in Chinese context to recognizing the practical value and symbolic value that gives qualified learners the access to specific resources in the Canadian context. Moreover, the opportunities and constraints produced by linguistic investment on the construction of identities reflect the nature of language learning as social practice, rather than only cognitive development. Therefore, the intersection of linguistic investment/disinvestment and acceptance/resistance of social identities, like workplace identity and English for workplace, ethnic identity and legitimate speakers, indicates that integration is an unsettling personalized process full of struggle but can be mobilized to carve out uneven integration into different communities. The finding is in line with the existing scholarship on the identity function of ESL learning (Clark, 2009; Norton, 1997, 2000). What I want to emphasize is that to be recognized as a legitimate member in a given community, like academic or professional community, an individual submits his resources, like personal histories, career aspirations and personality to a constant negotiation with the changing social context. During the process, social interaction patterns and ESL learning trajectories interrelate with each other, shaping and transforming the learner's linguistic investment in a given community in a host society. The identity function of language is also embedded in the intersection of first language and second language, i.e., the value of bilingualism (Chinese and English). Most participants self- identified as Chinese Canadian which is related to their acknowledging the primary benefit of English and additional value of Chinese in public sphere and vice versa in private field.
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As Malaysians move towards globalization and become increasingly international, the need becomes greater for our children to learn more than one language, in addition to their mother tongue. A bilingual speaker is a person who uses two languages that differ in speech, sounds, vocabulary and syntax. The bilingual’s native language is referred to as the first language (L1) and the non-native language is the second language (L2). In Malaysia, the national language is Bahasa Malaysia. However, the different ethnic races have their own first language (L1). For example, to the Chinese, their first language or language used at home could be Mandarin or one of the many Chinese dialects and to the Indians, their home language could be Tamil, Urdu or one of the dialects. The language in Chinese schools and Tamil schools are Mandarin and Tamil respectively.
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For vocabulary testing, researchers have made a lot of efforts in generating vocabulary questions for ESL (English as a second language) learn- ers (Mitkov and An Ha, 2003; Singh Bhatia et al., 2013; Correia et al., 2010; Takuya et al., 2010). It is well known that lexical knowledge vary a lot among different languages. For example, Chinese is a typical analytic language that lacks inflection. It mainly uses function words and word order to express grammatical information.
The foreign learners are not easy to learn Chinese as a second language. Because there are many special rules different from other languages in Chinese. When the people learn Chinese as a foreign language usually make some grammatical errors, such as missing, re- dundant, selection and disorder. In this paper, we proposed the conditional random fields (CRFs) to detect the grammatical errors. The features based on statistical word and part-of- speech (POS) pattern were adopted here. The relationships between words by part-of-speech are helpful for Chinese grammatical error de- tection. Finally, we according to CRF deter- mined which error types in sentences. Accord- ing to the observation of experimental results, the performance of the proposed model is ac- ceptable in precision and recall rates.
Existing resources of collocational knowledge mainly fall into two types, i.e. collocation dictionary and collocation bank. Manually compiled dictionaries may have problems in coverage and consistency, and it is quite difficult to add new entries or collocations (Smadja, 1993). Besides, a list of typical col- locations without contexts is not sufficient to support language learning. Xu et al. (2009) built Chinese Collocation Bank (CCB) with true collocations annotated in a large-scale news corpus. It is a valuable resource for collocation related research and NLP tasks, but might not be appropriate for language ac- quisition for two reasons. Firstly, collocations are domain dependent (Smadja, 1993). CCB annotated collocations from the People's Daily corpus (Yu et al., 2000), which consists of news articles of Peo- ple's Daily, an official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party. Frequent collocations in this cor- pus are mostly used in formal texts, and highly related to politics and economy. They might not be suitable to second language learning. Secondly, CCB defined collocations as content word combina- tions and did not deal with function words that are one of the most difficult parts for L2 learners.
