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Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

because doxorubicin is one of the most potent antitumor agents in use for bone cancer treatment, while the gela­ tin could act, after doxorubicin release, as a scaffold for bone regeneration. The classical administration route of doxorubicin is undesirable because of severe side effects. A general way to reduce side effects is to avoid intravenous administration of antitumor agents by using drug­delivery systems. In the case of bone cancer, the use of implantable gelatin/doxorubicin could be a promising way of targeted delivery of doxorubicin to tumoral tissue. The rate of delivery could be easily controlled by the degree of cross­ linking and porosity.
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Cancer Treatment in Nepal: A Historical Background, Development of Treatment Facilities, Epidemiology and Challenges for Prevention and Control of Cancer.

Cancer Treatment in Nepal: A Historical Background, Development of Treatment Facilities, Epidemiology and Challenges for Prevention and Control of Cancer.

Medical Sciences, in Pokhara, started their radiotherapy service with a Cobalt-60 unit in September 2000. Later in 2002, a high-energy linear accelerator combined with a simulator and treatment planning system was installed. The majority of patients who visit this hospital come from all the districts of Western region and some other parts of the country. This center has been offering a good service to patients of this region, especially those who cannot go to Kathmandu or Bharatpur cancer centers for treatment. All cancer treatment centers of Nepal are working under the pressure of a high patient load. Hospital records show that more than 50 cancer patients are treated every day with radiotherapy in these cancer centers. Cancer centers are unable to treat all patients visiting these centers due to the existing hospitals lack sufficiently qualified technical man power, advanced technology and other facilities to provide a full-ranged multi-disciplinary quality treatment. This is a major problem in the health care system in Nepal. According to the records (Feb, 2012) of major hospitals, there are only 20 radiation oncologists and 8 radiation physicists available in the country. Most of them are working in Kathmandu Valley. The National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS) has adopted Bir hospital and B. P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur for a post graduate degree (M.D. in radiation oncology). Producing radiation oncologists trained within the country, is a new achievement for Nepal.
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Cancer Treatment and Bone Health

Cancer Treatment and Bone Health

The improved survival of patients with BC and PC has led to increasing awareness of survivorship issues, including the long-term consequences of cancer treatment. Current treat- ments for both BC and PC adversely afect bone health via several mechanisms, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. These potentially devastating complications may be avoided by lifestyle changes and the use of BTAs, with zoledronate and denosumab being the most comprehensively studied agents. Zoledronate has been shown to prevent the loss of BMD in women with BC who experience premature menopause, in postmenopausal women receiving an AI and in men with PC undergoing ADT. However, these improve- ments have unfortunately not been translated into a clear reduction in fracture incidence. Denosumab is licensed for the prevention of CTIBL due to its proven ability to reduce the incidence of fractures and has become the treatment of choice for patients at high risk of fracture. Recently pub- lished guidelines are available to guide the assessment and treatment of CTIBL in both PC and BC. There is a need to improve awareness of CTIBL amongst clinicians and mem- bers of the multidisciplinary team, in order to ensure that
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Immunotherapeutic approaches to ovarian cancer treatment

Immunotherapeutic approaches to ovarian cancer treatment

to immunotherapeutic approaches to ovarian cancer treatment. A crucial early step in establishing the validity of ovarian cancer immunotherapy was the observation that CD3 + tumor-infiltrating T cells correlated with in- creased overall survival [6]. Later work confirmed the importance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and specifically identified the CD3 + , CD8 + T cells as import- ant antitumor effectors [7]. The identification of tumor- associated antigens (TAAs) lent additional support to an immunotherapeutic treatment strategy. TAAs aberrantly up-regulate in tumor tissue and ascites of ovarian cancer patients and include members of the cancer-testis antigen family (e.g. MAGE-A4 and NY-ESO-1), growth-activating receptors (e.g. HER2/neu), folate receptor alpha (FRα), p53, and CA125 [8-10]. These markers are potential therapeutic targets for eliciting an immune response specific to ovarian cancer and effecting immune-mediated tumor rejection. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved immunotherapies for prostate cancer, advanced kidney cancer, lymphoma, and metastatic melanoma, but only recently have immunotherapies tar- geting ovarian cancer entered clinical testing (Table 1). In this review, we discuss advances in immunotherapeutic approaches to ovarian cancer. We divide therapeutic strat- egies into four categories: antibodies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT).
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A STUDY ON IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CANCER TREATMENT

