation of performance of a 3-D solar conical collector at different flow rates

An experimental investigation of performance of a 3-D solar conical collector at different flow rates

between absorbent and working fluid, area and shape of absorbent and collector [10, 11]. Many of studies focused on the heat transfer between absorbent and working fluid while others investigated the shape of the absorbent and the collector. These studies proposed the using of gas-particle suspension [12], fluid-film [13], and metal-foam [14] to increase this heat transfer. An experimental study on the effect of Cu-synthesized/EG nanofluid on the efficiency of flat- plate solar collectors has been carried out by Zamzamian et al. [15]. They figured out that by increasing the nanoparticle weight fraction, the efficiency of the collector was improved. In addition, they discovered that the lowest removed energy parameter could be reached by using 0.3 wt% Cu/EG nanofluid at 1.5 Lit/min and the highest absorbed energy parameter is achieved under the same conditions.
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Performance Enhancement In Solar Flat Plate Collector

Performance Enhancement In Solar Flat Plate Collector

The operation of the collector with TIM at a small flow rate has more advantage. Ralph Eismann.[2] proposed for the expense and productivity improvement of level plate gatherers a precise diagnostic model and the transmission coefficient, spread plate, the absorptance, ingestion plate, of the safeguard covering and the transformation factor, g0, of the exact model. In this manner the vulnerability of the steady, C, was impressively diminished. The gatherer model was approved against exact information of 22 level plate authorities which were tried by the European standard EN 12975-2 (CEN, 2006). The vulnerability of the upgraded authority model lies well inside the vulnerability of experimental test outcomes. F. Giovannetti et al. [3] recommended a gatherer with New glass coatings with high sun powered transmittance and low emissivity dependent on straightforward conductive oxides (TCO) empower imaginative authority plans. His examines the aftereffects of our examinations on revealed, single-, and twofold coated level plate authorities. Based on the optical information of recently created covered glass, we examine its potential in contrast with ordinary spreads. The outcomes show that a huge increment in effectiveness is available both in single-coated gatherers with low or non-particular safeguards and in twofold coated authorities with profoundly specific safeguards. M.E. Zayed et al. [4] survey on the utilization of nanofluids for improving the fiery presentation of sun oriented Upstarting the FPSC with carbon nanostructure, copper oxide and aluminum oxide nanofluids, on similar conditions with point by point monetary investigation, along these lines, a significant examination might be acquired. Contemplating the presentation of the FPSC with half breed nanofluids for example a mix of at least two different nanoparticles scattered in the basic liquid as it is viewed as a promising HTF inside the sun powered FPCs. Xianli Lia et al. [5] examined the impact of changes in emissivity of safeguard plate on the authority execution and An extensive stretch presentation of safeguard plate to outside condition shows that the exhibition corrupts generally with dust collection except if the surface is cleaned by human activity. In any case, the outlet temperature and the proficiency don't diminish carefully, mostly because of that the uncovered sunlight based radiation force isn't indistinguishable which importantly affects the presentation corruption. Mirza Muneer Baig et al. [6] built up a sun powered FPC by utilizing mellow steel as a safeguard plate rather than aluminum we are getting effectiveness as ______________________
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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR THREE DIFFERENT FLOW RATES

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR THREE DIFFERENT FLOW RATES

Combustion was done by Piyanun Charoensawan et al. [7]. Gang Pei et al. [8] studied the performance of evacuated tube solar water heater systems and was compared with and without a mini-compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) reflector (C<1). Simulation of a solar power absorption system and dynamic modelling of an evacuated tube solar collector was done by J.P.Praene et al. [9]. Avadhesh Yadav et al. [10] studied experimentally on evacuated tube solar collector for heating of air in India. Performance characteristics of parabolic trough solar collector for heat generation were analyzed by A. Valan Arasu et al. [11]. Thermal analysis of parabolic trough solar collectors for electric power generation was done by S.D. Odeh et al. [12]. Conduction heat loss from a parabolic trough solar receiver with active vacuum was analyzed by direct simulation Monte Carlo technique by Matthew Roesle et al. [13]. A simplified methodology was developed for designing parabolic trough solar power plants by V. Padilla et al. [14]. Wind flow around a parabolic trough solar collector was analyzed by N. Naeeni et al. [15].
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Energy and Exergy Analysis of Air PV/T Collector of Forced Convection with and without Glass Cover

