The study investigated the Comparative Analysis of BudgetaryAllocation to Education and Gross Domestic Product Per- Capita (GDPc) in Nigerian from 1980-2015. The objective of the study was to comparatively analyze the relative impact of federal government actual budgetaryallocation to education alongside UNESCO 26% recommended budgetaryallocation to education. In respect to the above, relevant theoretical and empirical literature were reviewed. The researcher formulated the relevant objective ,research question and hypotheses to guide the study. In the course of the study, relevant data relating to the variables needed by the researcher were extracted from various document analys is such as Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Statistical Bulletin. The Classical Linear Regression Model was employed in modelling the relationship between per-capita income and the budgetaryallocation variables. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) equation technique was used in analyzing the data. The unit root analysis revealed that all the variables were not stationary at levels. But at first difference, all the variables became stationary. The Johansen cointegration analysis revealed that the variables were cointegrated and had a valid error correction mechanism. The analysis of the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) showed that all
The study investigated the Comparative Analysis of BudgetaryAllocation to Education and Poverty in Nigerian from 1980- 2015. The objective of the study was to comparatively analyze the relative impact of federal government actual budgetaryallocation to education alongside UNESCO 26% recommended budgetaryallocation to education. In respect to the above, relevant theoretical and empirical literature were reviewed. The researcher formulated the relevant objective research question hypothesis to guide the study. In the course of the study, relevant data relating to the variables needed by the researcher were extracted from various document analysis such as Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Statistical Bulletin. The Classical Linear Regression Model was employed in modelling the relationship between poverty and the budgetaryallocation variables. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) equation technique was used in analyzing the data. The unit root analysis revealed that all the variables were not stationary at levels. But at first difference, all the variables became stationary. The Johansen cointegration analysis revealed that the variables were cointegrated and had a valid error correction mechanism. The analysis of the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) showed that the impact on poverty was wrongly signed and insignificant. On comparative analysis, the researcher observed that the UNESCO’s 26% recommended budgetaryallocation to education criteria will have more impact on poverty in the long run. It was therefore, recommended that Budgetaryallocation to the educational sector in Nigeria should be implemented based on the UNESCO 26% recommended principle. Greater percentage of the budgetaryallocation to education should be spent on capital project in the education sector. This is because such expenditure will impact positively on the educational sector and in turn have a multiplier effect on the general performance of the economy at the long run.
Increase in budgetaryallocation to education, especially, the use of the UNESCO recommended budgetaryallocation to education will accelerate the pace of economic growth in Nigeria economy. The impact coefficient of the UNESCO 26% recommended budgetaryallocation was always higher than the impact coefficient of the government recurrent and capital expenditure on education. The impact of the UNESCO 26% recommended budgetaryallocation on income per capita is small but positive if Nigerian government will take the issue of education seriously and acknowledge the fact that development and economic growth issues have gone beyond mere acquisition of capital to the issues of human development and technology, and put appropriate infrastructure in place, especially, education infrastructure, Nigerian economy will experience quantum leap in increase in the level of per capita income.
The study investigated the Comparative Analysis of BudgetaryAllocation to Education and Poverty in Nigerian from 1980-2015. The objective of the study was to comparatively analyze the relative impact of federal government actual budgetaryallocation to education alongside UNESCO 26% recommended budgetaryallocation to education. In respect to the above, relevant theoretical and empirical literature were reviewed. The researcher formulated the relevant objective research question hypothesis to guide the study. In the course of the study, relevant data relating to the variables needed by the researcher were extracted from various document analysis such as Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Statistical Bulletin. The Classical Linear Regression Model was employed in modelling the relationship between poverty and the budgetaryallocation variables. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) equation technique was used in analyzing the data. The unit root analysis revealed that all the variables were not stationary at levels. But at first difference, all the variables became stationary. The Johansen cointegration analysis revealed that the variables were cointegrated and had a valid error correction mechanism. The analysis of the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) showed that the impact on poverty was wrongly signed and insignificant. On comparative analysis, the researcher observed that the UNESCO’s 26% recommended budgetaryallocation to education criteria will have more impact on poverty in the long run. It was therefore,
In this paper we discuss the application of Goal Programming in Budgetaryallocation of Institutions of advanced education using Indu Group of Colleges,Vadodara as a case study. This paper shall effect positively to the reading commuity in that, it will inform the commonalities that with the use of Goal programming problems, the aims of an organization can be achieved financially and otherwise. Data on the budget estimates of Indu Group of Colleges,Vadodara were collected from Indu Group of Colleges,Vadodara of Account Department between 2011 and 2014. Five goals in the budget estimates of the Colleges namely; Personal cost, Overhead cost ,Capital expenditure, Revenue (internally generated) and the Total budget were considered for the study in order of precedence (priorities). The data collected were used to formulate a goal programming problem and the formulated problem was solved by using Simplex method (using TORA software). Based on the solution obtained, it was discovered that the optimum value of Z (Z = 0.83) satisfied goal 1(the personal cost goal), goal 3 (capital expenditure goal) and goal 5 (the total budget goal), but failed to stisfy goal 2 and goal 4, which are Overhead cost and Revenue goals respectively. From the findings, it was concluded that the Indu Group of Colleges should come within 0.83 Crore Rs. to satisfy goal 2 and goal 4, which are Overhead cost Rs.0.83 Crore in 2014 and should be reviewed upward annually, which should be properly and timely monitored by active Governmet budget monitoring team.
