Usability inspection refers to a set of evaluation techniques that are an evolution from prior function and code inspection methods used in Software Engineering for debugging and improving code. According to such methods evaluators examine usability related aspects of an application, trying to detect violations of established usability principles , and then provide feedback to designers about possible design improvements. The inspectors can be usability specialists, or also designers and engineers with special expertise (e.g., knowledge of specific domains or standards). In any case, the application of such methods relies on a good understanding of the usability principles, and more specifically of how they apply to the specific application to be analysed, and on the particular ability of the evaluators in discovering critical situations where principle violations occur.
In Islamic systems, decision-making is formed on the basis of the thoughts of savants (Olul-albab) with regard to the past experiences and current facts of future and not only uses rationale, but also takes advantage of superior thoughts of the origin of the being (Allah). Islamic decision-making mostly deals with the bases and principles of deciding rather than its techniques and methods, and therefore, is a funda- mental discussion about all the levels and dimensions of hu- man individual and social life including leadership, govern- ment managers, authorities, economic organizations man- agers, service organizations managers, universities, schools, and families. Islamic decision-making comprises decision- making to enforce Allah’s rules and orders, decision-mak- ing at the level of prophecy, imamate, and vilayate, as well as decision-making of the members of Islamic society. Sev- eral factors contribute to Islamic decision-making which in- clude trust in Allah and asking for his help; participation and consulting in decision-making; punctuality, tactfulness, and foresight in decision-making; stability, endurance, and de- cisiveness in decision-making; mental health and mindful- ness in decision-making; and fairness, equity, and being at- tentive to inferiors in the time of the decision-making [106- 108].
In order to determine the quality of any web application in the world, Usability is the one of the most important tool that one can use. Web analysis perform several inspections on the websites and software and use usability criteria to determine some faults on the systems. Usability engineering has being important tool for the companies as well, this is due to the fact that through usability engineering companies can improve their market level by making their products and services more accessible. Know days there some web application and software products which are complex and very sophisticated, hence usability can be able to determine their success or failure. However currently usability has been among the important goal for the Web engineering research and much attention is given to usability by the industry due to recognition of the importance of adopting usability evolution methods before and after deployment. Moreover several literature has proposed several techniques and methods for evaluating web usability. And however there is no agreement yet in the software on which usability evolution method is better than the other. Extensive usability evaluation is usually not feasible for the case of web development process. In other words unusable website increases the total cost of ownership, and therefore this paper introduces principles and evaluation methods to be used during the whole application lifecycle, so as to enhance usability of web applications.
This chapter focuses on the principles behind methods currently used for face recognition, which have a wide variety of uses from biometrics, surveillance and forensics. After a brief description of how faces can be detected in images, the authors describe 2D feature extraction methods that operate on all the image pixels in the face detected region: Eigenfaces and Fisherfaces first proposed in the early 1990s. Although Eigenfaces can be made to work reasonably well for faces captured in controlled conditions, such as frontal faces under the same illumination, recognition rates are poor. The authors discuss how greater accuracy can be achieved by extracting features from the boundaries of the faces by using Active Shape Models and, the skin textures, using Active Appearance Models, originally proposed by Cootes and Talyor. The remainder of the chapter on face recognition is dedicated such shape models, their implementation and use and their extension to 3D. The authors show that if multiple cameras are used the 3D geometry of the captured faces can be recovered without the use of range scanning or structured light. 3D face models make recognition systems better at dealing with pose and lighting variation.
As already noted, an issue is that the case mixes of the derivation and validation datasets may diﬀer markedly. The term case mix refers to the type or mix of patients treated by a hospital or unit. Even if the model is ‘cor- rect’, the Kaplan-Meier curves for a given risk group may suﬀer from a type of residual confounding and may also diﬀer across datasets. Residual confounding (a term from epidemiology) occurs when the relationship between the outcome and the PI is not fully accounted for by categori- sation of the data into prognostic groups; some inhomo- geneity of prognosis remains within groups. Therefore, a na¨ıve comparison between Kaplan-Meier curves for the two datasets could be misleading. Residual confounding is reduced if a larger number of risk groups is created, but having too many groups brings its own dangers.
