Top PDF TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

and stages of a company’s operations. The key degree of tacit knowledge transfer is Face-to-face interaction, close relationships formed to have informal interaction and physical demonstration of skills. Most of the Asian companies focus on face-to-face collaborative knowledge sharing, use telephone, voice-mail and real-time video conferencing to transfer tacit knowledge. As tacit knowledge is hard to communicate and express in words. So in order to disseminate it in an organization – common ground of communication between particular units, mutual trust, and analogical way of thinking is needed. “The contact zone” therefore is needed, where units can have a direct contact with one another. One of the few ways to make knowledge more accessible is to enable more conversations to take place in online environments such as forums, weblogs and wikis. In this way sharing is easier and more accessible than by more formalised processes and by making these conversations "linky" people can navigate them, point to the good stuff and build up a collective memory of what was useful.
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Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

In order to prevent the knowledge transfer behavior or results deviate from the expected goal, enterprises need to take the appropriate method to intervene the key links in the knowledge transfer management system, making the system run in the right direction. In tacit knowledge management mechanism system, three key nodes need to be evaluated. Firstly, enterprise need to evaluate whether the tacit knowledge transfer needs are satisfied, namely whether the tacit knowledge increment and innovation make up the tacit knowledge gap. If the target is not reached, then enterprise needs to check job rotation process, and adjust target position or rotators. If the knowledge gap is made up, the next step is to assess whether the key business process performance is optimized or not, that is, whether the rotator has leant the tacit knowledge and apply it into the practical work. If this didn’t happen, the reason may be the key position has been positioned in error, and enterprise needs to redefine key positions and analysis of the tacit knowledge gaps. If to this goal is reached, the third assessment phase is to analysis whether the enterprise strategic direction is supported. If the performance changes of the core business process doesn’t align with the strategic direction, the reason may be due to mistakes are made in the core busi- ness process definition, and need to decompose the strategic target again; If the strategic development goals are supported, the tacit knowledge transfer process get successful.
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Knowledge Management System development by deploying ART Artificial Neural Networks Algorithm Chris M. Jayachandran 1, Dr. Shyamala Kannan2

Knowledge Management System development by deploying ART Artificial Neural Networks Algorithm Chris M. Jayachandran 1, Dr. Shyamala Kannan2

This is essentially the winner-take-all strategy. In other words, after each knowledge artifact is being compared with their likely output vector, competing with each other knowledge artifact‟s match with the output vectors in the Recognition layer; the knowledge artifact having a close match will emerge as the winner. Only a winner, the knowledge artifact, when output by the ART Neural Networks, enters the organizational memory reservoir. This process exactly mimics the tasks of a knowledge engineer trying to extract the tacit knowledge from a domain expert. As the number and method is kept sophisticated for interviewing the domain expert, the knowledge engineer stands to extract effective tacit knowledge. Similarly the more knowledge artifacts which are relevant for gaining competitive advantage to an organization, the ART Neural Network gains plasticity; and the more irrelevant, and knowledge artifact manifesting generic form of knowledge without competitive benefits, the ART Neural Network remains stable. In this way the Stability-Plasticity problem in KM System development is being dealt with flawlessly.
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PROPOSED MODELS OF ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE AGGREGATOR

PROPOSED MODELS OF ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE AGGREGATOR

Knowledge is considered as an important and valuable source for organizations. The right knowledge contributes to better decision making and thus, improves competitiveness and organizational performance. Thus, it is essential for organizations to manage their knowledge properly through knowledge management processes as to sustain in the competitive industry. Tacit knowledge, which is stored in employees’ minds and is hard to manage, has been considered as a crucial factor affecting the performance of organisations. Therefore, knowledge management enables the tacit knowledge of employees be converted to explicit knowledge to enable the retrieval of knowledge by other organizational members so that they can use that knowledge to be more innovative. Retrieving the right knowledge is important to enable the employees to perform better in their work; however, it poses a major challenge especially when retrieving knowledge from a large and variety of sources. The traditional knowledge retrieval methods share the explicit knowledge without a proper evaluation of the quality of knowledge (for example, without a proper editing). Thus, the aim of this paper is to develop efficient knowledge management methods that are able to; (1) to retrieve the right explicit knowledge from tacit knowledge based on responsible measurement variables; and (2) to aggregate and formulate the retrieved knowledge effectively for sharing valuable and focused knowledge. These methods will enable the organizational members to share the right explicit knowledge to the right employees at the right time.
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Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning

Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning

To understand the true nature of knowledge, it is necessary to recognize that tacit and explicit knowledge are essential to knowledge creation. Knowledge can be created through conversion between tacit and explicit knowledge by four different modes. It is in this very act of conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge that learning is created. Educators must understand the dynamic nature of knowledge itself in order to practice effective knowledge management in multi-disciplinary contexts. It is also crucial for educators to focus on effective methods of delivering content, the media used, and the overall quality of the instruction materials. Then only it will become possible to refashion education in a fundamental way so as to direct students to a knowledge creating culture, which is the need of the hour. It is clear from the study that the appropriate use of online technology helps learners to develop the ability of knowledge management. Educators need to become skilled at converting personal, tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge that can help learners to construct their own knowledge. Multimedia technologies can make a great contribution to the educators’
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An Empirical Study of the Tacit Knowledge Management Potential of Pair Programming

An Empirical Study of the Tacit Knowledge Management Potential of Pair Programming

Unfortunately, the very nature of the CoP puts it at odds with conventional KM. The explicit management of an emergent, organic, spontaneous, and informal process is not straightforward. Firms can encourage CoP creation and provide for their existence, but managing and measuring their contribution to the business has been done only on a very limited basis [27, 28]. CoPs are useful for transferring and creating knowledge efficiently, but they are difficult to manage. We propose that there exists a class of hybrid approaches whereby the benefits of the CoP are maintained while the difficulties associated with managing and measuring their contribution is lessened. We further suggest that teams of pair programmers are an instance of this proposed CoP-hybrid approach because they provide a CoP-like environment while retaining a level of manageability and accountability not present in the CoP. Wenger is clear that team and CoP are not equivalent: “A community of practice is not just an aggregate of people defined by some characteristic. The term is not a synonym for group, team, or network.” [26] While CoPs are not teams, a team is not prohibited from being or functioning similar to a CoP [29]. We leave this as an open question, but point to the results of our experiment as a positive indication that pair programming teams may be CoP-like.
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The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

{Abstract high level plans, Abstraction, Access constraints, All purpose algorithms, Analogies, Aphorisms, Artistic vision, Assumptions, Behaviour, Beliefs, Business knowledge, Common sense, Competitive advantage, Complex multi-conditional rules, Concepts, Constructs, Content, Contradiction, Convincing people, Crafts, Culture, Customer's attitudes, Customs, Data, Decision making, Descriptors, Discussion, Everyday situations, Examples can be articulated, Expectations, Externalisation, Face to face transfer, Goal attainment, Grammatical rules, Gut feel, Habits, Heuristics, Hunches, Ideals, Imitation, Impressions, Information, Information placed in meaningful context - eg. Message, Innovation, Interaction, Job knowledge, Judgement, Justified true belief, Know how, Knowledge base that enables us to face the everyday world, Knowledge of designs, Logical rules, Maxims, Meaning, Methods, Negotiation, Observation, Perceptions, Performance, Perspectives, Political correctness, Practical know how, Practice, Prescriptive knowledge, Principles, Private knowledge, Procedural in nature, Procedures, Process, Proverbs, Reproduction, Riding a bicycle, Ritual, Routine, Rule, Rules of thumb, Schema, Script/Scripted, Semantics, Shop lore, Stories, Subjectivity, Swimming, Task management, Tasks, Team coordination, Technique, Technology, Theories, Tradition, Trial and error, Tricks, Understanding, Understanding of categories, Values, Way things are done, Wisdom} ⊆ aTK
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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A TOOL WHICH PUTS PEOPLE ON      THE DRIVER’S SEAT, A SHIFT FROM TANGIBLE TO INTANGIBLE								
								
