ABSTRACT: In this paper fuel property such as viscosity, specific gravity, calorific value, flash point of Neem oil Bio-diesel and its blends with diesel oil in the ratio of 20:80(B20), 40:60(B40), and 60:40(B60), 80:20(B80) respectively were studied. It was also found that the properties of blend of B20 were very close to diesel oil. In addition to this an attempt has also made to study the fuel properties of Neem oil methyl ester blends with domestic kerosene oil and diesel oil in the ratio of 20:75:5(B20K5), 40:50:10(B40K10), 60:25:15(B60K15), and 80:0:20(B80K20),(Methyl ester : Conventional diesel : Kerosene).
.GTL showed higher brake thermal efficiency than ULSD in medium load conditions than low-load operations due to less fuel consumption to overcome the mechanical losses at increasing load . The influence of REGR on the BTE seemed to vary with the load. Increased REGR at lower load showed decreased BTE because of incomplete combustion but at higher load increased BTE was observed due to faster flame velocity of hydrogen associated with an increase in the expansion work .The default combustion system in unmodified test engines may not be favorable for special properties of GTL like higher CN, low viscosity and density may lead to slight degradation of efficiency . GTL blends with diesel and bio- diesel did not demonstrate much variation than neat GTL .
 Knothe, G. 2005b. Cetane numbers—the history of vegetable oil-based diesel fuels. Chapter 2 in G. Knothe, J. Van Gerpen, and J. Krahl, Eds. The Biodiesel Handbook. Champaign, Ill.: American Oil Chemists’ Society Press.  Peterson, C.L. 1980. Vegetable oils—Renewable fuels for diesel engines. ASAE Paper No. PNW 80-105. St. Joseph,Mich.: ASAE.  Peterson, C.L. 1985. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel – Status and research priorities, ASAE Paper No. 85-3069. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.
diesel engine fuelled with Honge oil and its blends with diesel. Engine tests have been conducted to get the comparative measures of Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC), Total Fuel Consumption (TFC), Heat Supply (QS), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) and Indicate Thermal Efficiency (ITE). Results were compared with each other and finally best blend ratios are optimized. The proportions by volume: 95% diesel 5% Honge oil; 90% diesel 10%Honge oil; and 80% diesel 20% Honge oil. For comparison purposes, test runs were carried out for the pure diesel fuel. Experimental results show that the performance of the engine which is fuelled with honge oil blends is comparatively higher than Diesel fuel.
Biodiesel as an alternative fuel has recently received the attention due to the depletion of fossil fuels and harmful pollution problems. Biodiesel is produced from different vegetable oils such as Jatropha and used cooked oils. Microalgae have a great potential for biodiesel production. Algae oil content is usually ranged from 20 to 50%. Microalgae production take place in open ponds and photo biological reactors [1-5]. Microalgae are a good source for fuel production due to their higher growth rate, yield and oil content compared with other sources [2, 6,11- 12]. Tests carried out on engine recommended using blends with diesel oil up to 20% . The rest material of algal cells after oil extraction can be used for nutraceuticals production [14-16]. Algal biodiesel and diesel oil blends were tested on a diesel engine compared to diesel fuel.
The Kirloskar make single cylinder, four-stroke, DI diesel engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer is used for the experimental work. Experiments were conducted with varying loads of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% for diesel, biodiesel mixture and blends with diesel (Diesel, PJBD, D90PJBD10, D80PJBD20 and D70PJBD30) at constant rated speed 1500 rpm of the engine as shown in figure 1. Fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperatures were measured by usual procedure. The parameters like fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption are evaluated at all load conditions. The emissions characteristics are measured at steady state condition of the engine with the help of AVL make smoke meter. The exhaust gas analyzer was used to measure the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon emission (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The smoke
Abstract:- The present research work involves the production of methyl ester from various vegetable oils like Karanja oil and application of with diesel blend as alternative fuel in a diesel engine to investigate on the engine performance and emission characteristics. The methyl ester is obtained by base catalyzed transesterification process which is then blended with diesel in various volume proportions. The use of additive in blended fuels reduces the ignition delay and combustion period of a diesel engine and lowers the sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions. The investigation shows that the brake thermal efficiency increases upto 80% load and then decreases. The highest brake thermal efficiency is obtained for diesel. The brake specific fuel consumption decreases upto 80% load and then increases. The exhaust gas temperature increases linearly with load and is highest for pure biodiesel. The engine emission analysis with the above test fuels show that CO, CO2, HC and smoke emissions increase with load for all test fuels. The NOx emission increases with load and is highest for pure biodiesel. From the results obtained during the ongoing experimental investigation it may be concluded that the Karanja oil methyl ester blends with diesel can be successfully used in a compression ignition engine without degrading the engine performance and emission.
