Ethiopia, as one of the countries found in the region, shares the broad characteristics of agriculture in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. Agricultural extension service approach is a bedrock of agricultural development since it contributes to make extension services clear for the development of the skill and knowledge of farmers to adopt new and improved technologies. The general objective of this paper is to review the historical evolution of agricultural extension service approach in Ethiopia. Ethiopia agricultural extension work was started in 1931 with the establishment of the Ambo Agricultural School. The first comprehensive package Chillalo Agricultural Development Unit project was established in the Arsi region that was employed the “Model farmer” approach until 1975. The farmers’ field school, general agricultural extension, commodity specialized, training and visit approach, farming system development, participatory approach, project approach, and the cost-sharing approach were reviewed in the paper. The historical review reveals that extension service system approaches in the past country has not been participatory in its nature. In the past, the agricultural extension service approaches, except PADETS, were based on donor funding. Until 1991 regarding on agricultural extension, different approaches mostly work with commercial farmers with exclusive stallholder farmers. Furthermore, the reviews indicate that past approaches give emphasis on high agricultural potential areas with focusing on crop production, particularly cereals. The review shows that the current extension service approach encourages different stakeholders including the beneficiary farmers. However, the existing extension service approaches need critical evaluation with the farmers.
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were also considered. Table 6 presents the incidence of clients that attributed improvements in socio-economic indicators to the outsourced extension service. Clearly the vast majority of clients perceived improvements in household food security, quality of diet, health, access to support networks, ability to cope with social setbacks, savings and child education. In addition, more than 95% of clients perceived improvements in the quality of their produce (appearance, size and storability) and farm inputs, and in yields achieved for their main cash crops. On a Likert-type scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (highly satis- factory), these clients rated their overall satisfaction with Favco’s agricultural extension service as 4.4. Almost 60% of the clients claimed that they had spent more on labour since becoming clients, and the mean number of permanent jobs created per client was 2.5.
resulting marked increases in transaction cost and weakening service delivery (Nnaemeka et al., 2006; TIB, 2012). Moreover, the government is heavily loaded with foreign loan leading to declining budget for agricultural extension. So, fiscal crisis is the one of the important causes of finding alternative ways of delivering extension services in Bangladesh. Poor, inefficient and outdated services by the public extension agents are the others important causes that’s why farmers in many cases seeking demand driven and efficient services. It is assumed that private extension is more clients responsible and competent service provider that raises the voice of the farmers in problems definition, develops public finance, promote competitive participation of private sector and increase professionalism of extension service providers (Adejo et al., 2012; Mercy, 2008, Sulaiman et al., 2005; Saravanan, 2001). In view of the above litany it should be mention here that massive privation is indispensable and rational for Bangladesh. At the same time the following consistent questions are arising in contrast of the rationality of provisioning privatized agricultural extension service delivery in Bangladesh: Is the private extension enough to supplement the public extension in Bangladesh? What would be institutional framework for supporting privatization of extension service delivery? What would be the policy and how the policy should be implemented? What are the latent challenges associated with privatization of extension service delivery in Bangladesh?
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Majority of Ethiopian farmers have been using traditional way of agricultural practices which persist to low productivity. To solve these problems, governmental and non-governmental organizations have made efforts to bring about change through Agricultural extension strategy. But these efforts notwithstanding, the rural population still practices subsistence. The agricultural extension service is one of the institutional support services that has a central role to play in the transformation process, but facing new extension challenge. There were many studies conducted to identify role and challenges of extension service in Ethiopia in different regions, but there is limitation of summarization of current state of understanding. However; governments of developing countries are confronting new extension challenges: on the one hand, there is a need to increase production to provide food for all citizens, raising the income of the rural population and reducing poverty; on the other, hand there is a need to manage the natural resources in a sustainable way with new technologies developed . The mandate of extension services, whether public or private, has always been rural human resources development with an aim to increase food production. The major challenge currently facing agricultural extension service delivery in Ethiopia has its impact on the development of country.
