the learning environment was subjected to a group of test users, and the behaviour of these test users in the main application was compared to that of a control group. The behaviour of users was anonymously tracked for one week using the existing event tracking architecture at Moneybird. For two weeks, people that signed up to Moneybird were ran- domly divided into two groups, filtered by predetermined selection criteria. This resulted in a control group of 656 users and a test group consisting of 603 users. The test users saw a slightly altered version of the main application that included links to the learning application. 114 test users logged in to the learning environment throughout the course of the experiment, 37 of these users completed one lesson or more. We then analyzed whether the behaviour of the test group in the main application differed significantly from the control group. We specifically looked at several metrics that were chosen beforehand, metrics that could indicate a better understanding of bookkeeping. We also included two metrics to express the overall level of activity of users in the main application. We saw a surprising result in that many of the proposed metrics showed a decrease in comparison to the control group, as opposed to an increase. Overall it seemed that the users of the control group were slightly more active. The difference was not significant though, according to the predetermined significance level of α = 0.05. An optimistic explanation for these findings is that users in the test group spent more time in the learning environment and as a result hereof less time in the main application. However, we cannot say for certain whether this is the case based on the data that was collected in the relatively short amount of time. In this chapter we also learned about the large variance that exists in the behaviour of new users of Moneybird. For unknown reasons, many users are only active on the first day and do not return anymore afterwards. The ease of signing up and the existence of other competing free bookkeeping software could be one of the reasons. We saw a similar pattern in the learning environment, where many users were only initially active. Finally, another plausible explanation for the drop out rate is that for more advanced users the bookkeeping course is too easy. However, on the other hand we saw that most users that got past the initial hurdle stayed active throughout the rest of the course and completed all of the four available lessons.
109 Read more
Accounting is a field of ethical practices. One can recognises throughout accounting in the literature the concept of accountability that lies at the heart of accounting. There is no doubt that what has been achieved so far in accounting treatises began with this concept – about principles and guidelines that explain the account for one’s actions. It is precisely embedded in the agricultural stock counting, bookkeeping, budgeting, auditing, etc. Corruption, fraud and scams are not part of accounting as it should be but a kind of deceptions of gaining an advantage through wrong accounting practice by certain individuals. For Malaysia, anticipated societal advancement must absorb the crisis of growth to incorporate an increasing accountability world order which requires transparency, answerability and other expectations of account-giving. As a developing country, growth in Malaysia should not only focus on the situation of those who are by definition positioned within the social hierarchy (which is in theory a matter of individualism such as Mahathir, Anwar, Lim Kt Siang, Karpal Singh, etc). Because Malaysians do not occupy identical or even similar positions in social contexts (i.e. ‘Malays’, Chinese’ and ‘Indians’), there is a greater chance of finding contradictory and to be antipathetic. Apparently, there is evidence when situating accounting practice within the politics and conflicts of individualisms, individualism has done little to encourage explain critically the unintended consequences of human actions in institutional contexts. There is evidence in accounting literature that the quality of institution offer sufficient conditions to examine matters of power and conflict hence including critical discussion in making sense of the past and to explain why there is coherence to such practices and proceedings 4 . Table 3 contains significant events that
11 Read more
Measurement means assigning of numerals to objects or events according to some rules. The process of preparing financial statements is considered a process of measurement. In bookkeeping, the first step is to select the object and their attributes (Holmes & Nicholls, 1988). Accordingly, accounting has been defined as a measurement discipline that pertains to the quantitative description and projection of income circulation and of wealth aggregates in explicit monetary terms. Although, the term measurement has been typically defined as the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules, in relation to accounting, measurement implies financial attributes of economic events that are called accounting valuations which simply means assigning numbers to the assets and liabilities and ranking them on the priority like from less liquid assets to highly liquid assets. Worth noting is the point that not all events, items or transactions can be measured but are materially useful for the survival of a business, thus, it is seen as a weakness to this theory.