Funding of the health care sector in Nigeria is faced with enormous challenges that must be overcome if quality and effective health care service is to be made available to the people. While health care research has focused largely on the provision, access, and quality of the facilities, this study investigated the mechanism of public health care financing in Ondo State, Nigeria. The data used for the study were from both primary and secondary sources. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select and elicit information from the respondents. The 18 local government areas (LGAs) in Ondo state were segregated into three senatorial districts; three LGAs were randomly selected from each senatorial district. With the aid of an interview guide, in-depth interview were held with the chairmen of the three LGAs. Information sought included the various sources of finance and health care financial challenges. Descriptive statistics as well as trend analysis were used for data analysis. The major challenges of health care financing were inadequate funding by government, high out-of pocket-payment, inadequate implementation of health care financing policy and corruption. This study concluded that health care financing was inadequate in the study area and recommended an increase in government budgetaryallocation
The present study is based on time series secondary data ranging from 1988 to 2010. The data on Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) allocation to sports sector in Pakistan has been obtained from official documents of the Ministry of sports, Islamabad. For the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model has been applied. The ARIMA model combines two specification i.e the autoregressive process and moving average process. The following form of the ARIMA model was used: Yt = bo + γ 1 Yt-1 + γ 2 Yt-2 +……….+ γ p Yt-p + ε t + η 1 ε t-1 + + η 2 ε t- 2 +………….++ η q ε t-q (1)
Abstract: The need to determine the factors that promote investment decisions in agriculture both on the part of the government and the citizenry in order to put the economy on the part of sustainable growth and development prompted this study. The broad objective of the study is to analyze the effectiveness of government annual budgetaryallocation to agriculture and the role of monetary policy instruments in the growth of agricultural GDP. Data were sourced from the CBN statistical bulletin (various issues), and the National Bureau of Statistics. The data covers 1980-2012 and the method of analysis used is the OLS using E-view. The result of the analysis showed that Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund, previous year GDPand Consumer Price Index contribute positively to the growth of agricultural GDP, other variables of interest like the interest rate, exchange rate, and government expenditure on agriculture contributed negatively to agricultural GDP growth. The study therefore recommended that government should increase her spending to agricultural sector, monitor the fund allocated, and provide the necessary infrastructural facilities like good road network, electricity health and water for the rural populace. The study concluded by recommending that the CBN should encourage the investor to invest in agriculture by bringing the interest rate down to single digit in order to facilitate investment in agriculture and promote consistent growth of agricultural GDP.
After the completion of the pairwise comparison, AHP goes on with the calculation of normalized grades (weights), using an iterative mathematical procedure that will not be described here (see Haas & Meixner for a light, but clear illustration). The normalization of the grades ensures that their sum will equal 1, and thus, the transition from grades to budgetaryallocation is straightforward. The uniqueness of AHP is that it enables to check the existence of the rule of transitivity and to correct the choices if inconsistency is found.
Results in Table 2 show the outline of mean and standard deviation on how budgetaryallocation impacts university management in Rivers State. The outcomes on how budgetaryallocation impacts university management in Rivers State demonstrate that the items means for this subscale ran from 3.30 (SD = 0.75) to 3.68 (SD = 0.50). The most noteworthy scored thing in this subscale was item 6 ‘It affects teaching and research' (Mean = 3.68; SD = 0.50). This infers 'this means fund has a great impact in teaching and research which is a vital factor in the management of Universities. The most minimal scored item was 'inadequate funding does not really affect my studies' (Mean = 3.30; SD = 0.75). This suggests 'there is still need for adequate funding in the organization which prompts effective management ' and this was minimal elements among others. All the same every one of the items is exceptionally evaluated with their different and an acceptable mean of 3.48 (SD=0.60).