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The demand for a moderate learning pace integrated with recurrent learning cycles as well as practicable learning content. Four interview participants expressed the eager wish to study life-related information, which they could apply in authentic contexts. Several mentioned in the interview that they expected to obtain more knowledge about medications from ESL classrooms. They failed to remember content that is distant from their daily lives in that they were not able to use it. The demand for a moderate learning pace, which was characterized by a cyclical presentation of key language, was popular in the interviewees’ responses. Participant 9 maintained that she was comfortable with the moderate learning pace, which was not as intensive as classes for younger people: “As for senior ESL learning, I hope the learning pace is not that fast. Besides, I want to have my learning consolidated with authentic sentence examples. If I recite the example, I would probably speak it out next time.” Participant 2 suggested that this program should offer differentiated classes according to students’ linguistic levels and maintained that associating beginner with advanced learners in the same classroom was not an effective way:
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The evidence reviewed above supports the view that word awareness only develops with literacy in a word-spaced writing system. But does this also apply to L2 users? There is evidence that bilingualism facilitates the development of some aspects of language awareness (Cook, 1997). Are L2 users aware of words in the absence of literacy? The answer seems to be negative: bilingual prereaders are not better than monolin- guals at counting words in a text (Ricciardelli, 1992) or at word segmenta- tion and word judgement tasks (Nicoladis and Genesee, 1996); word counting in bilingual children is positively affected only by their literacy, not by their bilingualism (Edwards and Christophersen, 1988). For instance, although preliterate American children performed better than Chinese-English bilingual children in English word segmentation, a group of Chinese-English bilingual children learning to read English in the first year of primary school outperformed the American native speaker children who could not read (Hsia, 1992). Word awareness acquired through exposure to a writing system can be used to analyse another language: French-English bilingual children who are literate only in French can segment English texts in words as well as literate English children (and even perform better in the segmentation of bimor- phemic compound words such as ‘snowman’) (Bialystok, 1986). It is clear that the ability to segment a text into words, or to decide whether some- thing is a word, only develops with literacy in a word-spaced writing system; but once word awareness is acquired via one writing system, it can be used to analyse another language even in the absence of literacy in that language, and then bilinguals can even enjoy an advantage over literate monolinguals.
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People who have aural or auditory learning style like to work with sound and music. They have a good sense of pitch and rhythm. They typically like to sing and can identify sounds well. They learn best when information is presented auditory in an oral language format. They prefer listening to lectures than reading or looking at drawings. They like participating in group discussions or obtaining information from audio tapes. They often talk to themselves or read aloud when studying to aid recall. 23 percent (27) were aural learners. Most traditional classrooms are teacher centred and lecture based. Many schools still rely on classroom and book-based teaching, much pressured exams and reinforcement and review. However, only a small percentage of learners are aural. Students who are aural would have little problems in such classrooms.
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Dewaele, Petrides, and Furnham (2008) have also linked a lower-order personality trait, trait Emotional Intelligence, to communicative anxiety (CA) in the L1, and FLA in the L2, L3 and L4 of adult multilinguals. A significant nega- tive relationship was found between levels of FLA in the different languages of the participants and their scores on trait Emotional Intelligence. The authors speculated that emotionally intelligent individuals are better able to judge the emotional state of their interlocutor, better able to regulate their emotions, more capable of withstanding pressure, and are more self-confident about their ability to communicate effectively. Levels of FLA were also found to be linked to a number of sociobiographical variables: age of onset of learning (with early starters reporting lower levels of FLA); mode of instruction of the FL (participants who had learnt a language solely through classroom instruction suffered more from FLA than those who had also used their language outside the classroom); number of languages known (the more languages known, the lower the FLA across languages, which is a pattern already reported in Dewaele, 2007). FLA was also inversely linked to frequency of use of the FL, socialization in the FL, self-perceived proficiency in the FL (Dewaele, 2010;
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Is it true that grammar used in the teaching of Chi- nese as a seconding language is the same with Chinese grammar? Of course not! We always say that experts of Chinese grammar may not be able to give a good lesson on Chinese for foreigner due to three main reasons: 1. Although study of Chinese grammar has made great progress in recent years, the achievement that can be referred to in the teaching of Chinese as a second language is far away from being sufficient. This reason can also interpret why there are many linguistic phenomena we can’t explain. 2. The study directions and study objects about the study of Chi- nese grammar and grammar used in the teaching of Chinese as a second language are totally different. The former ones mainly include method of induction which is to conclude and analyze existing linguistic data and find some rules and laws; the latter ones mainly include deductive method which is to directly teach students the rules and how to use the rules. 3. Grammar study is mainly about long-drawn and tedi- ous documents which are hard to understand and im- propriate to be used in teaching directly. Teaching grammar requires teachers to concisely summarize the rules for students to master.