11 Read more
It is quite crucial to be precise on the phenomenology of the experiences of alternative meaning. For on the one hand, we could find that these new meanings are grasped by the patient immediately and unreflectively. If so, the conception of delusions as an expression of a suspended bedrock faces a serious problem of accounting for this immediate experience of mean- ing. Such, we have been claiming, is only possible by taking for granted a form of life. An immediate grasp of alternative meanings suggests taking for granted an alternative form of life. This comes very close to the Camp- bell/Eilan proposal, though with a conception of the bedrock as a set of practices, rather than as propositions from which actions are inferred. The latter, which we saw seems to be the underlying conception of certainties for these two authors, is not how Wittgenstein conceived of bedrock certain- ties. He came to see them rather as rules, as ways of acting. This connects to the regress of interpretation that occurs in the Philosophical Investigations and which we already discussed in the previous chapter: for the frame- work propositions to act as ultimate grounds, simultaneously constitutive of meaning, they would have to be unambiguously interpretable. Yet as propositions, these are subject to interpretation, such that, in Wittgenstein’s words, any action can be made to fit them. The conclusion of the rule- following considerations was that to follow a rule is to unreflectively act according to custom. Thus, not a special kind of proposition, but rather a way of acting, a form of life, grounds what it makes sense to say. We may adapt the alternative framework-proposal according to such a conception of certainties as rules. However, the problem of incommensurability that Campbell noticed remains for such a conception. Hence, it is questionable to what extent positing an alternative form of life will help to make sense of the delusional patient. Conceived in such a way, we can account for the lack of grounds that are offered, and the certainty with which the delusion is endorsed. Yet the contents are put beyond intelligibility.
82 Read more
The recipient taxpayer, who is not a NF-e issuer, may write the data contained in the DANFE for the NF-e bookkeeping, and its validity will be linked to the effective existence of the NF-e in the tax administration archives involved in the process, of the issuance of the Authorization for Use. The issuer taxpayer of the NF-e will carry out the bookkeeping from the NF-e issued and received. According to Fabretti (2015), for taxpayers and tax authorities, the Electronic Invoice is a digital file, whose format of the fields is standardized by legislation. This file is legally validated by the digital signature of the sender, certified by an entity accredited by the Brazilian Public Key Infrastructure (ICP-Brasil), containing the issuer's CNPJ (a number in the national legal entity registry), in order to guarantee the authorship of the document, simplifying the taxpayer obligations and allowing, at the same time, real-time monitoring of commercial operations by the Treasury. The document assumes security to the seller, buyer and tax authorities, since the digital signature proves that a certain company "A" effectively carries out an operation with company "B", and, automatically, the Treasury is informed about the transaction. It is important to note that the authorization of the Treasury in real time does not imply validation of the information in the content of the document. This means that if the document issuer uses an improper operation code or does not highlight the tax correctly, among other inaccuracies, it will not be exempted from penalty due to the fact that the document has been validated, since, a validation of form, to prove the fact, not a validation of content. In the process, there is no checking of the data contained in the document. The electronic note is part of a larger Revenue project to replace the issuance of paper and tax books by electronic documents with digital certification, which can also be viewed on the portal. The accounting of companies including cash books, financial statements and balance sheets and fiscal accounting made digitally. Electronic documents were standardized for all tax administrations and sent to a single SPED database. This database will be accessed by federal, state and municipal governments. But each tax administration will only be able to access the information about the taxes that are of its sphere.