Energy and Exergy Analysis of Air PV/T Collector of Forced Convection with and without Glass Cover

Both air and water have been used as heat transfer fluids in PV/T solar collectors which are known as PVT/air and PVT/water systems respectively. Kern and Russell introduced the main concepts of these systems with results for the cases of water or air as coolant in 1970’s [1]. During the past 40 years, the performance of PV/T systems has been studied using experimental and numerical methods. Hagazy [2] investigated a glazed photovoltaic/thermal air system for a single and a double pass air heater for space heating and the drying purposes. Zondag et al. [3] developed 1D, 2D, and 3D dynamical models of a multi-panel (PV/T) in 2002. They concluded that the simple 1D steady-state model for computing the daily yield of the multi-panel, can behave as precise as the time consuming 2D and 3D dynamic models. Tiwari et al. [4] evaluated the performance of PV/T air system for different climate conditions of India. Theoretical analysis and experimental validations have also been carried out. A fair agreement can be observed between the theoretical results and the practical works. Tiwari and Sodha [5] in 2006 evaluated the overall performance of various configurations of hybrid PV/T thermal air collector for different weather of New Delhi, and experimental validation has been carried out.
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Hourly Simulation of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector with Simultaneous Solar Radiation and Weather Conditions during Sunshine Period in Cairo-Egypt

Hourly Simulation of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector with Simultaneous Solar Radiation and Weather Conditions during Sunshine Period in Cairo-Egypt

The parabolic trough collector’s performance is highly sensitive to the weather conditions such as ambient dry-bulb temperature and wind speed in addition to the solar radiation. It is noticed that; during the mathematical modeling and simulation of parabolic trough collectors and other solar systems, the researchers do not take into account the hourly profile of solar radiation, ambient dry-bulb temperature, and wind speed simultaneously. Mattew et. al. [14] studied by numerical analysis the heat loss from the absorber tube, while the ambient dry-bulb temperature was kept constant at 25 o C and neglecting the wind speed. Arpakon et. al. [2] studied the distribution of velocity and temperature of flowing water in a solar parabolic trough receiver with no mention the mathematical treatment of ambient temperature and wind speed. A. Giostri et. al. [1] compared two linear collectors in solar thermal plant; parabolic trough vs. Fresnel with ambient temperature was kept constant at 19.8 o C with negligible wind speed. García et. al. [7] studied by numerical simulation the parabolic trough solar collector using counter flow concentric circular heat exchangers, where for each studied case; the solar radiation, the ambient temperature, and wind speed were kept constant for each case. Ming et. al. [15] presented performance model for a linear parabolic trough solar collector with ambient temperature kept constant at 20 o C with constant wind speed of 4 m/s. M. Ouagued et. al. [12] simulated the temperature and heat gain by solar parabolic trough collector in Algeria considering constant solar radiation, ambient dry-bulb temperature, and wind speed. The work presented herein, is an attempt to simulate the single-pass parabolic trough collector from thermal and optical point of view, considering the simultaneous hourly profiles of solar radiation, ambient dry- bulb temperature, and wind speed during the sunshine period for specific location. Also, computer program is constructed and presented as simulator to predict the performance of the parabolic trough collector with varying operating, design, and weather conditions.
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Experimental and numerical study the heat transfer of flat plate solar 
		collector by using Nano fluid under solar simulation