information about English speaking countries, and interact with other English learners or native English speakers from all over the world. They go into chat-rooms of English web- sites such as Yahoo! or MSN, set up online Bulletin Board Service (BBS), create websites, and form their own English learning clubs that meet regularly online or offline or both. This kind of English clubs is not only a learning site, but also help to satisfy the learners’ “inner needs for social exchange and self-assertion in English (Gao, 2006).” This provides them a strong sense of community among themselves to support both collaborative and autonomous learning in their shared pursuit of language proficiency (Liu & Littlewood, 1997). As Tomlinson (2005) pointed out that the basic prin- ciples of successful language acquisition vary from culture to culture, we should probe into these learners who are in their own country that is different from those who study abroad or those who have native English speakers in their real life to practice with. The internet and forthcoming virtual worlds such as Second Life provides Chinese ESL learners a whole new modality to practice and improve their English with a focus on communication abilities.
Thirdly, bodily senses have a direct and close link with the learning of a LOTE including CSL. To learn the target language well, one has to use one’s ears to listen and mouth to speak more often. Most importantly, one has to create opportunities to learn by getting involved and using one’s hands more often. Chinese has a saying related to learning in general, which goes literally like this: “Reading something a thousand times is no better than writing it down once”. This saying puts emphasis on utilising one’s kinaesthetic sense and getting involved physically in learning. The findings of this study perhaps remind us of this simple idea again. Therefore, it is imperative for language learners to associate themselves with more learning opportunities by getting involved physically and especially by gaining more hands-on experiences in learning.
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11 shows that, as L2 readers become more proficient, their reading processes become more similar to those of native readers. It is interesting to note that one of the self-rated proficient readers even showed a negative effect of interword spacing, as in native readers. The negative correlation with reading comprehension also seems to support this interpretation, however the lack of correlation with reading speed, which is also a measure of reading proficiency, is puzzling. Future research should then look at the relationship between the interword spacing effect and objective measures of reading ability, rather than the self-reports used in this study or the vocabulary and grammar tests used in Yao (2011). Furthermore, there were very high levels of individual variation, with about half of the L2 readers showing a reading rate increase of 10-25%, and the other half showing a small increase or even a decrease. This was partly explained by reading proficiency, but future research should look into individual variables that may modulate the effects of interword spacing. Finally, the facilitative effects of interword spacing should not be generalised to all learners of written Chinese, but only to those whose L1 writing system is word spaced. Interword spacing does not universally facilitate less proficient readers: it does not facilitate either Chinese children (Bassetti & Masterson, 2012; Shen et al., 2010), or CSL readers with a non-word-spaced L1 writing system (Yao, 2011). The facilitative effect of interword spacing seems to derive from an interaction between a word-spaced L1 writing system and the CSL reader’s reading ability in relation to the difficulty of the reading materials. This interword spacing effect is then very different from the interword spacing effect found in English natives’ reading of English, where the absence of interword spacing disrupts all readers with all reading materials.
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If we look at teaching Chinese as a second language (CSL), a blooming industry/field in recent years, early pedagogical concerns in CSL tends to follow structural linguistic theories (Chao, 1968; DeFrancis, 1963, 1964, 1966) but currently there is a tendency to switch to the social and practical functions of the Chinese language and its varieties. Putonghua (Mandarin Chinese) acts as a language for business (Zhang, 2010), language for study and a language for wider communication (Li, 2007) in the Chinese speaking world. Other Chinese varie- ties, such as Cantonese, Shanghainess etc. act as languages used for daily communication in particular regions. Scholars adopting sociolinguistic views in CSL (Tao, 1996; Feng, 2006, 2010, 2011; Su & Tao, 2014) started to research on the pragmatic aspects and social functions of Putonghua (Li, 2006; Li, 2006; Zhao, 2008) and stan- dard written Chinese (Feng, 2006; Feng, Wang, & Huang, 2008). Su & Tao (2014) pointed out that the context of communication should be put in CSL curriculum and teaching materials. Feng (2010, 2011) noticed that Chi- nese has various forms of yuti (register-style), which is highly related to the situational contexts, such as status of addressers & addressees, settings where the conversations is taking place. He further suggested that yuti has its social functions and should be analyzed as part of the Chinese grammar. Employing incorrect yuti in inap- propriate settings or to inappropriate addressees, is not just an issue of embarrassment or inappropriateness, but relates to grammaticality issues (Feng, 2010).
