4 (legislation). Barriers to sports participation may fall into any of these domains. Although there is a relatively small amount of research in the area, a review of studies found that adolescents perceived social and intrapersonal factors to be the most prominent barriers to sports participation. However, these studies involved cross-sectional research designs and there is no research into how perceived barriers to participation change over time in the same children, and data on children’s barriers (rather than adolescents’) is lacking. Barriers would be expected to change as children develop both physically and socially; what they gain in motor skills and sports knowledge may be tempered by a new awareness of social standing and peer influence.
19 Read more
Class status, and the capital (of various forms) that comes with it, plays an important role in determining life opportunities. Indeed, one of the main findings from the literature is that class is the main determinant of sport and leisure behaviour (Bairner, 2007; Lunn, 2010; Collins, 2010). Unlike sex and ethnicity – explicitly physical variables that can be legislated for – class has a more pervasive influence over leisure choice because some activities are simply too expensive for some. Lunn (2010) and Stoddart (1990) argue that equipment and facilities in some sports (both mention golf specifically) present brute economic barriers to working class people. In the same way, the location of facilities – especially where large open spaces are required – is a further class-related barrier to some sports (Burton et al., 2003). Lunn (2010) also found that level of education is a significant determinant of sports participation (especially in individual sports), a variable that is strongly and historically correlated with class or socio-economic status. Moreover, the softer socio- cultural characteristics that are determined by class – i.e. friends and contacts, knowledge and skills, physical appearance – also heavily condition the kinds of sports and activities young people ‘choose’ to participate in, especially in late adolescence (Coakley & White, 1992; Lunn, 2010). 2.1.2 CLASS STATUS IS ESTABLISHED AND REINFORCED THROUGH CHILDHOOD Research on who plays sport, particularly the social histories and class situations of sports participants, is very much in its infancy (Cronin, 2009). However, there is sufficient research to suggest that a person’s class status and related behaviour patterns are firmly established in childhood (Burton et al., 2003). Children are born into situations and families where access to cultural and economic resources is pre-determined. Their subsequent access to education,
42 Read more
Abstract: This paper identifies and discusses several barriers to student participation and hence student learning in Problem Based Learning (PBL) course which utilises virtual teams. The majority of student teams work entirely in virtual space, having no face-to-face contact with either other team members or the team academic facilitator. The course has run for 7 years, with several offers per year and a comprehensive evaluation has indicated it is successful in meeting key learning objectives and forming learning communities. However the virtual aspect of teamwork and PBL has lead to new and different problems arising with respect to student participation and learning. A model is proposed which maps student engagement and learning in virtual teams. It provides a framework for further investigation, development of resources and facilitator training to support student learning
There is little evidence on which recruitment strategies are effective for increasing rates of participation but studies did identify clear barriers which could be addressed by future researchers. For example, addressing difficulties with transportation is a clear and practical way to facilitate recruitment. Stigma, fear, and distrust were consistently found to be barriers across studies and consequently attempts to address these would also presumably increase recruitment. Transparency of the research project and a clear explanation of what is expected of participants may go a long way in dispelling fear and distrust. In addition, it is also important and worthwhile to be inclusive of care- givers and family members as in many cases they will be important contributors to decision making in participants ’ lives. This may also serve to ease some anxieties that pro- spective participants and their families may have about the impact of the research on the participants ’ health, and potential benefits. These could include allocation of differ- ent strategies in a randomised controlled trial would be beneficial. For example, a comparison of different market- ing strategies and recruitment materials (e.g. information sheets) could be done whereby one set of materials uses less mental illness terminology that is potentially stigma- tising, to determine if this increases recruitment rates. We would also recommend that researchers clearly describe whether their sample is representative of the population of interest. It is important for researchers to be aware and to try to recruit under-represented groups in future studies to ensure the validity of reported findings are not poten- tially undermined by sampling bias.
