33 It may be concluded with increasing hydrogenation exposure time more than ∆ t=40min, the amount of defects remains constant and as a result, the photocatalytic activity is not improved any more. Many factors affect the photocatalytic activity that one of them is defect. Separation of the electron–hole pair plays a predominant role in photocatalytic reaction. Defects can decrease the recombination rate between electrons and holes and increase the electron-hole lifetime, where as a result the photocatalytic activity is increased . There are some methods to trace the defects such as PL.
For 40min UV-B treatment both the hybrids showed enhanced level of MDA compared to control (Figure 1B).There was no significant difference observed between control and 60 minute UV-B treated seeds (Table 3).This notice was previously found in leaves of Arabidopsis challenged with the fungus Botrytis where MDA levels were correlated with the survival of tissues. The results suggest that trienoic fatty acids (the major precursors of MDA) contribute to ROS control via non enzymatic oxidation 15 .
first 40min. It may be that ultrasonic wave could disrupt the cell walls, so larger contact area between solvent and mate- rial was created and more oil was appeared on the surface in ultrasonic assisted extraction than that in maceration extrac- tion. However, this eﬀect would be increasingly weak on the inner cell walls as the distance is increased. It should be noted that both processes occur very rapidly at the beginning of the extractions. Ultrasonic assisted extraction has the greatest rise in yield. Perhaps the ultrasonic waves a ﬀ ect the mass trans- fer rate mainly in the solvent penetration stage. It should of course also enhance the dissolved oil to transfer out of the solid structure. Similar findings were reported by Zhao et al. (2007), Hemwimol et al. (2006) and Balachandran et al. (2006). In the research of Balachandran et al. (2006), it had been confirmed that the ultrasound continued to be eﬀective even during the later stage of extraction through an enhancement to the inter- nal diﬀusivity, although the eﬀects were smaller. In any case, based on the results so far, 30 min was found to be an optimum operating time for ultrasonic assisted extraction.
is required to change muscle extensibility. Summarizing, it appears probable that only longer durations of a single static stretching ex- ercise, as performed by Kay and Blazevich (2009; 3 × 60 s), Konrad et al. (2017a; 4 × 30 s), Konrad et al. (2017b; 4 × 30 s), Konrad et al., (2019; 5 x 60 s), Konrad and Tilp (2020; 3x 60 s), Kato et al. (2010; 20 min), Kubo et al. (2001;10 min), and Nakamura et al. (2013; 2 min to 5 min), lead to structural adaptations of the MTU, while shorter durations, as performed by Stafilidis and Tilp (2015; 15 s or 60 s ), Nakamura et al. (2013; 60 s), and the present study (2 × 30sec), have no detectable effect on the muscle and tendon struc- ture. A possible explanation why Kay et al. (2015) found decreased muscle stiffness following 4 × 15 s of static stretching might be the more intensive stretching approach used compared to the present study. Nevertheless, it is still not clear which mechanism can explain the increase in RoM following a single static stretching exercise of 1 min over the time course of at least 40min. Accord- ing to our results, we can assume that increased stretch tolerance (Magnusson, Simonsen, Aagard, Sørensen, & Kjaer, 1996) might be a possible explanation for the gain in flexibility (RoM).
magnetic resonance at 2.0 Tesla. The force of muscle contraction was simultaneously measured with a force transducer. The effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise were compared using two exercise protocols: 4 min sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 40min of repeated intermittent contractions (75% MVC). The sustained maximal contraction produced a rapid decline of MVC and PCr, and was accompanied by a rapid rise of Pi, H+, and H2PO4-. Intermittent exercise produced steady state changes of MVC, pH, and phosphates. No significant changes of ATP were found in either protocol. During fatiguing exercise, PCr and Pi had a nonlinear relationship with MVC. H+ showed a more linear correlation, while H2PO4- showed the best correlation with MVC. Furthermore, the correlations between MVC and H2PO4- were similar in sustained (r = 0.70) and intermittent (r = 0.73) exercise. The highly significant linear relationship between increases of H+ and H2PO4- and the decline of MVC strongly suggests that both H+ and H2PO4- are important determinants of human muscle fatigue.