Experimental and numerical study the heat transfer of flat plate solar collector by using Nano fluid under solar simulation

significant increase in heat transfer with respect to that of the base fluid. The results indicated that heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids increases with increasing particle volume fraction as well as Reynolds number and showed that the pressure drop of nanofluids was slightly higher than the base fluid and increases with nanoparticles volume concentrations. Tooraj [5] studied experimentally the effect of Al2O3-water nanofluid, as working fluid, on the efficiency of a flat-plate solar collector. The weight fraction of nanoparticles was 0.2% and 0.4% and the particles dimension was 15 nm. Experiments were performed with and without Triton X-100 as surfactant. The mass flow rate of nanofluid varied from 1 to 3 Lit/min. The ASHRAE standard was used to calculate the efficiency. The results show that, in comparison with water as absorption medium using the nanofluids as working fluid increase the efficiency. For 0.2 wt% the increased efficiency was 28.3%. Yousefi T [6] in direction to upsurge the effectiveness or performance of solar collectors, one of the most appropriate methods is to change the working fluid like water, ethylene glycol by higher thermal conductivity fluids like aluminum oxide, copper oxide. The blend of base fluids like water or ethylene glycol with suitable nanoparticles like silicon oxide or aluminium oxide are called nanofluids. In comparison with conventional heat transfer fluids Nano fluids exhibits exceptional heat transfer properties. Dawood [7] presented numerical simulation for three dimensional laminar mixed convective heat transfers at different nanofluids flow in an elliptic annulus with constant heat flux. A numerical model is carried out by solving the governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy using the finite volume method with the assistance of SIMPLE algorithm. The authors used four different types of nanofluids Al 2 O 3 , CuO, SiO 2 and ZnO,
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Simulation and Performance STUDY of Photovoltaic (PV) Module in Varied Operating Conditions

Simulation and Performance STUDY of Photovoltaic (PV) Module in Varied Operating Conditions

At present, adopting green technologies like solar energy has become mandatory due to scarcity of fossil fuels and the emission of carbon products from the conventional energy production methods [1]-[2]. India is the third largest carbon dioxide emitting country [3]. Hence to reduce global warming and environmental pollution, development of eco- friendly technology is essential. Even though numerous renewable energy technologies are available, solar energy is widely used due to its noiseless operation, abundant availability and portability, less maintenance cost, zero fuel cost and nil emission of toxic gases. It is reported in [4] that, an electrical energy of 500,000 terawatt-hour (Twh) can be harvested from the energy of the Sun, received in Indian soil, with PV modules of 10% efficiency. Further it is estimated by International Energy Agency that, 45% of the total energy requirements of the world, will be met through solar power generation in 2050.
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Performance Assessment of Solar Reflector Supported Steam Generator for Cooking of Meals under Different Climatic Conditions

Performance Assessment of Solar Reflector Supported Steam Generator for Cooking of Meals under Different Climatic Conditions

solution to fill the gap of energy need to uplift the life style and social economy of villages (Akella et al. 2009; Wüstenhagen et al. 2007). According to the literature and reports, solar energy and biogas has been advocated as best source to be used in rural areas due to abundant availability of sunshine-days and waste materials in most of the part of the country. However, fabrication of biogas plants is capitally intensive and large quantity of waste organic material is required to start-up the plant, which therefore make it unfeasible for single household with less number of family members. On the other hand, cooking of daily meals consumes high energy in traditional “chulhas” with production of air polluting gasses, for example CO, CO 2 , SO 2 etc., which enflames both temporary and permanent diseases or disorders in human body (Kampa and Castanas 2008). Thus, to seek sustainable solution of these prodigious problems, collection and utilization of solar radiation in the form of direct energy or secondary energy generation in the form of electricity has been advised by researchers (Carlson and Wronski 1976). Solar panels, however, has been profoundly used in various part of the country but the less conversion efficiency makes difficult to comply its use for cooking purpose rather operating small electric appliances and LED bulbs (Green et al. 2015).
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Comparative studies on thermal efficiency of single and double glazed 
		flat plate solar water heater

Comparative studies on thermal efficiency of single and double glazed flat plate solar water heater

Farahat, F. Sarhaddi [9] determined the optimal performance and design parameters of solar flat plate collector. A detailed energy exergy analysis is carried out for evaluating the thermal performance and optical performance, exergy flows and losses as well as exergetic efficiency for a typical flat plate solar collector under given operating conditions. In this analysis ,the following geometric and operating parameters are considered as variables: the absorber plate area, dimensions of solar collector , pipe’s diameter, mass flow rate, fluid inlet and outlet temperature, the overall loss coefficient etc. and also a simulation program is developed for the thermal and exergetic calculations.
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Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