However, the above problems can be overcome with the use of esterified oils and their blends with diesel. Since the ester are less viscous than neat vegetable oils and, therefore, improved engine performance through better atomization and combustion in the cylinder was observed when either neat esterified oils or their blends with diesel were used. The esterification reduces the viscosity and removes glycerol from the oil. Hence the
Analysis of single cylinder diesel engine operating With Pongamia oil and its blend reported that Transport vehicles greatly pollute the environment through emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, unblunt or partially burnt HC and Particulate emissions. This paper presents the results of emission analyses carried out in an un modified diesel engine fuelled with Pongamia oil and its blends with diesel. Four blends were obtained by mixing diesel and Pongamia oil in the following proportions by volume: 95% diesel 5% Pongamia oil; 90% diesel 10%Pongamia oil; and 80% diesel 20% Pongamia oil. For comparison purposes, test runs were carried out for the pure diesel fuel. NOx, HC, CO, CO 2 emissions at different loads
1 I NTRODUCTION The world is presently confronted with twin crisis of fuel depletion and environment degradation. Indiscrimination extraction and lavish consumption of fossil fuels  have led to reduction in underground-based carbon resources. The search for alternative fuels, which promise a harmonious correlation with sustainable development, energy conservation, efficiency an environmental preservation  has become highly pronounced in present context. Even though new technologies have come up which have made solar, wind or tidal energy sources are easily usable but still they are not so popular due to problems and integration with the existing technology and processes. Gasoline and diesel driven automobiles are main reason for global warming. Various bio fuel energy resources are explored include biomass, biogas, primary alcohol, vegetable oils as blends with diesel, bio- diesel etc. Vegetable oils are good alternatives to fossil fuels for use in diesel engines. They are renewable in nature ad may generate opportunities for rural employment when employed on large scale. Since vegetable properties are similar to diesel, they can be used to run compressed ignition engines with little or no modifications. These alternatives resources are environment friendly but they need to be evaluated case to case basis for their advantages, disadvantages, properties, specific applications. Some of these fuels can be used directly while others are needed to be formulated to bring the relevant properties closer to conventional fuels. Due to recent widespread use of fuels in various sectors, this study concentrates on accessing the viability of using alternative fuels in the existing internal combustion engines without any modifications. An acceptable alternative fuel for engine has to fulfill the environment and energy security needs without sacrificing operating performance. Vegetable oils can be successfully used in CI engines without engine modifications and fuel modifications. Technologies must be developed for the use of vegetable oils as an alternative fuel. Vegetable oil cannot be used directly in its raw form in engine. So blends are made with diesel called bio-diesel. System design approach has taken care to see that these modified fuels can be utilized in the existing diesel engine without substantial
In the concern of current energy situation, major research is focused on sustainable energy solution with major prominence on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources. The diesel engines lead the field of commercial transportation and agricultural equipment due to its simplicity of operation and higher fuel efficiency. The consumption of diesel fuel is several times higher than that of petrol fuel. Due to the scarcity of petroleum products and its increasing cost, efforts are on to develop alternative fuels specially, to the diesel oil for fully or partial replacement. It has been originate that the vegetable oils are hopeful fuels because their properties are similar to that of diesel and are produced simply and renewably from the crops. Vegetable oils have equivalent energy density, cetane number, heat of vaporization and stoichiometric air–fuel ratio with that of the diesel fuel. None other than Rudolph Diesel, the forefather of diesel engine, validated the first use of vegetable oil in compression ignition engine. He works on the peanut oil as fuel for his experimental engine. During the World War II, efforts were made to use vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines. Viscosity of vegetable oils is more than a few times higher than that of diesel. Viscosity of liquid fuels disturbs the flow properties of the fuel, such as spray atomization, resultant vaporization, and air–fuel mixing in the combustion chamber. Higher viscosity of oils had an adversative effect on the combustion in the present diesel engines.
decrease in emission (g/kwh) with increased engine load. Within the range of tests carried out, the NOx emissions from the biodiesel and its blends proved to be higher than those of petro-diesel fuel. Furthermore; in this study, a correlation was found relating the NOx emissions and the flame temperature. The efficiency of the system is improved with increased biodiesel content in the fuel. As predicted, the results for CHP show a considerable improvement to the overall efficiency.