Results: Data were collected on 34 Simmental weaning beef heifers the progeny of a well characterized and divergently bred RFI suckler beef herd. Residual feed intake was determined on each animal during the post- weaning stage over a 91-day feed intake measurement period during which they were individually offered adlibitum grass silage and 2 kg of concentrate per head once daily. The 12 highest [0.34 kg DM/d] and 12 lowest [ − 0.48 kg DM/d] ranking animals on RFI were selected for use in this study. For the physiological stress challenge heifers (mean age 605 ± 13 d; mean BW 518 ± 31.4 kg) were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters to facilitate intensive blood collection. The response of the adrenal cortex to a standardised dose of ACTH (1.98 IU/kg metabolic BW 0.75 ) was examined. Serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol, ACTH and haematology variables. Heifers differing in RFI did not differ ( P = 0.59) in ACTH concentrations. Concentration of ACTH peaked ( P < 0.001) in both RFI groups at 20 min post-ACTH administration, following which concentration declined to baseline levels by 150 min. Similarly, cortisol systemic profile peaked at 60 min and concentrations remained continuously elevated for 150 min. A RFI × time interaction was detected for cortisol concentrations ( P = 0.06) with high RFI heifers had a greater cortisol response than Low RFI from 40min to 150 min relative to ACTH
periods. The powder was first placed in a dark room. Then, it was placed under UV-ray for 20 min. For the second period, titanium dioxide nano-powder was placed under the ray for 40min. It was obvious that the contact angle was decreasing with time. After 40 minutes under UV-Ray, the contact angle of titanium dioxide particles decreased from 50.75 degree to less than 10 degree. It was believed that CA less than 10 degree is potential to show super-hydrophilic characterization . Being discussed by Eshaghi et al, self-cleaning property comes from both effects of super- hydrophilicity and Photocatalysis . Therefore, with respect to the great properties of the synthesis TiO 2 , one
Both dynamic scan protocol and pharmacokinetic mod- elling of [ 18 F] FET have been described elsewhere . Patients were required to fast for at least 4 h prior to undergoing the imaging protocol. Both [ 11 C] choline and [ 18 F] FET dynamic PET scans were acquired in list mode on either a Gemini TF-64 PET/CT or an Ingenuity TF PET/CT (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), using the same scanner for each patient. Each scan started with a low-dose CT scan (30 mAs, 120 kVp) for attenuation and scatter correction purposes. Next, a 40- min dynamic scan was acquired after an intravenously injected bolus of 200 MBq [ 11 C] choline. Four hours after [ 11 C] choline administration, a second, 90-min dynamic scan was acquired after a bolus of 200 MBq [ 18 F] FET. The list mode data were rebinned into 22 time frames for [ 11 C] choline (1 × 10, 4 × 5, 2 × 10, 2 × 20, 4 × 30, 4 × 60, 1 × 150, 2 × 300, 2 × 600 s) and 22 time frames for [ 18 F] FET (1 × 15, 3 × 5, 3 × 10, 4 × 60, 2 × 150, 2 × 300, 7 × 600 s). All frames were reconstructed into images with an iso- tropic voxel size of 2 × 2 × 2 mm 3 using the line-of- response row-action maximum likelihood algorithm which was used for the Gemini and the “BLOB-OS-TF” algorithm for the Ingenuity. Each scan was checked and corrected for movement, if necessary, using the method described previously . Maps of standardized uptake value (SUV) were normalized in activity concentrations using the injected dose per kilogram of body weight. Tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR) were calculated with a contralateral reference region, a spherical volume with a radius of 14 mm placed in the middle of the contralateral brain region. SUV and TBR were summarized for [ 11 C] choline uptake between 10 and 40min and for [ 18 F] FET uptake between 20 and 40, 40–60 and 60–90 min. These intervals were chosen after visual inspection of the time- activity curves of both tracers. The reconstructions were based on static intervals for both tracers, because we demonstrated that static and dynamic parameters are
other sphingolipids. Other sphingolipids are also involved in cardiac status regulation. Sphin- gosine appeared to be a cardioprotectant and a physiological concentration 0.4 microM of sphin- gosine was as effective as 5 microM S1P . When used in pre- or post-conditioning ex vivo rat heart models, both compounds provided more than 75% recovery of left ventricular developed pressure during reperfusion and a reduction in size of infarct from 45% to less than 8% after 40-min ischemia. Combined application of both com- pounds provided an enhancement of the protec- tive effect against ischemia for up to 90 min and a combination of S1P, sphingosine, and a ramped ischemic postconditioning regimen gave an addi- tional heart protective effect . Bielawska et al  were the first to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that ceramide signaling can be involved in is- chemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyocytes apo- ptosis. Using a left coronary artery occlusion mod- el in rat hearts they found ceramide to accumulate during ischemia progress (155 and 330% baseline level after 30 and 210 min of ischemia, respec- tively). However, reperfusion was needed for the promotion of cardiomyocytes apoptosis . S1P increase under hypoxia correlated with a decrease in cellular ceramide that might be explained by sphingomyelinase inhibition. Exogenous ceramide and ceramidase inhibition diminished hypoxia- induced cell growth . In parallel to S1P, sphin- gosylphosphocholine (SPC) was identified as the plasma and serum factor responsible for activating the inwardly rectifying K + channel, and it has been