								     
								     
								   

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A TOOL WHICH PUTS PEOPLE ON THE DRIVER’S SEAT, A SHIFT FROM TANGIBLE TO INTANGIBLE      

Knowledge builds on knowledge and past events helps in generating new knowledge. Knowledge includes insights and wisdom of employees, an important source of value creation. At the most basic level knowledge management can be described as a set of practices that help to improve the use and sharing of data and information in decision making. The key to successful innovation process lies in the mobilization and conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit recorded knowledge. Tacit knowledge is knowledge people carry in their head, it is embedded within the individual whereas explicit knowledge is well documented information which facilitates decisions and actions. Knowledge management in the field of education can be thought of as a frame work or an approach that enables people within an organization to develop a set of practices to collect information and share what they know , leading to action that improves outcomes of an organisation.
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Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Polanyi [93] emphasizes the concepts of knowing what and knowing how, and he indicates every bit of knowing contains both of these aspects. In this respect, knowing what describes something that is knowable, and knowing how describes something that is only realizable in action. They are two different things; one can be transferred discursively and the other only through action. Polanyi wrote of tacit knowing as a process focusing on the operationalization or how to of tacit knowledge, rather than emphasizing what is tacit knowledge. He emphasized that tacit knowing can provide a useful structure for conceptual and empirical work specifically in relation to developing understanding and sharing of tacit knowledge [31]. Tacit knowing is a tacit power, which is a fundamental power of the mind [95]. Hence, Polanyi has drawn attention to knowing, an activity, which other writers also suggest should be the focus of tacit knowledge studies [10].
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Developing a Framework for Managing Tacit Knowledge in Research using Knowledge Management Models

Developing a Framework for Managing Tacit Knowledge in Research using Knowledge Management Models

It seems that current literature emphasises on the various methods of using creating practice, and of communicating the outcomes of research through practice. Key questions in this debate are whether certain methods could or should be used and if so, when and how. For example how can creative practice be used as a valid research method (e.g. Rust, 2004)? And what is the relationship between textual and non-textual methods of communication of research (e.g. Biggs, 2003)? Although there are increasing numbers of studies that use these methods and integrate practice successfully into their research (Wood, 2004; Whiteley, 2000), there seems to be an absence of literature that offers to bridge the gap between research requirements such as the contribution to knowledge, and the pragmatic issues of research practice.
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Designing a black box system for the management of tacit knowledge

Designing a black box system for the management of tacit knowledge

64 it is highly personal and context-related (Kakabadse, Kouzmin et al. 2001). Kakabadse et al. add that “even if knowledge has been articulated into words or mathematical formulas, this explicit knowledge must rely on being tacitly understood and applied” (Kakabadse, Kouzmin et al. 2001). Moreover, individuals may not possess the skills or motivation to articulate their useful knowledge, or resist to do so (Sanchez 2005). However, knowledge that is not articulated and that remains tacit in the minds of people may disappear from an organization when individuals become incapacitated, retire, leave the organization, or are recruited by competitors (Sanchez 2005, Mohajan 2016). Due to expressible tacit knowledge losing its meaning when articulated, and the unarticulatable nature of inexpressible tacit knowledge, tacit knowledge should not and cannot be forced to be made explicit to be able to manage it. So how can tacit knowledge be managed without having to articulate it? Firstly, knowledge can be transferred by transferring people within an organization. However, this is often costly and time-consuming and may be resisted by organizational members (Sanchez 2005). Therefore, this option is not preferred. Secondly, instead of moving people and unsuccessfully trying to make tacit knowledge explicit, one could try to locate and manage the source of (relevant) tacit knowledge, or at least come as close to the source as possible. However, finding the source of tacit knowledge might be hard, as the tacit knowledge itself is not visible. Moreover, Teece adds that “merely finding the person or group with the knowledge one needs is often quite difficult” (Teece 2000). Thus, an aid is needed that helps to find this source indirectly. Instantiations (see chapter 3.4) and effects of tacit knowledge one possesses may be visible/explicit and may be used to find its source. These effects create an expectation of where tacit knowledge resides and increases
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A model for a successful implementation of knowledge management in engineering organizations