Hydrocarbon emissions depend on combustion efficiency of the engine. Some fuel particles may condense on the surface of soot. Diesel engines have higher HC emissions. However, it can be observed that, hydrocarbon emissions reduce with increasing load. The study shows minimum hydrocarbon emissions at 100% load and compression ratio of 17.5. Also for all other loading conditions, biodiesel blend show decrement in HC emissions. Graph below shows HC emissions at 100% load and compression ratio of 17.5.
Many alternative fuels have difficulty gaining acceptance because they do not provide similar performance to their petroleum counterparts. Pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with petroleum diesel fuel provide very similar horsepower, torque, and fuel mileage compared to petroleum diesel fuel. In its pure form, typical biodiesel will have energy content 5%-10% lower than typical petroleum diesel. However it should be noted that petroleum diesel fuel energy content can vary as much as 15% from one supplier to the next.
Promising results have been obtained for util- itarian bi-fuel (with initiating dose ON) diesel en- gines fueled, especially CNG . Biogas is a re- newable alternative fuel currently used to produce electricity and heat. Using it as fuel should strive to bring these properties, which , is unfortunately complicated by the widespread use of biogas. To meet the expectations associated with the ecologi- cal and economical operation of vehicle a number of modifications of standard engine is required. These include the change of shape of the piston crown and the engine head as well as a change of the fuel supply system. Additionally, the catalyst choice and special fuel tanks are required. Both manufacturers of new engines as well as users of many older vehicles will be able to take some ad- vantage of natural gas application which in turn may lead to an increase in the number of new and adopted vehicles fuelled with this fuel.
Most of the nitrogen content present in the exhaust gases is in the form of nitric oxide. The formation of Nitric Oxide mostly depends on the oxygen content in the cylinder during the power stroke and the temperature. The reason why the formation of Nitric Oxide increases for blends higher than B20 might be because the time required for the combustion of fuel is more due to greater viscosity and lower calorific value. This results in a delay of energy release at the end of power stroke due to which the exhaust gases will be subjected to very high temperature. At this temperature, the oxygen content in the exhaust gases reacts with oxygen to form Nitric Oxide. The increase in NO X emissions can also be attributed to the nitrogenous compounds present in the Biodiesel.
Tobacco scientifically named as Nicotiana tabacum contains oil by 35-49% of oil to weight Annual yields about 15000 tons per year and grown in many countries like India ,Turkey, South America etc. Tobacco seed oil has low toxicity, and its smell is rather strong. It is burnt in lamps throughout India, and acts as good charcoal. The high calorific value of tobacco seed oil matches diesel. Its blend with diesel, substituting for nearly about 35% of the later, and has been suggested for use without any major engine modifications and any drop in engine efficiency.
Generally, the preparation of nanocatalysts mixed fuel blends is a two step process: (a) treatment of nanoparticles, and (b) their dispersion into fuel blends. Kao et al. , at first step, made an attempt on nano-scaled (40-60nm) aqueous alumina coated with thin oxide layer due to high oxidation activity of pure aluminum (Al). In second step, the oxide coated nanocatalysts were dispersed in the diesel fuel with the aid of ultrasonicator. Studies have shown that water can react with nano-scaled ‘Al’ powder during combustion to generate hydrogen, hence increase the combustion heat of aqueous ‘Al’ fuel. Hydrogen is clearly a promising alternative to hydrocarbon fossil fuels since it has higher energy efficiencies with lower emissions . The catalytic activity of a metal-oxide catalyst Fe/Al 2 O 3 can cause water to yield
The Catalyst used in this system will prevent formation of all the dioxins and Furans (Benzene ring). All the gases from this process are treated before it is let out in atmosphere. The Flue Gas is treated through scrubbers and water/ chemical treatment for neutralization. The non-condensable gas goes through Water before it is used for Burning. Since the Plastics waste is processed about 300ºC - 350ºC and there is NO OXYGEN in the processing reactor, most of the Toxics are burnt. However, the gas can be used in dual fuel diesel-generator set for generation of electricity. The process of oil from waste plastics takes place as shown in Figure 1
ABSTRACT: Increased environmental concerns and depletion of fossil fuel resources necessitate the search for a viable alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biofuels are renewable, can supplement fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate their adverse effects on the climate resulting from global warming. However, further reduction in engine emission becomes one of major tasks in engine development. One promising approach to solve this problem is to add the oxygenated fuels in biodiesel. In this project work, an attempt has been made to comparative analysis of different proportions with biodiesel in a single cylinder, four stroke naturally aspirated, computerized diesel engine (5HP @ 1500rpm). The measured combustion, performance parameters are ignition delay, maximum pressure, combustion duration, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, combustion pressure, heat release, cumulative heat release rate and engine exhaust emissions of HC, CO, CO 2 , NO x , O 2 and smoke