In the present study, the 3P + plasma input model was extended to the 3P++ reference tissue input model. The 3P++ analysis has three merits over previous methods. First, the PET scan time is short, usually less than 40min, which may be important in PET studies with elderly or de- mented subjects. Secondly, the target parameter k 3 can be
The effects of cutting parameters on tool wear are measured at Mql2 condition and the trends are shown in Fig.4.3.Here as cutting velocity increases from 40 m/min to 60 m/min S/N for tool wear reduces drastically and as feed increases from 0.033 mm/rev to 0.132 S/N for tool wear first decrease and then increases. Whereas when DOC varies from 0.5 mm to 1mm S/N for tool wear decreases.
have an intra-individual CV as large as 31% . Theoretically, comparison of BFI values between subjects is hampered by the fact that flow is not determined in absolute values, but with a proportionality factor. This factor may vary considerably between subjects dependent on layer thickness between NIRS optodes and the cerebral tissue interrogated. Conse- quently, Wagner and co-workers  reported a large inter- individual variability in a heterogeneous pediatric population in the ICU. The limited variance obtained in our study, however, suggests that this proportionality factor may be very similar in definite subpopulations and warrants further investigations. Furthermore, both NIRS derived time intervals showed a dis- tinct threshold for a CPP below 25 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. In a recent TCD investigation during induced arterial hypotension for endovascular stent-graft placement, in 81% of patients, MAP decreased below 40 mmHg, which is comparable to the CPP threshold in the present study . Although a CPP of 25 mmHg normally is beyond a critical threshold in daily clinical practice, such a pattern may serve as a wake-up call for immediate action.
As the first fundamental step we characterize the network class for which a min-max fair allocation exists. We then show that in some cellular networks min-max fairness and utility optimality can be achieved concurrently. We charac- terize the class of networks for which it is possible in terms of the interference situation, by using matrix-theoretic and combinatorial arguments. We further characterize power and weight allocations combining min-max fairness and utility- optimality in such networks. We prove the interpretation of such allocations as saddle points of the utility function as a function of powers and weights. This in particular mir- rors the fairness utility trade-oﬀ, as it implies that the util- ity optimum achieved together with min-max fairness is the worst-case utility optimum among all utility-optimal power and weight allocations. Next, we address the problem of the diﬀerence between min-max fairness and max-min fairness. Our results show that in general there is a nonzero diﬀerence in performance between the approach of maximal improve- ment of the worst link QoS (min-max fairness) and the ap- proach of maximal degradation of the best link QoS (max- min fairness). We characterize a special class of networks for which such performance gap is zero, that is, for which min-max fairness and max-min fairness achieve equal per- formance. Finally we prove that for some class of networks, there exist power allocations, which concurrently achieve min-max fairness and max-min fairness.
Robustness is a measure of capacity of a method to remain unaffected by small, but deliberate variations in the method conditions, and is indications of the reliability of the method. A method is robust, if it is unaffected by small changes in operating conditions. To determine the robustness of this method, the experimental conditions were deliberately altered at three different levels and retention time and chromatographic response were evaluated. One factor at a time was changed to study the effect. Variation of mobile phase composition (60:40 v/v), flow rate by 1 ml/min (0.9 and 1.1 ml/min), Variation of wavelength by 292 nm (290nm and 294), Variations in pH by 3.5 (3.3 and 3.7) had no significant effect on the retention time and chromatographic response of 15 µg/ml solution, indicating that the method was robust, The result was shown in table. no: 5, 6, 7 and 8. [7, 8, 12, 13]