Abstract. The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4, 5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining “ideal” systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.
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Study of the adsorber collector performance of a solar adsorption cooling unit using the zeolite water pair and operating under the dry tropical climatic conditions

Study of the adsorber collector performance of a solar adsorption cooling unit using the zeolite water pair and operating under the dry tropical climatic conditions

In Burkina Faso as in developing countries, the requirement of cooling for the preservation of food and pharmaceuticals is steadily increasing. The energy needed to meet these requirements is largely provided by the National Electricity Company of Burkina (SONABEL). Rural populations outside the coverage areas of the electricity network therefore do not benefit from refrigerating systems. In addition, this energy is of fossil origin (unsafe sources) and cold production devices are conventional compressi refrigerators using greenhouse gases as refrigerants. In this context, for those countries with favorable sunshine, the production of cold by solar energy seems to be a promising way. For solar adsorption refrigerators, producing cold intermittently, the main advantage is the simplicity of their design (no need for spare parts or mechanical intervention) and their total energy autonomy during the cold production phase. In addition, using fluids other than C.F.C., they do not affect the environment.
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Experimental Analyses on Parabolic Solar Collector at Various Operating Conditions

Experimental Analyses on Parabolic Solar Collector at Various Operating Conditions

In this experimental work, lots of measurements have been taken on the two parabolic solar collectors, namely a mirror collector and an aluminium sheet collector. Outlet temperatures, heat transfer rates and instantaneous efficiencies have been recorded with combinations of two water/coolant flowing fluids and four pipe materials and optimized performance of solar collectors are determined. Through the experimentation, maximum heat transfer rate and maximum instantaneous efficiency of the collector have been identified. The conclusion is that the maximum instantaneous efficiency of 92% is achieved at 12:30PM with aluminium pipe-water combination through aluminium sheet collector. The maximum heat transfer rate of 1208.99W is achieved at 01:30PM with copper-antifreeze ethylene glycol through mirror collector. Furthermore, the maximum temperature difference of 12.2 ºC is achieved at 12:30PM with copper-water combination though aluminium sheet collector. With the help of graphical analyses, this experimental study concludes copper is the best pipe materials. And, antifreeze ethylene glycol coolant with copper pipe would absorb more heat than water. The reflection of solar energy to the absorber pipe via aluminium sheet collector is better than mirror collector. The conclusions are useful for future improvement in the performance of parabolic solar collectors.
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Transient thermal performance prediction method for parabolic trough solar collector under fluctuating solar radiation

Transient thermal performance prediction method for parabolic trough solar collector under fluctuating solar radiation

Parabolic trough collector tube which also called as receiver tube, absorbs heat energy by collecting the solar radiation to heat up the heat transfer fluid inside the collector tube. The heat energy accumulated by the heat transfer fluid is used to generate electricity [5]. The parabolic trough collector tube is the key component in solar parabolic trough systems[6]. Cheng et al. [7] developed steady state thermal model for parabolic trough collector. Lu et al. [8]established a heat transfer model for a parabolic trough collector with non-uniform radiation heat flux on collector‘s circumference. He et al. [9], Wirz et al. [10], and Hachicha et al. [11] employed optical model and finite volumemethod to analyze the heat transfer in a parabolic trough solar collector.Wang et al. [12] combined solar ray trace method and finite element method (FEM) to study the effect of a key operating parameter on a parabolic trough collector.Padilla et al. [5] implemented detailed radiation heat transfer analysis in the parabolic trough collector heat transfer model. In addition, Engineering Equation Solver was applied to analyze the steady state performance of a parabolic trough collector[13, 14]. Also, a mathematical model wasdeveloped to analyze the steady state heat transfer of a parabolic trough collector [15]. All of these studies analyze the performance of parabolic trough collector in the steady state conditions.
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CFD Study of an Integrated Collector – Storage Type Flat Plate Solar Water Heater Without and with Fins, Dimples and V-grooves in Absorber Surface