Measurement is important. Recognizing that fact, and respecting it, will be of great benefit to you—both in research methods and in other areas of life as well. If, for example, you have ever baked a cake, you know well the importance of measurement. As someone who much prefers rebelling against precise rules over following them, I once learned the hard way that measurement matters. A couple of years ago I attempted to bake my husband a birthday cake without the help of any measuring utensils. I’d baked before, I reasoned, and I had a pretty good sense of the difference between a cup and a tablespoon. How hard could it be? As it turns out, it’s not easy guesstimating precise measures. That cake was the lumpiest, most lopsided cake I’ve ever seen. And it tasted kind of like Play-Doh. depicts the monstrosity I created, all because I did not respect the value of measurement. Just as measurement is critical to successful baking, it is as important to successfully pulling off a social scientific research project. In sociology, when we use the term measurement we mean the process by which we describe and ascribe meaning to the key facts, concepts, or other phenomena that we are investigating. At its core, measurement is about defining one’s terms in as clear and precise a way as possible. Of course, measurement in social science isn’t quite as simple as using some predetermined or universally agreed-on tool, such as a
CASTEP is a fully featured first principles code and as such its capabilities are numerous. Aiming to calculate any physical property of the system from first principles, the basic quantity is the total energy from which many other quantities are derived. For example the derivative of total energy with respect to atomic positions results in the forces and the derivative with respect to cell parameters gives stresses. These are then used to perform full geome- try optimisations and possibly finite temperature molecular dynamics. Furthermore, symmetry and constraints (both internal and external to the cell) can be imposed in the calculations, either as defined by the user, or automatically using in-built symmetry detection.
The integrated approach starts in the theoretical realm. The first step is conceptualizing the constructs of interest. This includes defining each construct and identifying their constituent domains and/or dimensions. Next, we select (or create) items or indicators for each construct based on our conceptualization of these construct, as described in the scaling procedure in Chapter 5. A literature review may also be helpful in indicator selection. Each item is reworded in a uniform manner using simple and easy-to-understand text. Following this step, a panel of expert judges (academics experienced in research methods and/or a representative set of target respondents) can be employed to examine each indicator and conduct a Q-sort analysis. In this analysis, each judge is given a list of all constructs with their conceptual definitions and a stack of index cards listing each indicator for each of the construct measures (one indicator per index card). Judges are then asked to independently read each index card, examine the clarity, readability, and semantic meaning of that item, and sort it with the construct where it seems to make the most sense, based on the construct definitions provided. Inter-rater reliability is assessed to examine the extent to which judges agreed with their classifications. Ambiguous items that were consistently missed by many judges may be reexamined, reworded, or dropped. The best items (say 10-15) for each construct are selected for further analysis. Each of the selected items is reexamined by judges for face validity and content validity. If an adequate set of items is not achieved at this stage, new items may have to be created based on the conceptual definition of the intended construct. Two or three rounds of Q-sort may be needed to arrive at reasonable agreement between judges on a set of items that best represents the constructs of interest.
discharging their duty to the learner but it is based on two fundamental fallacies that have always hampered educational processes – teaching is not synonymous with learning (Klionsky, 2004), and the possession of knowledge of an area does not guarantee the ability to perform in that area (Mazur, 2009). The importance of focusing on outcomes of curricula rather than inputs was first pointed out by Spady (1988) in relation to North American high school and elementary programmes. He proposed that course designers “work backwards” compared to conventional practice, which tended to start with teaching and content followed by an assessment which was related to the teaching. He suggested that a much more logical approach would be to look at the skills required – the outcomes – and work backwards from these to the required learning (Harden, Crosby, & Davis, 1999). Once the full range of outcomes appropriate to a veterinary professional curriculum is identified (NAVMEC, 2011; RCVS, 2014), valid assessment methods can be related to these outcomes to verify their achievement. In a modern curriculum, appropriate outcomes are much more than scientific knowledge and technical skills, including communication, collaboration, management, leadership, and cultural awareness (NAVMEC, 2011). From the outcomes and the assessment, it is clear to students what they must achieve to qualify, and this focuses both students and teachers on the support they need to facilitate appropriate learning.