A model for a successful implementation of knowledge management in engineering organizations

Chapter 2: Knowledge and Knowledge Management 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Definition of knowledge 2.3 Levels of knowledge 2.4 Two states of knowledge 2.4.1 Interaction between tacit and explici[r]

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Recognising the importance of “Tacit” skills of the construction worker in a knowledge environment

Recognising the importance of “Tacit” skills of the construction worker in a knowledge environment

An increasing number of individuals do work which is knowledge based and the concept of knowledge worker needs to embrace these individuals who can be found at the all levels within organisations. A major aspect of managing tacit knowledge in a knowledge-based economy is giving to knowledge worker the power that arises from the ability to solve the critical contingencies facing the organisation. It means that knowledge worker will increasingly be able to determine that they are developed and managed in ways acceptable to them. This highlights the necessity of managing knowledge worker with flexible, employee centred approaches based on consensual models (Harman and Brelade, 2000). Yet, Construction as an industry which has a reputation for its dominant culture of command and controls consistently emphasises and correlates with the hard model of human resource management. Also the culture of subcontracting and self employment marginalises the importance of people
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Research on the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Government Service Innovation

Research on the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Government Service Innovation

Previous studies on the relationship between leadership and organizational performance are mainly focused on the enterprise level, although there are some issues in public management research, the lack of academic attention. For the service innovation of government departments, there is a lack of detailed classi- fication and discussion; the government leaders make the choice of innovation model, which is also affected by many factors (Berry, 1994; Hartley, 2005). Compared with previous studies, this study has two innovations: First, the re- search on transformational leadership and knowledge acquisition is classified, divided into exploratory service innovation and exploitative service innovation, tacit knowledge acquisition and explicit knowledge acquisition, to explore the “transformational leadership-government service innovation” mechanism. To some extent, it enriches the theory of transformational leadership and govern- ment service innovation. Second, this research not only discusses the overall concept of transformational leadership, but on the four dimensions of transfor- mational leadership in government service innovation choice, mainly because the four dimensions of transformational leadership are very different in conno- tation.
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Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

tacit knowledge is the source of competitive advantage and critical to daily management activities. Tacit knowledge is also divided into two types, cannot be articulated and implicit knowledge, knowledge we know but do not want to express. The division of tacit knowledge into individual and collective is elaborated by Choo (1998). Collins (2001) from the sociology perspective argues that tacit knowledge can be passed through personal contact. Tacit knowledge is an attribute of an individual, unspeakable and unteachable is the definition given by Wagner and Sternberg (1999), from the behaviorist view point. Stenmark (2000) believes that tacit knowledge resides in individuals. Tacit knowledge is valuable and a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Although it resides in individual, organizations must identify and capture the tacit knowledge (Davenport and Prusak, 1997).
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Emerging Trends in ICTs and its impact on Organizational Innovation through Knowledge Management

Emerging Trends in ICTs and its impact on Organizational Innovation through Knowledge Management