In 2018, women unemployment globally remained higher in comparison to men at the rate of 6.1 % in relation to 5.1 % for men. To reduce women unemployment, the government of Kenya introduced various policies and programmes to promote women in terms of securing employment. This includes the reservation of 30% of all Government procurement opportunities for women, youth and persons with disabilities and establishment of women fund to increase access to credit to encourage startups among women. In spite of the numerous programs, women unemployment in Kenya has remained above the country’s rate of 7.4%. Several studies have examined the determinants of unemployment. However, there is scanty literature on women unemployment and none has examined the nexus between women unemployment and rural development justifying the study in Kenya. Specifcally, the study examined the gender unempolyment gap, detected unexpected change in women unemployment and established the effect of rural development on women unemployment in Kenya. Time series data spanning 23 years was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicate that the gender unemployment gap has narrowed significantly to less than 1% from 2007 in relation to years before 2007. Unidirectional causality was established running from rural development to women unemployment with a percentage increase in rural development decreasing women unemployment by 0.2% based on OLS analysis. Thus rural development is a significant determinant of women unemployment. The study recommends that the government should increase its budgetaryallocation to programs that can promote rural development such as rural electrification which will open up employment opportunities for majority of poor women living in rural areas.
Since the decentralization of power through the promulgation of the new constitution in 2010, Machakos County has been in the media since 2013 due to the „maendeleo chap chap‟ that has seen several development programs in the County implemented. Some of the projects have been criticized by the politicians from the same county for the contractors not being paid after the completion or projects not being put up to the required standards. According to Citizen TV (2016), the governor said that the projects were not magically initiated. He added that the government followed a detailed channel in evaluating the projects to examine if they met the set County standards. This study will therefore seek to find out if factors such as technical expertise, stakeholders‟ participation, budgetaryallocation and technology adoption have any bearing on the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation of these projects.
From the foregoing discussion, the study pinpointed the core challenges constraining effective employees‟ training in Eldoret Municipal Council. These major challenges, based on the research findings included the lack of staff training policy In EMC, Inadequate budgetaryallocation to employees training, Loopholes in selecting Trainees and undefined time for Training, and Insignificant support to training by the EMC. Such challenges often negatively affect efficiency in service provision in any organization. Therefore, in addition to the recommendations made by the authors in this research, it is of paramount importance that EMC find the solutions if it is to remain relevant in service provision to the residents of Eldoret town. The municipal council in conjunction with the ministry of local government should engage in a regularized formal need assessment of the employees in order to identify every employee need in terms of skills and knowledge. Departmental assessment of employees should be regularized in order to clearly understand the strength and weakness of every department and be able to address the gaps in time. This will be realized if a training policy guiding all local authorities is formulated and put in place in all local authorities. Adequate funds should be allocated by the municipal council and the ministry of local government for facilitating training programmes. The municipal council should increase their current financial allocation for training in order to build the quality of its human resource. There is also the need to have a formal structure clearly outlining the criteria in which the trainees are identified and selected for training. This will eliminate biased selection of trainees based on tribalism, „sex for training‟, bribery and „godfatherism‟. The human resource department under the Town Clerk should recognize the actual benefits of staff training and hence accord it the right priority it deserves.
Sustained and equitable economic growth is a major objective of government expenditure policy and as such, it is obligatory of any government to allocate public spending across different sectors of the economy. Unfortunately, over the years Nigeria has been faced with the problem of translating rising government expenditure to meaningful economic growth. This research examined the impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1981–2016. Specifically the impact of government recurrent and capital expenditures were tested using two separate models. The stationarity of the variables were tested to determine the stochastic properties of the series.Also, the co-integration result indicates that the two models each have one co integrating equation. An ordinary least square technique with error correction specifications was used to analyze the data. The result for the model 1indicates that the coefficients of social and economic services were negative while administration was positive and significant.The result for the model 2 indicates that coefficients of administration and social services were negative and insignificant while economic services was positive but insignificant.The study therefore concluded that government expenditure has not translated into meaningful economic growth. On the basis of the above, the paper went on to recommend that government should increase her budgetaryallocation to capital projects and ensure effective utilization of such funds. Also, it should increase social services capital expenditure allocation bearing in mind its multiplier effects on long-run economic growth. Keywords: Recurrent, Capital, Expenditure, Economic growth.