10 Read more
Recent studies have reached very similar conclusions with regard to transport. One study, which examined the experiences of young people in a mixture of urban and rural areas, concluded, for example, that transport is „not a major factor whether [young people] will continue in education. Irrespective of its availability or cost, the majority of students value continuing in education, and see this as a price to be paid‟ (Coleman and Thornthwaite, 2003, p.5). However, for a significant minority the cost and/or availability of transport was found to be a serious disincentive, particularly for those young people who are not very motivated to engaged in education or training in the first place. This was confirmed by another study, using focus groups with young people aged 16-19 in rural England across three areas, which reported that: „the limited availability, and cost, of public transport exacerbated the difficulties of young people who may already be lacking motivation, and so would be more easily deterred from continuing a training course if they had to undertake a long and difficult journey in order to attend‟ (Midgley and Bradshaw, 2006, p.19). The authors concluded that participation rates are often lower in rural areas because young people do not have access to the education and training opportunities they need and want.
93 Read more
sport only [37, 39–41, 43, 52, 53]. Azzarito  sought to explore the views of ethnic-minority girls and their bodies and in what space they would be physical active in their daily lives. Eime  made use of the socioeco- logical model to investigate factors affecting participa- tion in sport and physical activity in rural girls whilst Fisette  explored the self-identified barriers to en- gagement in PE and enjoyment in girls. Enright  also investigated the PE environment but sought to identify how a negotiated PE curriculum might look. Kimm  focused on a biracial cohort of sedentary females and sought to identify barriers to their participation in activ- ity. Oliver  sought to understand self-identified bar- riers to physical activity for 5th grade females whilst Wetton  sought to understand the barriers to partici- pation to develop interventions to increase team sports participation in females. Armentrout  sought to understand organisational barriers and personal reasons for children discontinuing participation in sport. Barnett  sought to understand the perception of the relation- ship between movement, physical activity and sport for adolescents and whether views differed according to the amount of participation. Basterfield  investigated how perceived barriers to participation in sports both in- side and outside of school changed within the same co- hort over a three year time frame. Dismore  investigates children’s attitudes towards PE and school sport and the influences on these for children and Holt  sought to understand perceptions of benefits associ- ated with participation in youth sport in children and parents from a low income background. Quarmby  investigated how different family structures affected chil- dren ’ s time activities including sports. Stanley 
19 Read more
identify the barriers to participation in Continuing education of Australian nurses, grouped into experienced nurses, recently qualified nurses and nurses in rural or remote areas where the major barriers identified were time, accessibility and relevance of content. Continuing professional education and development programmes are the backbone of the individual and organization benefitting both in a mutual way. Specialty specific programmes including the practical workshops to impart recent updates and time bound study leaves for higher education and later on their academic achievements linked to promotion and financial gains will ultimately translate into good and trusted patient care.
Instruments - The CHIEF questionnaire has two forms including a long form and short form consisting of 25 and 12 items respectively assessing environmental barriers to participation. These items are categorized into five subscales: policies, physical and structural, work and school, attitudes and support, and services and assistance. For each item, the participant is first asked to rate the frequency with which their child encounters barriers (daily=4, weekly=3, monthly=2, less than monthly=1, or never=0).Then, if the participant indicates that their child encounters environmental barriers at any frequency other than never, they are asked whether their child considers the barrier to be a big problem=2 or a little problem=1.Scoring of each item is the product of the frequency score and the magnitude of impact score and therefore ranges between zero and eight. A score of each subscale is calculated as the mean of frequency-magnitude product score across items of subscale and a total score is calculated as the mean of frequency- magnitude product score across all items (14).
The last set of Cross categories are dispositional barriers, which refer to attitudes, social and psychological issues towards education, and the student’s perception of their ability to attend and successfully complete learning activities (Cross, 1981). Dispositional barriers are hard to document and explain, but their significance is great and are considered the most difficult to overcome (MacKeracher et al., 2006; Desjardins and Rubenson, 2013), where “the greatest barriers to participation in education maybe located deep within the self.” (Owens, 2000: 23). Common dispositional barriers are lack of interest, motivation and lack of personal goals (Dench and Regan, 2000; Long et al., 2002). In addition, previous experience where the teacher introduced the feeling of inadequacy to the student, embarrassment, shyness or shame when returning to education as an adult are also examples of dispositional barriers (Corridan, 2002; BTEI, 2013). In addition student’s low self esteem or low self-confidence can cause nervousness or fear of failure, individuals might feel too old and busy to begin, lack of skills or the feeling of not being smart enough, not enough energy or stamina, not enjoying studying, tired of school, do not know what to learn, and hesitate to seem too ambitious are also examples of dispositional barriers (Cumming, 1992; Millar and Falk, 2000; McDonald, 2003). In addition, there are occasions due to negative perceptions where investing in education is seen as a burden (Selwyn and Gorard, 2005). Dispositional barriers can also apply to learning activities in terms of negative perceptions of usefulness, appropriateness, pleasurability and engagement (McDonald, 2003).