A STUDY ON IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CANCER TREATMENT

The immune system has huge potential in cancer treatment as it is individualized; exactness driven and powerful, notwithstanding, it is related with difficulties of its own that incorporate immune avoidance, development of resistance and a sustained tumor dismissal reaction. Late FDA endorsement of a few checkpoint inhibitors, hostile to CTLA4, against PD-1, has re-strengthened cancer immunology by exhibiting that resilience to cancer can be broken to actuate a supported immune reaction in patients. Dynamic vaccination with multivalent tumor related antigens (TAA), notwithstanding, is as yet a test. In prostate cancer, we have created specific multivalent peptide mimetics utilizing phage show manufactured peptide libraries fit for metastatic tumor relapse in a creature display. In melanoma, we have utilized a vaccinia virus based antigen recovery technology to produce a multivalent antigenic vaccine. The antigenic repertoire is very much characterized. A convention for the melanoma vaccine is FDA affirmed for clinical trials. We imagine characterizing the humoral and cellular immune reaction to consolidate our dynamic vaccine methodology with other treatment modalities including affirmed checkpoint inhibitors hostile to CTLA4 and against PD-1.
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Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast Cancer Treatment

Oversees programs in every county and borough in NYS that: offer breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic testing for eligible, uninsured and underinsured New Yorkers and assistance enrolling in the Medicaid Cancer Treatment Program providing coverage for eligible people diagnosed with breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancer. Callers to the phone line and website visitors can also access community-based programs funded by the NYS DOH that provide support, education, and counseling for breast cancer survivors and long- and short-term supportive services for legal, financial and medical access issues as well as contact information for genetic counselors. Website: www.health.ny.gov/nysdoh/cancer/ center/partnerships/
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COLORECTAL CANCER. Treatment Options for Colorectal Cancer: A Guide for Patients

COLORECTAL CANCER. Treatment Options for Colorectal Cancer: A Guide for Patients

Erbitux works by targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cancer cell. EGF receptors help cancer cells grow and survive by transmitting signals to these cells. Erbitux sticks to these receptors, which cuts off this signal transmission to cancer cells and causes these cells to die. There are several situations where Erbitux may benefi t some people more than others. For example, Erbitux will only work in people who have EGF receptor molecules on the outside of their cancer cells (EGFR- positive) (note: sometimes given with EGFR-negative). Also, people who had been treated with irinotecan chemotherapy and whose cancer stopped responding to this drug can benefi t from Erbitux when taken together with irinotecan or by itself.
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Personalized Hepatobiliary Cancer Treatment

Personalized Hepatobiliary Cancer Treatment

Prognostic models are frequently used in order to determine prognosis and predict adverse outcomes in malignant HPB surgery.18,20-27 Because of the vast differ- ence in characteristics among individual patients diagnosed with ICC, different approaches in adjuvant therapy, follow-up, and further surgical treatment can be tailored to individual patients with the help of these models.12,28-30 In this study, we examined the ability of established nomograms and staging systems to predict OS and DFS in one of the largest Western cohorts of ICC to date. We quantified the predictive ability of each nomogram using Harrell’s concordance index. Although the included prognostic models varied considerably, some vari- ables were included in multiple models. Notably, vascular invasion, lymph node metastases, and number of lesions were included in all prognostic models. These risk factors had significant prognostic value in our cohort as well. After evaluat- ing model performance, we noted that no single model reached the threshold for good discrimination (i.e. a c-index of 0.7) for both OS and DFS. The most often used AJCC TNM staging system performed reasonable compare with the other prognostic models (OS c-index: 0.637, DFS c-index: 0.582). In line with previous studies,10,18 the nomogram by Wang and colleagues performed the best in predicting OS (c-index 0.668) and DFS (c-index 0.607).
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Repurposing screen identifies mebendazole as a clinical candidate to synergise with docetaxel for prostate cancer treatment

cancer treatment

Repurposing screen identifies mebendazole as a clinical candidate to synergise with docetaxel for prostate cancer treatment cancer treatment