The important bookkeeping development made by the Genuine Savings measure is to perceive that advantages incorporate man-made capital, as well as work and characteristic capital and contamination stocks, the last having a negative worth. The Genuine Savings measure has its quality in demonstrating whether the customary measure of sparing utilized as a part of standard national bookkeeping (SNA) strategies is exhibiting a genuine picture of future monetary welfare conceivable outcomes, or whether, by incorporating ecological resources in the bookkeeping structure, the prospects for future welfare seems to change. On the off chance that, for instance, a nation's sub-soil resources, for example, oil are incorporated into the records when the Genuine Savings measure is utilized and it is understood that these are being exhausted and exchanged and its returns expended - without being supplanted by another type of capital resource, e.g. a production line, then the routine measure reserve funds gives an excessively idealistic perspective of the prospects for future welfare. This is in this way conceivably imperative data for those with
15 Read more
In Part IV, I introduce you to the process of preparing your books for closing out the accounting period, whether you’re closing out the books at the end of a month or the end of a year. You’ll learn about the key adjustments needed to record depreciation of your assets (a process which tracks the use of your tangible assets, such as cars and buildings), which must be done before you close the books. You’ll also learn about how to calculate and record your interest payments and receipts in your books. Then I’ll talk about various aspects of proving out your books — checking your cash, testing the balance of your books, and making any needed adjustments or corrections. In addition, you’ll find problems that will give you time to practice these tasks for prepar- ing the books for the end of the accounting period.
291 Read more
Given that it accounts for almost a third of the bibliography, it is an interesting question whether the appearance of the specialist RPREA led to an increase in the amount of material published on accounting ethics. To come to a definitive judgment might require a suitable counter-factual and the figures are not suitable for rigorous statistical analysis. The figures in Table 2 are strongly suggestive that it did so, though, at least initially, with a general rise in the volume of accounting ethics articles published. However, the number of articles published outside of RPREA peaked in the mid-1990s, and since then the underlying trend has been downwards. There is no evidence in Table 2 that concerns about accounting ethics at the beginning of the 21 st century, following several well-publicized scandals, led to an increase again. Perhaps no such effect is visible because of the length of time it takes to conduct research and get it published in refereed journals. However, by the end of the period under review some increase might have been expected, if it was going to happen at all.
39 Read more
Tertiary institutions now offer B.sc in accounting, M.sc and doctoral programmes in accounting respectively. Nigerian universities now constitute of faculty of management or social sciences in which includes the accounting department. Usually, an undergraduate degree in accounting constitute of finance or sometimes accounting alone. Students are usually obligated to offer courses even in liberal arts and business law to widen their career perspectives and on the job training usually a year ensuring that they are the complete package desired by potential employers. These guarantees to some certain level that graduates meet their potential employer‘s requirements. (Mainoma & Aruwa, n.d.).
11 Read more
One of the objectives intended to be achieved for financial development of the health sector in accordance with the 8th five-year development plan as expressed in the “Effectiveness Special Expertise Report” concerns bringing costs of health services under control and using scientific methods and cost accounting systems to this end (DPT, 2001:132-143). As can be seen, the objectives stated in this report are intended to rid health enterprises of their unproductive structure and improve health services. One of the practices that help attain aforementioned goals will be the establishment of the responsibility accounting system in health enterprises. Costs wil be brought under control, necessary expertise will be achieved in terms of management, importance of budget applications will be understood and scientific studies will be adapted to these institutions thanks to the responsibility accounting system. One of the contributions of the responsibility accounting system to enterprises concerns responsibility (accountability) reports. Accountability reports are those where managers of revenue, profit and investment centers compare and contrast the values arising in the centers of their responsibility with the actually occurring values according to the previously budgeted values. Thanks to
Beginning with Table 5, this section has attempted to give an impression of the contents of the accounting ethics journal literature through the use of some basic categories. As indicated, the main areas of focus have been ‘accounting and auditing profession’ and ‘ethics education’. Some of the particular areas of focus within these have been identified and illustrated. As well as the above main areas of interest there are several other areas (e.g. financial reporting, computing, international issues and taxation) that are covered in less detail, and which will not be discussed in this paper. Of course, given the relative paucity of journal literature on accounting ethics (approximately 500 articles is a useful start, but only that), there are likely to be many topics and issues still to be covered in a satisfactory manner. Examples might include earnings management (to be addressed from an explicitly ethical rather than technical perspective), whistleblowing by accountants and auditors, and internal auditing. As the literature on accounting ethics continues to develop, it will be important – given the comments above – not to be unduly influenced by the shape of the existing literature. There is certainly something to build on and questions that remain to be answered, but it is important that the research agenda takes appropriate account of the many other potential influences (see Cowton, 2008), including debates in moral philosophy, research in other management disciplines, stakeholder concerns and the issues faced by practitioners.