302 Read more
Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 200 community pharmacists working in community pharmacies. Of the 200 respondents, 62% ( n = 124) were male. Overall, the mean age (sd) was 30.0 years (8.6) with the number of years of work experience between 2 and 9.9 years ( n = 158, 79%). On average, 62.3% of the pharmacists had a positive attitude toward participation in public health activities. Providing education to stop tobacco chewing, smoking, alcohol drinking and improve oral hygiene was an important activity of the community pharmacists. Blood pressure measurements (86%, n = 172) and glucose tests (45%, n = 90) were commonly conducted for clients. Lack of time (71%, n = 142) and lack of teamwork (70%, n = 140) were mentioned as common barriers to participation in public health activities.
In this paper empowerment is presented as a theoret- ical construct to guide nurses to increase levels of ac- tivity and influence in the policy development arena. Furthermore, empowerment is viewed as a continuum, a process that evolves towards increased growth and ad- vancement . In this context, empowerment is defined as support towards enabling individuals and groups to participate in actions and decision making related to health policy development denoting an influence rela- tionship as opposed to a need for power from others . This type of enablement and influence can lead to gaining control to be able to exercise one’s influence and authority to make and participate in decisions , and can be considered in relation to both individual and col- lective action. Jones, O’Toole, Hoa, Chau and Muc  suggest that recognizing and understanding the barriers to a goal, and identifying appropriate resources to re- solve it, lead to a sense of strength for health, growth and professional development. In the context of this paper, the focus on empowerment relates to building, developing and supporting nurse leaders to participate
11 Read more
Several participants mentioned that their own personal characteristics influenced their participation in different care activities and influenced their level of involvement, including having a caregiver role at home or feeling close to the patient. Physical disability, older age, gender and education were mentioned by some participants as being factors that would probably interfere with involvement. Being constantly present at the bedside, which brought about a certain familiarity with the staff, was mentioned as greatly facilitating participation. The willingness to help, being proactive, having some knowledge or past experience of the healthcare environment, were also mentioned as being important enablers. As one participant pointed out, “knowing how things are done in the healthcare system makes it much easier to get involved and obtain information from the right people. It can be much more difficult for someone who feels lost in this impressive environment”. Personality
11 Read more
Background: The purpose of this research was the qualitative survey of effective factors on students' participation in extracurricular sports activities. Method: The research methodology was qualitative, the kind of phenomenology with targeted sampling gathered through in-depth interviews with 16 students from Allameh Tabataba’i University of Tehran, Iran. The number of students in this university (research population) was about 18,000 in the academic year 2016-17. All interviews were carefully recorded, and then the analysis of the text of the interview was carried out by Smith’s method. Results: Findings from the interviews with students was extracted in three main themes, including: Students' enthusiasm for sports activities, motivational factors of sports participation, and barriers to sports participation. 30 sub-themes are also included. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that authorities and managers of extracurricular sports activities of universities pave the way for the development of extracurricular sports activities for students by removing barriers to sports participation and improving the factors of motivation and enthusiasm for sports.
16 Read more
The work of activists living with psychosocial disability in high income countries over the past 40 years has led to a growing acceptance of the importance of including people with psychosocial disability in decision-making which affects their lives. This has been associated with a reform of the way in which some role players concep- tualise and provide support for the recovery of people living with psychosocial disability [3,17-21]. Common areas where people with psychosocial disability have been consulted include treatment, service development and evaluation, education and training, curriculum de- velopment and research . While some progress has been made to develop procedural, organisational and po- litical support for participation of people with psycho- social disability in many countries, their participation has been influential but not transforming of mainstream mental health care . Further, their participation in over-arching policy-making processes is still infrequent [24,25], particularly in low and middle-income countries . Members of PANUSP, for example, are still in the early stages of lobbying for their participation in policy development at country level, and PANUSP is yet to make a regional impact on policy processes on the African continent (Kleintjes S, Lund C, Swartz L: Organising for self-advocacy in mental health: experiences from 7 African countries, forthcoming).