The use of docetaxel in a screen was technically challenging as it has a largely ‘ all or nothing ’ effect on cells, resulting in a steep dose curve. It was dif fi cult to accurately achieve an EC30 for docetaxel in the screen; we observed a lower-than-desired percentage inhibition in the SP1 cells, likely the main reason for fewer hits in these cells. Nonetheless, the screen revealed a number of interesting drugs that could potentially work in combination with docetaxel. The drug family that showed the greatest synergy with docetaxel was the anthelmintic family. Mebendazole has been studied in isolation in several cancer types (adrenocortical carcinoma, melanoma, HNSCC and colon, 29 – 32 including an ongoing Phase I study in paediatric brain tumours, NCT02644291). As an anti-parasitic drug, the dosage of mebenda- zole varies according to speci fi c infections. Pinworms only require a single treatment, while treatment for echinococcosis may require a prolonged course. Side effects can include abdominal pain and diarrhoea. In general, mebendazole is very well tolerated, making it an excellent candidate for repurposing. 33 Based on the combination index analysis, mebendazole convincingly synergised docetaxel-mediated growth inhibition in vitro, with greatest synergism observed at low concentrations, suggesting an appeal- ing therapeutic window. Our data were in keeping with previous studies examining taxanes combined with vinca alkaloids (agents that disrupt microtubule function by inhibiting depolymerisation), which also demonstrated synergism at low doses, and additive or antagonistic effects at higher doses. 34,35 Mechanistically, com- bined docetaxel and mebendazole reduced microtubule assembly and drastically impaired microtubule dynamics, resulting in aberrant cell division with frequent formation of multipolar spindles, aneuploid daughter cells or arrest in prometaphase.
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Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast Cancer Treatment

To reach cancer cells that may have spread beyond the breast and nearby tissues, doctors use drugs that can be given as pills or by injection. This type of treatment is called systemic treatment. Examples of systemic treatment include chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Systemic treatment given to patients after surgery is called adjuvant therapy. The goal of adjuvant treatment is to kill undetected cells that have traveled from the breast. Even in the early stages of the disease, cancer cells can break away from the primary breast tumor and spread through the bloodstream. These cells usually don’t cause symptoms that can be felt, they don’t show up on an x-ray, and they can’t be felt during a physical examination. But if they are allowed to grow, they can establish new tumors in other places in the body.
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Palliative Care and Cancer Treatment

Palliative Care and Cancer Treatment

The name “Safe Conduct” comes from Avery Weisman’s book, Coping with Cancer, in which he defines safe conduct as “the dimension of care that guides a patient through a maze of uncertain, perplexing and distressing events.” Project Safe Conduct created a team to provide that guidance. The Safe Conduct Team (SCT) was composed of a social worker, an advanced practice nurse and a spiritual counselor from the Hospice of the Western Reserve (HWR), a large community-based hospice. A psychologist and a pain specialist from ICC served as consultants. A distinguishing characteristic of the program was the extent to which the external hospice team was fully integrated into the cancer center, even wearing badges identifying them as ICC staff. The team worked collaboratively with the medical staff at ICC as an interdisci- plinary group, providing comprehensive services to patients enrolled in Project Safe Conduct.
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Cancer Treatment Reviews