The estimated results from engineering, gross revenue, and profit production functions showed that agricultural extension service had a significantly positive impact on bean and rice production, gross farm revenue, and profit except for maize output. Furthermore, agricultural extension seems to be the important contributor in generating more income and profit in the study area. The result presented is that if household’s head access to extension increases, his or her gross farm revenue and profit increases. This study also estimated the effects of education in Uganda, using household’s data from the survey. A number of past studies found empirical evidences that education raise agricultural output . However, existing evidence on the effect of education on farm performance in Africa was not sufficient. Only few studies estimated the worker effect and allocative effect of the education on agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa countries. In addition, the impact of education on return in Africa was evaluated as an ineffective strategy to raise agricultural productivity, with the insignificant estimates. The results of this study showed that education has limited impacts on farm production and gross farm revenue as various literatures indicated. It only significantly contributed to agricultural profit. Nevertheless, negative coefficient on education did not lend much support for hypothesis of this study. As a result, decomposing effects into worker, input-allocative, and input-selection effects and comparing the marginal effects of education remained key challenges of the study. For the future research, estimating three effects of education in the study area is required since the results from each production functions except profit production functions presented that education was ineffective on agricultural activities. Moreover, measuring the effect of extension in other areas in Uganda for comparison would be remained task for further evidences.
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on determining when it was necessary to seek for advice and suitability of the technology to the ecological requirements. If the technologies advanced by research institutions are not regional specific, and fail to adequately address the farmers’ felt needs, the demand for such technologies or information may end up being low or none and subsequently becomes a limiting factor. The low demand for extension services may have a negative effect on extension service providers’ perception towards Pluralistic and Demand Driven extension approach and consequently production and failure to translate in improving food security and household income for small-scale farmers. The study results are consistent with those of the studies done by Maalouf et al. (1987, as cited in Rivera, 2003). Maalouf et al. (1997) observed that the emerging trend in developing countries towards a more pluralistic conception involving private non- profit making, private profit making and public sector agricultural extension services providers, requires effective public and private sector collaboration to address the twin problem of poor extension coverage and resource limitations. Maalouf et al. (1991, as cited in Rivera et al., 2001) noted that cooperation and complementation of the public and private sectors in the area of extension is required. This offers: 1) increased resources for agricultural extension services to farmers; 2) reduced overlap and significantly increase the number of farmers reached by extension; 3) increased and improved utilization of agricultural research findings from both public and private interests supporting agricultural research and development investment.
Zimbabwe has a pluralistic agricultural extension system. In addition to the public extension service, donors contract private service providers to deliver extension services in specific project areas. This study assesses the impact of outsourced extension services on rural households in the Mutasa district of Zimbabwe’s Manicaland province, and examines the financial cost and benefits of this service. The extension service was delivered by a local agribusiness firm and funded by USAID. The study analyses survey data gathered from 94 client and 90 non-client rural households in June 2014. Propensity score matching was used to identify a subset of comparable clients and non-clients. Descriptive statistics were compared across these groups, and the impact of the extension service on each of several outcome variables was estimated using two-stage least squares regression with instrumental variables to account for selection bias. The results show that the outsourced extension service contributed significantly to household crop income, net crop income and expenditure on farm inputs and services. In addition, clients perceived a range of socio- economic benefits such as better diets and health, improved product quality and job creation. An analysis of the financial cost and benefit of the extension service in the study area suggests an annual net incremental benefit of US$11,587, representing a 30% return on the investment made by the donor to finance the service. This estimate excludes the socio-economic benefits attributed to the extension service.