10 Read more
It was discovered that participation was the art of movement and a training system used to get past physical and mental obstacles (Atkinson, 2009). The younger participants were concerned with the fashion styles and tended to wear a particular type of trainer and tracksuit (Wheaton and Beal, 2003). It was discovered that this element was of less concern to the older participants. It was mentioned that every participant had their own style and focused on parts of the activity that were of interest to them (Wheaton and Beal, 2003). The participants would see a traceur doing something and they would try and imitate that style of movement. Some of the participants compared their range of movement to that of a cat. They proclaimed that the cat had an astonishing range of movement and that it could jump three times its own height. They asserted that they were very much inferior to the cat’s range of dexterity. They also observed that people conduct everyday activities with a limited range of motions (Ortuzar, 2009).
Studies comparing the characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in population-based research involv- ing blood donation reveal that socioeconomic factors strongly affect participation [12, 13]. For example, in Spain, individuals with a university education were almost four times more likely to participate in a human biomoni- toring study than people with lower levels of education . This may be problematic, since HBM studies in the US [14, 15], Germany , Belgium  and Spain [18, 19] have shown that socioeconomic factors also influ- ence internal exposure to pollutants. However, these re- sults are not always in line with the traditional environmental justice hypothesis, because social differ- ences have an effect in both directions. Exposure to lead, cadmium, bisphenol A and brominated flame retardants is usually associated with lower SES (measured by educational attainment, income or occupational social class), while body concentrations of mercury, arsenic, and chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) are mostly
includes 33 items, and took 20 minutes to complete. It included questions on the demographic profile of the respondents, the perceived past, present and future levels of participation and interest of the respondents in participating in physical activity, and the perceived barriers to participating in physical activities. For the interview, among the 16 scholars contacted, 5 agreed to participate for the interview. Results showed that most of the respondents prefer or currently participate in walking and traveling as physical activities. When asked on the items that hinder them in participating in activities, most of the respondents indicated time management as a frequent barrier (Johnson and Bungum, 2008).
In their bid to increase their political relevance, women in Nigeria have had to face a number of oppositions. Discriminations against women from the male folks have been observed largely in terms of voting rights and nominations for political offices (Olamitoke, 2011). Their continued denial, as regards being equally likely to take advantage of opportunities just like their male counterparts in the design of policies and legal framework for the country, is rather disturbing despite the provision in Article 3 of CEDAW. According to Afolabi–Akiyode (2011), discrimination against women in Nigeria in terms of low participation in decision making and governance is without bounds. More specifically, they are made to occupy back seats when issues relating to development are concerned. Politics and political framework in Nigeria is one that exclude much of women’s legitimacy and this has resulted in women’s underrepresentation in politics as well as other areas relating to power and decision making. The
Cortis (2009) conducted a study that explored the access and barriers of sports and sport amenities in culturally diverse women. In all, fifteen stakeholder interviews and twelve focus groups (N=94) were completed (Cortis, 2009). In the focus groups, the participants discussed barriers such as lack of self confidence to participate, lack of access, the need for more culturally sensitive sport programs, as well as more programs that are geared towards women-only (Cortis, 2009). However, in the researcher’s interviews with the stakeholders, it was found that they did not see the necessity to promote activities to a particular gender or culture – as they perceived their programs to be, by default, inclusionary (Cortis, 2009). This finding outlines the need for attitudinal and structural changes to be made to promote the activities to women (Cortis, 2009). Ball et al. (2010) set to examine if a person’s neighbourhood is a structural barrier for women to participate in physical activity. In this study, they examined relationships between social capital of communities and physical activity of women (Ball et al., 2010). Ball et al. (2010) analyzed data from women (N=1405) residing in neighbourhoods with varying socioeconomic status and found a positive correlation between women educated at a university level who were well connected to their neighbours, participated in their
98 Read more
which creates a barrier. Conflict among the professionals can also create barrier in their participation. Many studies have been conducted by researches to gather information and data to find out the various barriers that keeps the doctors from participating in Public Health Care. There is need to find the barriers for doctors in public health .The best way to overcome these problems is to identify the barriers. It is important to evaluate the barriers for effective processing of the programmes. These barriers can vary widely as the doctors and other professional health care workers are faced with different lifestyles and traditions. Main objective of this study is to understand the underlying reasons and taking opinions of the participants. The best approach to identify barriers is the use of quantitative studies.