CFD Study of an Integrated Collector – Storage Type Flat Plate Solar Water Heater Without and with Fins, Dimples and V-grooves in Absorber Surface

Narasimhe Gowda et al. [17] studied the heat transfer phenomena in the collector system were calculated by using theoretical model. To improve the thermal efficiency of the solar collector system, inlet water temperature should be as low as possible. The efficiency increases more or less linearly with ambient temperature. Increasing the thickness of insulation beyond 5 cm is worthless. Efficiency will decrease with increase of wind speed. Transmission ratio of glass cover should be more than 0.95 in order to obtain higher thermal efficiency. Higher the ambient temperature higher is the efficiency because of less heat loss to the surrounding.
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A Mathematical Model of Indirect Solar Drying of Dairy Products (Jameed)

A Mathematical Model of Indirect Solar Drying of Dairy Products (Jameed)

The simplest of solar cabinet dryer was presented by Othieno [2], it was very simple, and consists essentially of a small wooden hot box. The sides and bottom can be portable and can be constructed from wood or metal sheet. A transparent polyethylene sheet was used as cover at upper surface. Air holes are located on the sides of the drier for circulation. Portable indirect solar dryers also fabricated; made of wood and plywood as reported by Amouzou et al. [3]. The absorber is made galvanized sheet metal painted black. The drying chamber can dry 10–15 kg of product in 3 days. The wooden frame was not weather-resistant (rain or wind), and the problem of waterproofing arose. Its useful life was 4 years. The multipurpose cement dryer was the same as the brace-type but made from breezeblock instead of wood. It is 4.82 m x 2.82 m and has load capacity of 80–100 kg. Both the collector for preheating the air and the drying chamber are covered with nine glass panel. To reduce the cost of the absorber, the black metal sheet was replaced with charcoal, a product that is available in rural areas. Bolaji [4] developed and evaluated a solar dryer using a box type absorber collector. The dryer consists of an air heater, an opaque crop bin, and a chimney. The box-type absorber collector made of a glass cover and black absorber plate was inclined at angle of about 20 degree to the horizontal to allow the heated air to rise up the unit with little resistance. He reported that the maximum efficiency obtained in the box-type absorber system was 60.5% while those of flat plate absorber and fin-type absorber were 21% and 36%, respectively. He calculated also the maximum average temperature inside the collector and drying chamber were 64 and 57.8°C, respectively, while the maximum ambient temperature observed was 33.5 °C. Bolaji and Olalusi [5] constructed and evaluated performance of a mixed-mode solar dryer for food preservation. They reported that the temperature rise inside the drying cabinet was up to 74% at about 3 hours immediately after noon. The drying rate and system efficiency were 0.62 kg/h and 57.5%, respectively. The rapid rate of drying in the dryer reveals its ability to dry food items reasonably rapidly to a safe moisture level. Results showed that during the test period revealed that the temperatures inside the dryer and solar collector were much higher than ambient temperature during most hours of the day-light.
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Performance of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger under Varied Operating Conditions

Performance of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger under Varied Operating Conditions

The heat exchanger used for the experiment is shown in the figure 3. In this experiment two different cases were taken into considerations to find effectiveness. The first experiment was done by sending the hot water through the shell and cold water through the tubes. The second one was done by sending the cold water through the shell and the hot water through the tubes.

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Stochastic Modeling and Performance Measures of Redundant System Operating in Different Conditions

Stochastic Modeling and Performance Measures of Redundant System Operating in Different Conditions

In the present paper, we consider a two non identical unit air condition cooling system operating in high and low temperature condition. The system is attended by only one repairman.. The main unit can be in: operation with full capacity, operation with reduced capacity and failure, while the reserve unit can be in: operation with full capacity and failure. While in reduced capacity states, the main unit received minor or major maintenance depending upon its strength in reduced capacity states. The system is analyzed using kolmogorov’s forward equations method and expressions for some reliability characteristics such as MTSF, availability, busy period, frequency of preventive, minor and major maintenance, profit function are derived. Numerical results are obtained to depicts the graphical behavior of MTSF, availability and profit of the system model.
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