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83 demonstrations, field visits, farmers‟ meetings, use of media etc. The theory behind this approach had been the „diffusion of innovation‟ model suggested by Rogers (1962). This kind of extension models are usually top-down structures, often located within the ministry of agriculture. One of the examples is the Training and Visit (T&V) system promoted by the World Bank in (1998). This system had been established as public sector service extension services and became a major model for providing and managing extension in many developing countries. New approaches such as Farmer Field Schools (FFS) and the Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) have been developed. Direct farm level links were stressed between researchers and farmers. More recently, the notion of extension as part of a wider system has emerged. For example, the „interdependence model‟ (Bennett, 1992) and the „innovation systems framework‟ (Lundvall, 1992) offer more inclusive ways of thinking about the actors and the institutional context in which the generation, diffusion and use of new knowledge takes place. The system of actors and process not only includes research and extension, but also technology users, private companies, NGOs and supportive structures such as markets and credit (Sulaiman et al., 2006).
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A vigilant study of the socio-economic conditions of livestock farmers is a precondition for the appropriate design and successful implementation of Governments’ developmental programmes. The study was conducted in North Goa district of Goa during 2015-16 to investigate the socioeconomic profiles of livestock farmers. For this, primary data was collected through structured questionnaire using a sample size of fifty respondents from Pernem block of North Goa district. Thus study was designed to appraise the socio-economic profile of livestock farmers in North Goa district. Results of the study revealed that majority of the farmers are maintaining nuclear family with less than five members. Most of the farmers belonged to marginal farmers’ categories who are involved in livestock activities. Majority of the farmers had low level of income, less access to institutional source of finance agricultural extension service and livestock possession. It is observed that more than half of the (69%) of the population are cattle in total livestock population. Livestock farmers have secondary and intermediate school level and more than half of the farmers involved in livestock farming belonged to middle age group. Due to low agricultural profitability, young people are not interested in agriculture and shift towards tourism and tourism related services. Agriculture profitability should be increased to retain the people in farming by providing access to credit, markets, extension service.
the role of the government agricultural extension service among the maasai agro- pastoralists of narok north district remains relatively small, despite the high potential for crop production in the district, and the importance of crop farming as a livelihood diversification strategy. the women farmers have much less contact with the extension service than the male farmers and therefore, enjoy fewer benefits of the service. there is need for extension service providers to recognize the maasai agro-pastoralists as a unique clientele, being emerging crop cultivators, in providing agricultural extension services to them. assumptions that apply to the traditional crop farming communities should not be applied to the maasai, given their pastoralist background and lack of indigenous technical knowledge. there is also need for the existing agricultural extension service to emphasize communication strategies that will reach more farmers, such as the use of group methods, and to also bring on board other agricultural extension service providers, to improve extension coverage among the maasai. a gender analysis approach should be employed in addressing the extension gaps, to ensure that gender bias is not perpetrated, and that maasai women farmers are able to benefit equally with the male farmers.
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supervision and co-operation. The VLWs had medium level of job performance which is due to limited activities in the areas of planning, education, supply and service, supervision, co- operation, official work and evaluation (table 5). The AOs have to supervise large number of projects of State Government as well as Central Government schemes including Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA), Technology Mission, and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA) etc. Majority of the VLWs also had medium level of perceived work load because they supported by the guidence of the supervising officers in all the aspects of work done by him. On the other hand the VLWs have to be in touch with the farmers always, hence they had perceived high level of workload (table 5). Equal proportion of the AOs had low and medium level of organizational commitment, which is due to the fact that though they are not satisfied with most of the aspects of job but they had very limited options in Tripura to leave the present job. Most of the AOs had expressed that if they get similar or more facility in other department, they are willing to leave the department.
It is an online social media and social networking service (SNS), created with mission “Give people the power to build community and bring the world closer together.” The users can create their own profile and connect with their closed ones along with sharing their photos, videos, opinions, or ideas. There is provision for exchanging messages, chatting, and creating groups of users of common interests.