40 Read more
While accounting faculty are best suited to developing students’ skills and abilities necessary for an accounting career, professional accountants have an advantage when it conies to describing the nature, variety, work environment, challenges and rewards of practicing accounting (Mitrejean and Zarzeski, 2001). There is a substantial body of research that stressed the importance of professional accountants informing and influencing students’ perceptions and expectations of the AP (Byrd et al. 1989; AECC, 1993; Davis, 1993; Violette and Sanders, 2004). Cory (1992) has suggested that educators should consider asking practitioners to speak to students in introductory classes so that as yet undecided students may become aware of the dynamic nature of the AP and the vigorous, energetic personalities of its members. Accountants should participate in presentations and workshops aimed at attracting high school students and undecided college students into the AP. Hermanson and Hermanson (1995) added that accounting practitioners must speak to high school business clubs, high school and college honour societies, college business fraternities, and other high school or college groups that may contain likely recruits. Academics could try to include a greater number of guest speakers in their introductory accounting courses and promote the meetings and speakers of accounting clubs (Metrejean et al., 2002). The key is to take advantage of any opportunity to communicate with bright high school and college students. Personal stories or examples that illustrate the dynamic nature of accounting careers and the need for strong interpersonal skills will help to address the negative perceptions of the profession. Coleman et al. (2004) suggested that to attract students to the accounting programs, faculty members and program directors should attend career days and visit local high schools to discuss accounting in general and their accounting programs in particular, attend honours college events and offer promising students in principles of accounting courses personalized invitations to major in accounting.
447 Read more
Attention should to be paid to the reflection of the interest on the debt in the accounting and tax purposes. In accounting purpose the interest on loans obtained for the implementation of the pre-payment for inventories, before payment includedin their cost, but after payment - as an operating expense, and for tax purposes as a non- operating expense in the period incurred. The situation is similar, related to interest on borrowings, directly attributable to the acquisition, and (or) construction investment asset: for accounting purposes percentages refer to the value of the assets, and for tax purposes - in non-operating expenses in the period it was estimated .
a. Forensic accounting is the use of accounting skills to investigate fraud or embezzlement and to analyze financial information for use in legal proceedings. Where traditional accounting deals in the assessment of a business‘ funds and properly conveying that information to investors and management, a forensic accountant is called upon to investigate the flow of funds through a business to evaluate the path it takes and determine whether illegal transactions have occurred. b. A forensic accountant investigates a wide range of different crimes that relate to fraud, such as
On the other hand, the electronic audit concept has been brought forward by carrying out the audit activities through electronic environment by means of electronic entries and documents. This study finds that the most significant impact of E-accounting is on the development of technology, which brings savings in time and cost of the user. E-Accounting is a borderless entity permitting anytime and anywhere banking. It has brought opportunities for companies to perform the accounting functions more effectively and efficiently. Adaption of e- accounting functions has brought a chance for the companies to progress towards paperless offices and also helps to reduce the cost of clerical works by providing sufficient space to store data and process information for management decisions in a friendly manner. Computerized accounting systems can be used by the companies in production thus it is known as user friendly accounting .Tools like electronic data interchange and electronic funds transfer can provide companies with opportunities to apply production system more effectively and save money.