educational system should be made to undergo training and re-training programmes for improved instructional delivery in the classrooms. The public- private partnership should be encouraged to improve better funding of the nation’s educational system, while the budgetaryallocation by the government to the education sector should also be increased. The educational systems of other countries like Ghana, United States of America, United Kingdom and South Africa could be understudied for comparative analysis and adaptation of methods and principles that best suit Nigerian situation. The curriculum planners in the Federal Ministry of Education could be charged with this responsibility. These experts in the field of curriculum planning should closely understudy the school curricula at all levels in these various countries and study the pattern of funding their educational systems. These countries have been selected because of the urgent drive of affluent parents in Nigeria to send their children/wards to study in some of these countries, not minding the financial cost that this could place on them.
Table 1 shows the yearly budgetaryallocation of nationally funded government hospitals in Cebu (supply parameter) for the past five years (20072011). As expected, Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center (VSMMC), compared to other nationally funded hospitals in Cebu, receives the greatest portion of the budget allocated for the operations of the hospitals in Cebu being a tertiary hospital. As a tertiary hospital, VSMMC is known to be fully departmentalized and equipped with the service capabilities needed to support certified medical specialists and other licensed physicians rendering services in the field of Medicine, Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Surgery, with their subspecialties and ancillary services (Health Care Delivery Modernization Act of 2004). In addition to this detail, VSMMC is also a Regional hospital, which means, that it caters not only to people with illnesses and diseases in Cebu City, but also to those living on nearby cities and provinces. These facts require the institution to have more funding compared to the other nationally funded hospitals in Cebu, which are Secondary hospitals.
Physical infrastructure has a direct impact on the growth and overalldevelopment of an economy. The goals of inclusive growth and 9 percent growth in GDP can be achieved only if India's infrastructure deficit is overcome. Infrastructure development will also help create a better investment climate in India. To develop infrastructure in the country, the government is expected to review issues of budgetaryallocation, tariff policy, fiscal incentives, private sector participation, and public-private partnerships (PPPs).However, the resources needed are much larger than what the public sector can provide. So private sector is encouraged to participate.
This study seeks to establish how increase in budgetaryallocation could achieve the economic objective of improved literacy rate, poverty reduction and economic growth in Nigeria. The research also seeks to evaluate the relationship between total government expenditure and per capita GDP. The study is intended to be useful as a guide to policy makers in implementation of public sector reform. It will also provide useful insight for academic administrators on the dynamism of education and the role it plays towards achieving the objectives of any economic reform process.
The picture of budgetary developments in the euro area in 2000 is mixed. On the one hand, the budget deficit con- tinued to shrink, the one-off budgetary receipts from the sale UMTS licences were used to reduce debt and the tax burden started to come down in most countries. On the other hand, the underlying budgetary positions showed no improvement; in some countries the fiscal effort fell short of what was planned in the stability and convergence programmes and highly-needed expenditure reforms were largely postponed. This leaves a number of euro-area countries, and especially the largest ones, vulnerable in the face of the current slowdown. On the basis of the Commission spring forecasts, budget balances in the euro area, both in actual and cyclically- adjusted terms, are set to deteriorate slightly in 2001. This is due to a sizeable reduction in the tax burden which is only partly being compensated by expenditure consol- idation. The risks, however, are on the downside as coun- tries experience the consequences of slower growth. Moreover, slippages from budget targets are appearing in a number of countries. In order to limit the deterioration in underlying budgetary positions, a strict implementa- tion of this years’ budget programmes is necessary. The euro area’s macroeconomic policy mix in the early years of EMU has been broadly balanced in 2000 and 2001: an overall neutral stance of the euro area’s fiscal policy has gone hand in hand with a monetary policy which has pursued its goal of price stability without impeding growth. However, even if the aggregate policy mix has been balanced, the budgetary behaviour in some Member States has been inappropriate for the monetary and cyclical conditions prevailing nationally. This par- ticularly concerns a number of euro-area members which are experiencing overheating and inflation pressures. As to the near future, maintaining a sound policy mix at the euro-area and national level is essential to limit the adverse consequences of the global slowdown. In partic-