AGRI In the nutrition-sensitive agricultural extension intervention (AGRI) intervention arm, women’s groups view and discuss two NSA videos each month for 32 months. After each video viewing, follow-up visits are made to all participating pregnant women and mothers of children aged 0–23 months (primary beneficiaries of the trial). These follow-up visits aim to: check whether the participants can recall the key messages in the videos or have adopted the key practices, reinforce the messages shown in the videos, and encourage partici- pants to attend next meetings. Another purpose of the visits is to strengthen the link between participants and community frontline workers, and to refer visibly ill or malnourished children to community workers or other health providers. CSPs run the video dissemination meetings and conduct the home visits.
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Multiple responsibilities and IPCR targets. This could be one of the reasons why sometimes, faculty members are not motivated to do extension. As faculty members, our major task is to teach, and yes we accept that academic teaching responsibility is coupled with writing research and conducting extension services. But how can we do it effectively if we have 18-24 unit regular course loads, or whenever you were given a local college designation or administrative position, the work and responsibilities keep on coming that you should be able to entertain it with a successful output. Moreover, sometimes we do extension service PAPs because of our IPCR targets, and if extension is forced, our effort and value of extension may be at stake. So as with research, this was highlighted earlier, but to reiterate the concept, the numerous things that we do all at one time is a factor that affects the quality of research that we write. Whenever the employee could concentrate on a set of responsibilities, good output is expected, but if it’s too many, complains and rants in many ways and forms could possibly be the result. The study of Black et. al. is related to the results above as it used data from 747 rural African American mothers and incorporated role accumulation theory to test direct and indirect effects of stressors, coping behaviors, and role responsibilities on health functioning . Results indicated that demands emerging from financial strain were related to compromise mental health and decreases in mothers' use of effective coping strategies and role responsibility engagement. Conversely, mothers who effectively responded to stressors and fulfilled responsibilities to their children and communities experienced enhanced mental health, which in turn promoted optimal physical health. The results can inform research and intervention with African American women.
The ideal TES program should have sufficient program scale including field specialists and offices located close to clusters of companies. Likewise, plans should consider that, because TES relies on a decentralized service delivery, the larger the region, the greater the program costs. The differences in the economic scope (and number of potential companies) of the nations and regions covered by the four cases and in the scale of each program illustrate these divergent costs. They are apparent in the comparative program scale metrics that have been developed for the individual programs (Table 18). The most recent year available is presented (2012-13 for budgetary and center information, 2011 for customer information). The number of manufacturing SME’s and customers per TES staff are lowest for Tecnalia, highest for the MAS, with the MEP and the IRAP falling in the middle. The budget per client served is higher for the MEP and the IRAP than for MAS (no budgetary information for TES alone is available for Tecnalia). These ratios suggest that the MAS, with its outsourced administration of TES, is relatively efficient. However, differences in actual services provided suggest that all such comparisons should be viewed with caution. Additionally, the extent to which all costs are captured is unclear. These numbers are primarily input and service measures and do not assess the benefits achieved relative to cost (value for money). Despite these limitations, it can be concluded from these metrics that TES has minimal scale economies. Fewer, bigger centers are not better than multiple, smaller locations in integrated TES systems.
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4.3. Enhancing the Credibility of the Agricultural Chain Logistics Certification Bodies Statutory qualifications of agricultural cold chain logistics certification career certification body does not mean that it will naturally develop, the credibility of the certification body is the foundation of certification market development. Only certified results are recognized by the industry and consumers, but also will have more re- sources to produce cold-chain logistics organization to apply for certification. And social stakeholders whether to trust the authentication result, first of all depends certified product meets customer needs. Here customers can be consumers of agricultural products, production management or research and teaching institutions, may also be the government, industry associations and other regulatory agencies. Second, depending on the impartiality and authority of the certification body, that certified the company’s credibility. This requires the certification bodies must be certified according to the law, comply with relevant laws and regulations, strict demands on themselves, eliminate corruption certification, and strive to be honest and upright, in order to enhance the credi- bility of the certification bodies 7 .
