Black Cotton Soil

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Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil By Admixtures

Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil By Admixtures

Due to the presence of montmorillonite which is characterized by large volume change from wet to dry seasons and vice versa, black cotton soil also facilitates compaction for obtaining the desired density with comparatively less effort. The characteristics of Black Cotton Soil is which it forms a very poor foundation material for road construction & also possess low strength with excessive volume changes. The properties of the black cotton soil may be altered in many ways viz, mechanical thermal, chemical and other means stabilisation, it is very important to investigate the physical and engineering properties associated with the black cotton soil. In the present study black cotton soil specimens are derived from depth of 1 to 1.5 m were studied in the laboratory for investigation of physical and engineering properties. Various tests like grain size analysis, specific gravity, atterberg’s limits, standard proctor compaction, consolidation and direct shear test were conducted on the soil specimens as per the Indian Standard Codes [1].
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Stabilization Of Black Cotton Soil Using Coir Pith

Stabilization Of Black Cotton Soil Using Coir Pith

There are many natural wastes being sent out to environment, Coir Pith is one such waste. Being a natural waste the cost towards the application is very less. After the experiment study made it was found that the Coir Pith can be used as natural stabilizer in improving the properties of Black Cotton soil. However the application is bounded to minor projects. The study can further be extending by conducting the test in combination with Coir Pith. That is Coir Pith and Lime, Coir Pith and Fly ash etc..

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Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete by Black Cotton Soil

Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete by Black Cotton Soil

The challenge for the civil engineering community in the near future is to realize projects in harmony with the concept of sustainable development and this involves the use of high performance materials and products manufactured at reasonable cost with the lowest possible environmental impact. There are various studies going on to fit materials in place of construction materials without affecting the required strength of concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out to study the properties of concrete by partially replacing fine aggregates with certain percentage of Black Cotton Soil. Further, Workability and Mechanical properties are studied on these mix proportions.
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Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil using Coconut Leaf Ash

Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil using Coconut Leaf Ash

The coconut tree leaf ash is obtained by burning dry coconut tree leaf which is one of the major available in tropical ,sub- tropical and warm temp zones of India thus they are cost efficient and ecofriendly waste ,the ash is obtained by simple treatment of burning in open area. The engineers took challenge for safe disposal of agricultural waste and the various measures of research undergo to use agricultural waste in stabilizing black cotton soil, with various steps and attempts of different proposal percentage of mixing.

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Study On The Influence Of Terrazyme As Stregthening Agent For Black Cotton Soil

Study On The Influence Of Terrazyme As Stregthening Agent For Black Cotton Soil

The additive used to strengthen and stabilize this Black Cotton Soil for our study is Terrazyme. It is a liquid enzyme which is organic in nature and it is formulated from vegetative and fruits extract. it improves the deficit properties of soil like its quality, California Bearing Ratio, Durability and decreases the abundant and pessimistic properties like Optimum Moisture Content and Plasticity Index of soil.

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Stabilisation of Black Cotton Soil by Random Inclusion of Sisal Fibre

Stabilisation of Black Cotton Soil by Random Inclusion of Sisal Fibre

ABSTRACT: Soil stabilization is the process for altering the engineering properties of a soil. The main motto of stabilization is to increase the strength of soil and also to make the project economical by making the best use of the locally available materials. India is covered with large amount of expansive soil which is also known as Black Cotton soil, which covers about 20% of total land area. These soils have less compressive strength, high swelling, high shrinkage characteristics and low in CBR value. Hence, in the present study sisal fiber which is a naturally occurring fiber is made use of in stabilizing the black cotton soil. The strength behavior such as compaction characteristics, swelling behaviour and unconfined compressive strength of sisal fibre reinforced black cotton soil has been studied.
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STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL USING PLASTIC WASTE								
								
								     
								     
								   

STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL USING PLASTIC WASTE      

Black cotton soils have been identified on igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. They are formed mainly by the chemical weathering of mafic (basic) igneous rocks such as basalt, norite, andesites, diabases, dolerites, gabbros and volcanic rocks and their metamorphic derivatives (e.g. gneisses) which are made up calcium rich feldspars and dark minerals which are high in the weathering order, in poorly drained areas with well defined wet and dry seasons. All constituents weather to form amorphous hydrous oxides, and under suitable conditions clay minerals develop. The absence of quartz leads to the formation of fine grained, mostly clay size, plastic soils which are highly impermeable and easily becomes waterlogged. In addition, abundant magnesium and calcium present in the rock adds to the possibility of formation of black cotton soil with its attendant swelling problem (Ola, 1983). The black cotton soils have also formed over sedimentary materials such as shales, limestones, slates etc. Ahmad (1983) found that although the parent materials are diverse, one striking feature which is common to all is the fact that the parent materials are rich in feldspar and ferromagnesian minerals which yield clay residue on weathering. It was also noted that where the parent rock is not mafic (basic), alkali earth elements can be added through seepage or by flooding waters.
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UTILIZATION OF SEA SALT IN BLACK COTTON SOIL FOR STABILIZATON