A study was conducted which consisted of 310 Spanish organizations and structural equations modeling to study the impact of two KM strategies (codification and personalization) on innovation [15]. They concluded that KM is an important mechanism for companies to be more innovative, efficient and effective. It was proposed to have an integrated approach of KM to foster innovation in design [16]. The basis of their model is a systemic model of knowledge and a hierarchical model composed by the macro process and meta-model of KM. Their model provides an effective means of integrating different perspectives of KM and its activities that can enable designers to innovate more easily and efficiently. A good literature survey on KM and Innovation that examines the relationship between their processes is presented in [17]. The issue of developing and implementing an effective system of knowledge management in the modern enterprises for innovativeness was also proposed [18]. They emphasized that knowledge management affects better utilization of enterprises’ resources for creating innovations and increasing their absorptive capacity. They presented the most important roles that knowledge management plays in improving innovation capability of an enterprise, which are codifying and sharing tacit knowledge, acquiring and sharing explicit knowledge, enabling cooperation within and outside the enterprise, knowledge integration, knowledge availability, and creating organizational culture based on knowledge and innovation.
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Dimensions of Knowledge Management and Its Impact on the Effective Outcomes of Innovation in Iranian Organizations

Dimensions of Knowledge Management and Its Impact on the Effective Outcomes of Innovation in Iranian Organizations

Dehghani (2014) Research in the early importance of tacit knowledge in the creative process, the role of tacit knowledge in innovation management has identified and mentioned some of the problems it is creating and sharing. Then, based on the latest research in this field, an integrative model to illustrate the effect of tacit knowledge on the successful management of innovation described and presented, at the end of the key levers identified tacit knowledge management and positive effects on innovation success will be analyzed. Strategic knowledge management occurs when a group responsible thing rarely happens, an exceptional project, and will be responsible to do the same from the experience of others within the organization did not used. In this mechanism, often upper management Partnership and determine the type of knowledge needed to do the job. Kind of knowledge that is transmitted can be both hidden and obvious. Transmission occur expert in public knowledge of an expert resource within and outside the organization in order to enable the group to solve new problems with methods and new knowledge is transferred. This knowledge is useful when you are doing something special and uniform group and with an unusual technical issue beyond the scope of their knowledge error. Knowledge that is usually requested cannot be found in a guide or standard documents.
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A critical survey of J  K  Arrow'S theory of knowledge

A critical survey of J K Arrow'S theory of knowledge

We suggest a critical review of Arrow's theory in respect to the following four major topics: 1 Codifiable Knowledge , Tacit Knowledge , and Mental Models : Arrow treats learning as the [r]

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Technologies For Enabling Knowledge Management For Organizational Performance

Technologies For Enabling Knowledge Management For Organizational Performance

Organizations use groupware systems when users in workgroups or departments need to communicate and collaborate. Groupware allows formal conversations in cases when the participants cannot communicate in real time. This makes groupware a central technology for enhancing the replace of tacit information. Like other applications, groupware databases become knowledge silos that must be integrated into the enterprise knowledge architecture. It is an application software designed to help people involved in a common task to achieve goals. One of the earliest definitions of collaborative software is 'intentional group processes plus software to support them. (Johnson-Lenz and Peter, 1990) Knowledge transfer processes often occur on an informal basis when the need for specific knowledge arises somewhere in the organization, but organizations also have a large number of formalized processes that regulate the flow of information. Workflow systems enable users to codify knowledge transfer processes when they require a more stiff method of distribution.
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The interactive effect of communication media choice and personal relationships on tacit knowledge transfer success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Studies in Business Information Systems

The interactive effect of communication media choice and personal relationships on tacit knowledge transfer success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Studies in Business Information Systems at Massey University, Manawatu campus, New Zealand

Based on MRT and Time, Interaction, and Performance theory, Hollingshead, McGrath, and O’Connor (1993) explored how relationship strength and media use affected task performance. Again through experiment, they found that people who used face-to-face communication performed better than people who used computer mediated communication on intellectual and negotiation tasks. However, when people had built up relationships over a period of time, their performances were equal regardless of the media use. Similarly, Fuller and Dennis (2009) found that task-technology fit (e.g., the use of synchronous communication for discussion and the use of asynchronous communication for information processing) led to better task performance, however the importance of the fit lowered over time. Maruping and Agarwal (2004) argue that the use of media that support high synchronicity leads to better conflict management performance in the early stages of a project, and the use of media that support low synchronicity leads to better conflict management performance in the later stages.
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