More than two-thirds of respondents wanted to hear more about EVM, and this was especially the case for those who had already heard of EVM and those outside the UK. Those who were least likely to want to hear more about EVM were non-clinicians, and this could be because some of this group were working in areas unrelated to clinical practice. Due to the snowball nature of survey dissemination for the international questionnaire, there may also have been a respondent bias towards epidemiologists or those teaching or researching EVM, and they may have been less inclined to say they wanted to find out more about EVM. It is unknown how variable the depth of EVM knowledge amongst those who had heard of EVM was, as respondents were only asked whether they had heard of EVM and not what specific training they had received. However, the appetite of veterinarians across the world for further knowledge is encouraging and suggests there is scope for EVM training. Such training should be available in a form easily accessible to those outside the UK, particularly for those in developing countries. The practice of EVM should be viewed as a career-long endeavour, the key principles and skills of which should be taught in vet schools but with lifelong opportunities for qualified veterinarians to consolidate and further develop EVM skills. The training of undergraduate students in vet schools does indeed appear to be an effective way of communicating the key principles and process of EVM, and training on how to develop critically appraised topics (CATs) has previously been reported as being supported by veterinary students . Training in the key principles and beyond via programmes of CPD and worked examples in the literature would help to fill the gap for those who have not received training and those who embrace the opportunity to test existing EVM skills. Since this survey was conducted, there are initiatives that have been made available to graduated veterinarians; for example, the EBVM Learning tool , courses by the CEVM  and other organisations, and meetings arranged by RCVS Knowledge  and the Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine Association .
We reviewed the relevant literature in an attempt to in- vestigate the epidemiology of the histological primaries fi- nally identified in patients with bone metastases from occult cancer (Table 1). Since from the end of the 1980s, lung carcinoma was suggested to be the most commonly causative histotype of metastatic bone disease from occult primaries [2, 5, 11, 19–21]. Rougraff et al.  described a retro- spective analysis of diagnostic workups in 40 patients: lung cancers accounted for 63 % of the identified primaries. Nottebaert et al.  found lung carcinomas to be responsible for 52 % of 51 cases of bone lesions from unknown origin, while they accounted for only 7 % of bone metastases with a diagnosed primary. Moreover, patients with skeletal metas- tases from occult carcinomas showed a high incidence of spinal metastases, cord compression and pathological frac- tures and a significantly shorter survival compared to bone lesions secondary to known primaries. Over 10 years later, Shih et al.  reported similar demographic data (incidence 30 %, male sex and lung prevalence), intractable pain as the predominant symptom, lytic appearance at radiography and poor prognosis. From an analysis of the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1993 to 2008, Hemminki et al.  found that patients with metastases from unknown origin diagnosed in the bone mostly died of lung cancer. Vandecandelarae et al.  investigated epidemiological changes from the middle of the last century to recent times: a marked increase in lung cancer was noted in all these patients over the last 40 years, especially among women as an obvious demographic effect of smoking; occult breast and prostate cancer reduced their incidence thanks to advances in diagnosis and treatment at an early stage . Among patients admitted in recent years for bone metastases, different authors surprisingly reported an increased incidence of unidentified primaries despite the improvements in diagnostic examinations, new tumor markers, immunohistochemical methods and guided percu- taneous biopsy techniques over a 30-year period [1, 5, 22]. Vandecandelarae et al.  compared two series of patients with bone metastases from the same rheumatology depart- ment, one extending from 1958 to 1967 and the other from 1989 to 1996. Investigations looking for a primary were negative in 9/34 (27 %) patients in the early series and 36/95 (38 %) patients in the recent series. However, these data may reflect the less effective diagnostic and treatment options available in rheumatological institutes, whereas specialized cancer centers now offer many sophisticated diagnostic procedures and valuable therapeutic protocols that can even be performed on an outpatient basis.
While the principles of geospatial analysis have broad relevance to injury epidemiology, their application to in- jury data is still relatively novel (Bell and Schuurman 2010; Cusimano et al. 2007; Singh et al. 2015). One pos- sible reason for this could be that geospatial analysis re- quires spatially referenced health and determinant data at a population level (Beale et al. 2008; Bell and Schuur- man 2010). With widespread use of global positioning system (or GPS) technologies over the past decade, these data have become increasingly available and can now be linked to injury data sets. In addition, wider accessibility to GIS for the management, analysis and presentation of spatial data has also increased in the last decade, with capability now (at least partially) incorporated into standard statistical software (e.g. STATA (StataCorp 2015)) or available through open source platforms (e.g. QGIS (QGIS 2015), GeoDa (Anselin et al. 2006), SatScan (Kulldorff et al. 1998), CrimeStat (Levine 2000)). Given the increase in availability of both spatially-referenced