UTILIZATION OF SEA SALT IN BLACK COTTON SOIL FOR STABILIZATON

Sea Salt, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the major ingredient in edible salt, it iscommonlyused as a condiment and food preservative. Production and use of Sea Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite. In 2002, world production was estimated at 210 million metric tonnes, the top five producers being the United States (40.3 million tonnes), China (32.9), Germany (17.7), India (14.5), and Canada (12.3).Sea Salt is present in ample of quantity in India.However less work has been carried out on sea salt which is also available in large amount with minimum cost or no cost. So there is need to study the effect of sea salt on engineering properties of expansive soil like black cotton soil.
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UTILIZATION OFPOLYSTERFIBRES IN BLACK COTTON SOIL: ALITERATUTE REVIEW

UTILIZATION OFPOLYSTERFIBRES IN BLACK COTTON SOIL: ALITERATUTE REVIEW

In India, expansive soils are black cotton soil. The name‘ Black Cotton’ as on agricultural origin. The black cotton soil is a type of expansive soil with high plasticity and can retain moisture through the dry season which is why they are valuable for growing crops. It exhibits low bearing capacity, low permeability and high volume change due to presence of montmorilonite minerals in its metrological content. Therefore prior to construction of a road and other engineering structures on such subgrade. It is important either replace it with no expansible soil or make it suitable for construction. Replacing the existing soil might not be a feasible option, therefore the best possible option is to stabilize the existing soil with suitable stabilizers. The process of soil stabilization helps to achieve the required strength in as soil needed for the construction work. There are many soil improvement techniques either chemical or mechanical. They may classified as a ground reinforcement , ground improvement and ground treatment.
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APPLICATION OF FLY ASH IN STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL

APPLICATION OF FLY ASH IN STABILIZATION OF BLACK COTTON SOIL

The Malwa Pleatue is mainly consist of basaltic traps of volcanic origin and the entire area is cover with highly expensive residual black cotton soil with liquid limit varying from 30% to 40% the soil by nature showing extensive expansion in black climate and during summer extensive shrinkage ,cracks exceeding 10 mm in width were notice on surface generally. The soil was not suitable in natural form for construction of civil engineering Projects due to following reasons.

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Effect Of Electrolyte On The Geotechnical Properties Of Black Cotton Soil

Effect Of Electrolyte On The Geotechnical Properties Of Black Cotton Soil

An attempt was made to study the effect of potassium chloride compounds (KCl) on the properties of black cotton soil. The soil was tested for its liquid limit, plastic limit, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, unconfined compressive strength and swelling index. The laboratory results show that the addition of potassium chloride compound with varying percentages of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% decreases the liquid limit by 28.78% and increases the plastic limit upto 35.24% with the addition of 2% KCl. With the increase in liquid limit and decrease in the plastic limit the plasticity index reduces by 66.34% with 2% KCl. The maximum dry density was 13.7 kN/m 3 for 0% KCl which significantly increases to 23.79 kN/m 3 when 2% KCl is added. The increase in MDD
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Behavior of Black Cotton Soil Stablized With Fly Ash

Behavior of Black Cotton Soil Stablized With Fly Ash

According to Erdal Cocka that has concluded that based on the test results it can be concluded that the expansive soil can be successfully stabilized by fly ashes. According to Gandhi N.S.V.V.S.J., Kumar B.R Phani and Kumar J.V. P that has concluded that when expansive soils are treated with fly ash the engineering properties like shear strength, compressibility are increased. According to Nramesh H., Mohan S. and Siva Pullaiah P.V.S. has concluded that based on the test data test results the fly ash properties are improved more when lime is added additionally. According to Pandian N.S. (I.I.Sc- Bangalore) and Krishna K.C. has concluded that the test results shoes that adding fly ash to the black cotton soil is not only helps to improve the engineering properties, but also helps in the utilization of fly ash, which can reduce the disposal and pollution problems.
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Improvement of Geotechnical Properties Of Black Cotton 		Soil By Ggbs And Metakaoline

Improvement of Geotechnical Properties Of Black Cotton Soil By Ggbs And Metakaoline

To increase the black cotton soil compressive stress by adding the admixturesof Ground Granulated Blast Furnace and metakaoline. The properties of black cotton soil get effectively modified by varying proportions of GGBS and metakaoline. Due to administration many lands can be left unused that must be contain BC soil or clay. So it necessary to stabilize BC soil for increasing the use of that land.