Cancer Treatment Reviews

relevant in vitro and in vivo models suggested that its risk-benefit profile should be reconsidered and its potential as a therapeutic agent in other haematological malignancies should be explored. Myeloma was an obvious candidate, given the lack of curative treatment, its complex pathogenesis and the large number of path- ways that can be efficiently targeted by the molecular mechanisms of ATO. 1–3 Thereby it has been shown that ATO affects both the extrinsic receptor-mediated pathway and the intrinsic mitochon- dria associated pathway of apoptosis in myeloma cell lines. This mechanism of action would be an attractive tool to overcome the well known resistance of myeloma cells to a multitude of agents. After promising preclinical trials, ATO has been used in clinical tri- als since 1998 in patients with multiple myeloma. 4
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Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

In this study we analysed the impact of the interval between the last fraction of short course radiotherapy and surgery on one year survival and long term recurrence, both in the TME-trial and in a verification set. Results from the TME-trial showed that elderly patients with a pro- longed interval (4-7 days) between the end of radiotherapy and surgery had higher one year overall and non-cancer related mortality. In the verification set this could not be confirmed. Although the results of the TME cohort derived from a randomised controlled trial, we have to interpret these results with caution, since these analyses have not been evaluated in a randomised setting. Therefore the finding may be simply a random finding. Another possible explanation for the results found may be that surgery was postponed in patients with a poor condition, after consultation by the anaesthetist, which would result in bias. Elderly patients are expected to have a poor condition more often, which would explain that the results were only found in patients ≥75 years. Because most patients were seen by the anaesthetist during admission prior to surgery, postponement of surgery by the anaesthetist should then result in a longer interval between admission and surgery for the longer interval group. However, no difference was found, with a similar median time between admission and surgery in both interval groups (2 days). Furthermore, no differences were found in age, gender, stage (see table 2a), WHO performance scores (data not shown), and toxicity (data not shown) between the two interval groups. Even though, comorbidities were not administered during the TME trial, and might explain differences between both interval groups.
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Targeted Systems in Cancer Treatment

Targeted Systems in Cancer Treatment

Torisel (Temsirolimus, Wyeth Research) - is a low molecular inhibitor targeting mTOR, that was accepted for the treatment of progressing renal cell cancer (RCC) [24, 14]. During phase III of clinical trials administration of Torisel led to an increase in average survival rate (from 10.9 months to 7.3 months) comparing to patients taking interferon-alpha-2a (Roferon-A, Roche) [4, 7]. For patients taking both medications, the average survival rate decreased from 10.9 to 8.4 months. The reasons for this observed decrease in survival remain unresolved. Torisel side effects are similar to other cancer treatments, such as skin rashes, nausea, fatigue, and fluid retention. Certican (everolimus, Novartis), a drug similar to Torisel, was first used in conjunction with organ transplantation (heart and kidney) to suppress the immune system and prevent rejection of the transplanted organ [11, 18]. Since these early studies, Certican has been shown to be another potent inhibitor of renal cell carcinoma progression. Indeed, everolimus (Afinitor; oral pills) has only recently received approval for the treatment of patients with RCC with no cancer response after treatment with alternative therapy. Monoclonal Antibodies
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Prostate Cancer Treatment Comparison

Prostate Cancer Treatment Comparison

Long-term survival in men with high grade prostate cancer: a comparison between conservative treatment, radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy--a propensity scoring approach.. Rhee[r]

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CANCER REHABILITATIONS METHODS FOR TREATMENT

CANCER REHABILITATIONS METHODS FOR TREATMENT

of help and whitewashing. Obviously, significantly more should be possible by the occupational advisor as an individual from the treatment group in the avoidance and reclamation stages. Occupational therapists, with their mastery in typical and strange kid improvement and in play advancement and adjustment, have much to add to the essential zone of play estimation as a personal satisfaction measure. In grown-up oncology, the occupational specialist can likewise help not just in the improvement of personal satisfaction of patients yet additionally in the estimation of personal satisfaction [8]. Such estimation is imperative in deciding the viability of cancer treatment.' Occupational therapy aptitude in day by day living abilities and occupational conduct fits personal satisfaction estimation techniques. In the more extensive region of aversion of cancer, the occupational advisor may aid programs intended to adjust certain way of life factors, for instance, in showing individuals more successful methods for adapting to the weights of present day living.
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Breast Cancer and Herbal Treatment