was arranged for CEO Raju. Even though Satyam is not only the first major accounting scandal that India has seen, one of the release by the India Credit Rating Agency “CRISIL” seems to have sounded an alarm signal. This study is based on the analysis of 639 companies. Of these, as many as 226 companies (forming 33.33%) of the universe were found to be inflated their profit and 21.91% deflated their position through clever, though legal accounting practices. Even though banks and financial institutions are unhappy with the existing accounting practices followed by their corporate borrowers, they are helpless in taking any legal action. Some of the prominent examples of corporate-sector from India having used Creative accounting practices, as reported are:
17 Read more
According to Callon (1986) a network is built through a four step process: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization. During the first phase, problematization, the primary actor attempts to identify the problem, what is the knowledge claim that is required, and what actors are required within the network. As the primary actor works to build the network, negotiations will take place with other actors regarding the roles they may play within the network. The primary actor will need to convince others that they will achieve their own goals when they join the network. Ezzamel (1994) discovered two opposing networks, built by actors to combat the each other in an effort to achieve their goal regarding budgetary changes. Building the network may involve some compromise from both sides. Negotiation leads to interessement, actors accept the roles they have been given and enrol in the network. Mobilization then occurs as others external to the network (allies) move to support it. This process is not unproblematic. Controversy may unenrol the actors or remove the support of the external allies. Gendron and Barrett (2002) discovered that professional accounting bodies in North America were unable to enrol external actors to ensure the success of their web based assurance product. The principle actor may then attempt to revisit the building process, or the network simply falls apart. This process of transformation of the network is translation.
37 Read more
Aside from these drawbacks to the current treatment of intangibles under IFRS and US GAAP, several empirical studies have documented benefits when internally generated intangibles are capitalized. Prior to the adoption of IFRS, the accounting treatment of intangibles in Australia was unique in that it permitted the recognition of both purchased and internally generated intangibles assets, revaluations of these assets, indefinite and definite life options, and capitalization of both research and development costs. One study of reported intangibles found that for the average Australian company prior to IFRS, the financial information was value relevant to investors but was not highly reliable (Dahmash, Durand, & Watson, 2009). Another study focused on value relevance found that prior to IFRS adoption, firms with relatively more certain intangible assets signaled this fact by capitalizing them, leading to greater analyst following, decreased forecasting error, and lower forecast dispersion (Matolcsy & Wyatt, 2006).
15 Read more
investors. Thus, the economic entity is presenting to the investors or to the prospective investors financial statements passed through the filter of some techniques capable of generating a more favorable image on the market but also the illusion of some more attractive results that the normal. Shah et al. (2011) explained why managers do creative writing and how they become successful in performing such practices in the presence of stringent rules and procedures. They also explored whether creative accounting practice is good for the companies or bring crisis in the company. It has been seen that companies which are more prone to such fraudulent financial reporting practices are those with weak internal controls, having no or weak audit committees, majorly family owned businesses and board of directors have significant equity ownership (Bloomfield, 2002; Hirshleifer and Teoh, 2003). Creative accounting has been defined by various names in various countries. In India, the term is more frequently used as Earnings Management or Creative Accounting. In the literature, creative accounting can still be found under the name of income smoothing, earnings smoothing, cosmetic accounting or accounting cosmetics, financial crafts or accounting crafts, financial engineering.
bookkeeping estimate from the budget (Eq. 1) at 1.3 GtC for 1959 to 2010. The multi-model mean and bookkeeping method differ by less than 0.5 GtC yr −1 over 90 % of the time. Based on this comparison, we assess that an uncer- tainty of ± 0.5 GtC yr −1 provides a semi-quantitative mea- sure of uncertainty for annual emissions and reflects our best value judgment that there is at least 68 % chance ( ± 1σ ) that the true LUC emission lies within the given range, for the range of processes considered here. This is consistent with the uncertainty analysis of Houghton et al. (2012), which partly reflects improvements in data on forest area change using data, and partly more complete understanding and rep- resentation of processes in models. The uncertainties in the decadal mean estimates from the DGVM ensemble are likely correlated between decades, and thus we apply the annual uncertainty as a measure of the decadal uncertainty. The cor- relations between decades come from (1) common biases in system boundaries (e.g. not counting forest degradation in some models); (2) common definition for the calculation of E LUC from the difference of simulations with and without
39 Read more