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An Experimental Analysis on the Influence of Copper Slag as Stabiliser on Black Cotton Soil

An Experimental Analysis on the Influence of Copper Slag as Stabiliser on Black Cotton Soil

development of infrastructures is very common. In view of this, construction of buildings on unsuitable ground is unavoidable and making a suitable ground before constructions is real challenging issue for Geotechnical Engineers. To overcome the difficulties experienced with black-cotton soil in geotechnical applications on one side and safe disposal of solid wastes on the other side, an attempt is made in this investigation to explore the possibilities of utilizing solid wastes to improve the engineering behaviour of black-cotton soil. In this, in this present investigation the type of solid waste namely Copper Slag for stabilization is selected to study the effects of same on the index and engineering characteristics of black-cotton soil. The copper slag is mixed with black-cotton soil in various proportions like 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% will be tested and the results are compared with the properties of normal soil. The various tests such as Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, Specific Gravity of soil by Pyconometer method, Proctor Test, Grain Size Distribution and California Bearing Ratio Test (CBR) were conducted on these proportions and optimized proportion is arrived.
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Use of E Waste Material for Improving the Properties of Black Cotton Soil

Use of E Waste Material for Improving the Properties of Black Cotton Soil

After the calculation of basic properties of black cotton soil, soil properties improved with E-waste and the strength parameters like C & Ф, MDD and OMC were determined by conducting direct shear and compaction tests. Following are the results obtained after performing tests.

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Improvement of Geotechnical Properties of Black Cotton Soil by Ggbs and Metakaoline

Improvement of Geotechnical Properties of Black Cotton Soil by Ggbs and Metakaoline

To increase the black cotton soil compressive stress by adding the admixturesof Ground Granulated Blast Furnace and metakaoline. The properties of black cotton soil get effectively modified by varying proportions of GGBS and metakaoline. Due to administration many lands can be left unused that must be contain BC soil or clay. So it necessary to stabilize BC soil for increasing the use of that land.

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Effect of Woven Polyester Geotextile on the Strength of Black Cotton Soil

Effect of Woven Polyester Geotextile on the Strength of Black Cotton Soil

ABSTRACT: Black cotton soil show high volume change behaviour with change in water content leading to failure of structures constructed over it. Pavement constructed over such soil shows heavy settlement and cracks. The costly sub- base and base aggregates intrude into subgrade due to heavy wheel load and during compaction process it leads to loss of aggregates. The fine soil particles may enter the voids of base aggregates, theirby ruining its drainage capability. In order to overcome these problems soil stabilization has to be adopted. In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of using woven polyester geotextile in strength improvement of poor subgrade soil. California Bearing Ratio and Compaction test are conducted without geotextile and by placing geotextile at different depth of subgrade in single layer (25mm, 50mm, 75mm and 100mm from the top of mould). The maximum improvement occurs when geotextile was placed at 50mm depth from the top.
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Effect of Fly-Ash on Geotechnical Characteristics of Black Cotton Soil

Effect of Fly-Ash on Geotechnical Characteristics of Black Cotton Soil

Many researchers have worked on use of industrial waste for soil stabilization. A study on strength characteristics of expansive soil-fly ash mixes at various mouldings water content has been studied by satyanarayana at al. (2013). It has been reported that fly-ash increases the strength and decreases the swelling characteristics and 20-30% fly-ash needed to stabilize expansive soil. Bhuvaneshwari and Robinson (2005) studied the stabilization of expansive soil using fly-ash and they concluded that the workability is maximum with 25% of fly-ash in soil. Mehta at al.(2013) studied stabilization of black cotton soil by fly-ash and reported that the plasticity index decreases with increases the amount of fly-ash content. BROOKS (2009) studied “soil stabilization with fly-ash and rice husk ash” and reported that the rice husk ash (RHA) content of 12% and a fly-ash content of 25% are recommended for strengthening the expansive sub grade soil while a fly-ash content of 15% is recommended for blending into RHA to form a swell reduction layer.
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Utilization of Industrial Wastes for Production of Black Cotton Soil Bricks

Utilization of Industrial Wastes for Production of Black Cotton Soil Bricks

carried out to study the feasibility of producing bricks from locally available black cotton soil (also called black soil) using industrial waste materials such as fly ash and granite waste. In order to study the various engineering properties of bricks, a total of 594 numbers of brick specimens of 210x100x70mm size were prepared in three series by combining black soil, fly ash and granite waste in different proportions. The brick specimens were then air dried, baked in kiln and tested for compressive strength, water absorption, efflorescence and weight density as per IS 3495 code procedure. For comparison purpose, 18 numbers of conventional burnt clay bricks, and 18 numbers of pressed type water cured cement fly ash bricks were also tested for the aforesaid brick properties. Test results obtained in the present investigation indicate that it is possible to manufacture good quality bricks using locally available black soil by suitably adding either fly ash or granite waste or both, and such bricks can be used in lieu of conventional burnt clay bricks or pressed type water cured cement fly ash bricks presently in use for various construction activities across the country.
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Effect of RBI Grade81 on Engineering Properties of Black Cotton Soil

Effect of RBI Grade81 on Engineering Properties of Black Cotton Soil

In India, soils are classified into six group’s mainly alluvial soil, marine soil, laterite and lateritic deposits, expansive soils, sand dunes and boulder deposits. On an average 1 lakh sq km area is covered by lateritic soil deposits, 3 lakhs sq km area is covered by Black cotton soil, and 5 lakhs sq km area is covered by sand dunes. Marine soils are available in the coastal belts; laterite and lateritic soil deposits are available in Maharashtra, Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. Black cotton soil is available in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, North Karnataka, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Alluvial soils are available in Indo- Gangetic plains, and sand dunes in Rajasthan and boulder deposits are available in the Himalayan regions.
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