Breast Cancer and Herbal Treatment

Worldwide breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in females. Which occurs most- ly at the age of 40-75 yrs in females. All around the world breast cancer accounts for 16% of all female cancers and 22.9% of invasive cancers in women and 18.2% of all cancer deaths in- cluding both males and females [1]. Breast can- cer mainly occurs due to starts off in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules which supply them with milk [2].2-3% risk of breast cancer has been increased annually in developed countries over the last several decade .It is the most se- rious health problem for women in developed and developing country. Herbal medicine most widely used for centuries to treat many diseas- es like hypertension,diabetes,depression,anx- iety,cough,asthma,menstrual disorder,bowel syndrome,eczema,skin problem,feveretc. Herb- al medicine cured the diseases as a natural way without producing any side effects .Most of the people used herbal medicine to treat different types of cancer. Some studies have shown that as many as 6 out of every 10 people with can- cer (60%) use herbal remedies alongside con- ventional cancer treatments..Herbal medicine is the choice of treatment for cancer used by the people because of its no or less side effect, eas- ily available and economically affordable as compared to allopathic treatment. Anticancer chemotherapeutic agent produce number of side effect, as 50% of weakness is due to can- cer and 50% of weakness is due to chemothera- peutic agent hence herbal treatment is choice of cancer treatment which is life survivor. Breast cancer continues to be a major public health problem in developed as well as developing countries and continues to be the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, with approximately 375,000 deaths in the year 2000[3]. Herbal treatment improving quality of life, supporting to conventional cancer treatment, preventing recurrence of cancer and eventually to prolong survival amongst the breast cancer patients.
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London Cancer Systemic Treatment for Breast Cancer

London Cancer Systemic Treatment for Breast Cancer

aromatase inhibitors are associated with significant bone loss related to further oestrogen deprivation, and an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture rate compared with either tamoxifen or placebo. Currently no therapies are approved specifically for preventing cancer treatment induced bone loss in patients receiving adjuvant therapy for breast cancer.

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Cancer in pregnancy: disentangling treatment modalities

Cancer in pregnancy: disentangling treatment modalities

Management of pregnant patients with cervical cancer differs from the standard treatment of patients with cer- vical cancer outside the pregnancy setting, due to the fact that radical surgery and pelvic radiation, the main- stay of cervical cancer treatment, would cause fetal death and pregnancy termination. Of note, this differ- ence may have an impact on the survival data of preg- nant patients. For pregnant patients with early-stage cervical cancer who want to preserve the pregnancy, therapy may be delayed until after delivery; of note, close monitoring in these cases is of great import- ance. 1 8 50 For pregnant patients with stage IB1, IB2 or IIA, lymphadenectomy is the mainstay of treatment; lym- phadenectomy can safely be performed during preg- nancy, despite a slightly increased risk of bleeding and other complications. 1 50 Notably, radical surgery can be performed concurrently with the caesarean section. 50
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Breast cancer: diagnosis and treatment

Breast cancer: diagnosis and treatment

The information available on breast cancer treatment in the UK is more open to interpretation than the preceding epidemiological data. It falls broadly into three types; data recorded to monitor activity, specially collected audit data and published research. The activity data is particularly useful to provide an estimate of the impact of breast cancer on healthcare services and can provide some indication of variation across the country. Activity data cannot currently allow us to assess the number of individuals receiving treatment or reveal patients’ journeys through the healthcare system. This may be possible in the future when it is linked to the robust registry data. This will allow the relation of the date of diagnosis, and the registry diagnosis itself, to admissions and procedure data. There is currently no way of examining treatment by stage of disease and the indication for treatment is not recorded, so we cannot say which interventions are intended as treatments and which as palliation.
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