Result in Table 6 shows the estimated logit regression of the factors influencing effectiveness of agricultural technology delivery. Level of education, Sex, and Lack of farmers’ cooperation were not significant at 5% probability levels. Age was negative and significant at 5% probability level which implies that increase in age is less likely to increase effectiveness in agricultural technology delivery. Aging in labour services decreases the performance of the workforce. This is an indication that as the extension agents advances in age, the effectiveness in technology delivery to farmers decreases. This agrees with Sezgin et al, (2010) who found that the more energetic, mobile, dynamic and flexible the extension agents are, the more they perform their duties effectively.
Again participation of respondents were categorized into three parts namely, major homestead activities, livestock activities and allied homestead activities. It is observed from the Table 2 that more than 50% rural tribal women contributed labour independently in cooking, and care of children and elderly persons and washing clothes. Further it was noted that more than 50% rural tribal women were jointly engaged in feeding and taking care of the animals. It is interesting to note that 68.7% rural tribal women independently engaged in weaving. From the findings it can be seen that most of the rural tribal women in the study area performed dual roles in their day to day life, which meant that they spent more time and effort than the men. Therefore, rural tribal women might not have the time to have regular contact with extension agents or to attend extension activities. From the Table-3 it is seen that in case of participation in livestock activities and cultivation of different crops joint participation got the 1st rank. Independent participation was prominent in the areas of major homestead and allied activities.
promote demand driven agricultural extension system. The respondents stated that poor marketing services and facilities and transport in rural areas pose a large constraint to agricultural commercialisation in Eritrea. There is a need for the strengthening of agribusiness linkages along the major agricultural commodity value chains, and support to farmers’ cooperatives and organisations to improve marketing and value additions. In the focus group discussion (FGD) the participants examined the four reform options for agricultural extension service delivery system in Eritrea: (i) Public delivery and public finance which essentially comprises the traditional government agricultural extension that continues to persist although with greatly diminished outreach and constrained by a lack of sufficient funding; (ii) Public delivery and private finance whereby government staff is contracted by private agencies to deliver extension services; (iii) Private delivery and private finance whereby commercial entities provide their suppliers with the extension services required to improve their technical efficiency. This mode of delivery is prevalent in commodity out-grower schemes and highly commercialized high-value agriculture; and (iv) Private delivery and public finance which entails the outsourcing of responsibility for extension delivery to private sector providers such as NGOs, commercial organizations, etc. Despite its limitations the FGD participants opted for the first option-public delivery and public finance. They have stated that the private sector and NGOs are not well developed in Eritrea. The private sector does not have the financial capacity and technical expertise to step immediately into all areas that Government is withdrawing from, so in many cases a phased transition is required. It has been argued that options ii and iii are not feasible in Eritrea because extension services are provided free of charge. Charging for extension service, in Eritrea, will diminish latent commercial demand for agricultural extension information and farmers willingness for extension services. The public-good nature of many extension services makes cost recovery at the individual beneficiary level difficult. To overcome these problems the public extension system has to be strengthened both in financial and human resource requirements. The government has a comparative advantage in the provision
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For agricultural service and programme to be more successful and effective, effort should be made at creating the right attitude and mindset both with the clientele and the agent. Though, so many factors are responsible for poor dissemination of extension service to women farmers, it is quite expedient to note that the attitude of female farmers might as well be a contributing factor to ineffective delivery of extension service programme. Through the activities of Women in Agriculture (WIA) unit of OSADEP, OSADEP has introduced several strategic programmes aimed at bringing women farmers into the forefront of agricultural production. It is however, difficult to really specify where the problems of ineffective delivery of agricultural extension services to women farmers lie. This study therefore, assessed the attitude of female farmers to extension service rendered by extension agents in the study area. Specifically, the study identified the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers in the study area as well as determined the accessibility of farmers to the extension service being provided. Also, the study evaluated the effects of extension service on Agricultural production in the study area and finally determined the challenges encountered by farmers in accessing extension services in the locality.