For practical reasons, complete second language duplication of any such large information system is untenable. Rather, we have attempted to accommodate the second language (Chinese) at those points where it appears most reasonable to anticipate such needs. This extends to the provision of a 'Chinese-only' introduction screen, explaining the principles of system interaction (figure 4). A third significant use of the second language serves to annotate aspects of the English information. Such notes take two forms. In the first form, the Chinese annotation briefly summarises the main points contained in the otherwise entirely English screen (figure 5a). The second form of Chinese note attaches to specific terms or significant points in the English screen and provides a translation or elucidation that seeks to clarify and ensure comprehension of these aspects by the Chinese user (figure 5b).
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Abstract Storytelling has been described as the oldest technique in second language (L2) learning. Neuroscientists contend that our minds are literally wired to comprehend best the world through narrative. Researchers have claimed that the benefits of storytelling in teaching and studying second languages include increased development of language skills, improved comprehension and classroom interaction. L2 Chinese acquisition is a relatively new area of study with scant research. This survey research explored how storytelling was used in teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (CSL/FL) in China. Participants were 15 CSL/FL instructors and 30 adult learners enrolled at the School of Chinese Language in Shaanxi Normal University, (Xi’an, China). Participants took a teacher or student survey about their interests, the practice, benefits, and challenges of doing storytelling in the CSL/FL classroom. Results of the survey indicated that the participants were interested in storytelling because of the perceived benefits of language learning, comprehension, community building, and multi-cultural understanding. This article provides guidelines and recommends resources for using storytelling as an educational strategy in the adult CSL/FL classroom.
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second language acquisition (Crookes & Schmidt, 1991), because efforts made, desire to learn and positive attitudes toward learning contribute to a large and meaningful proportion of language learning achievement (Gardner, 2006). Originally, in this specific study regarding ESL students’ L2 learning motivation and their language identities that I pursue, I defined this L2 motivation based on the theoretical concept proposed by Gardner and Lambert (1972), which is the willingness to learn a second language due to a sincere as well as a personal interest in the culture represented by a particular group of people, because I believe this very interest can lead to a L2 learner’s persistence and desire of making as much effort as possible to achieve his/her goal. However, as more and more studies have been conducted relating to motivation, some researchers realized motivation is a more complex concept which is fluid, situational, and multiple rather than stable and unitary. Norton (2013) points out, researchers such as Crookes and Schmidt (1991), Dörnyei and Ushioda (2009) argue that notions proposed by Gardner and Lambert (1972) should be broadened and reconceptualized, because they “do not capture the complex relationship between power, identity and language learning...” (Norton, 2013, p. 50).
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The so-called Chinese diasporas, i.e. Chinese communities outside Greater China (China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan), have traditionally been dia- lect dominant; that is, the vast majority of Chinese immigrants are speakers of (especially Southern) dialects. Cantonese and Hokkien are two of the most prominent dialects. With globalization and the rise of China as a world politico-economic power, the national, standardized variety, Putonghua, is gaining particular prestige amongst the Chinese diasporas. For example, all the Cantonese schools for British Chinese children in the UK now also teach Putonghua, but none of the Putonghua schools teach Cantonese. Using eth- nographic interviews with and participant observation of Chinese people of different generations in various diasporic communities, this paper examines the changing hierarchies of varieties of Chinese, the implications of such changes for the education and identity development of the young, and the con- stitution of a (speech) community in the post-modern era. It focuses on lan- guage attitude and linguistic practices (including literacy practices). It also investigates the tensions between the competing ideologies and discourses on national and ethnic identities, nationalism, community relations and cultural values.
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Translation of literal meaning with notes refers to translators adding explanatory annotation which often use intratextual annotation and footnote after literal translation. According to Wikipedia, “Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.” In “Deeply Moved, I Send This to Someone”( 《感怀寄人》 ), the original poem “未起惠兰心” was translated as “Would not give rise to an orchid heart” by Haun Saussy and Kang-i Sun Chang. “ 惠兰心 ” was literally translated as “an orchid heart”. This literal translation is beneficial for keeping the original poems’ conciseness and the cultural image-an orchid heart, but causes difficulties for Anglophone readers to understand it as cultural filtration caused by different cultures. Haun Saussy and Kang-i Sun Chang compensated the cultural filtration by giving a note: “The orchid, by allusion to the “Li sao” of Qu Yuan (see p.37), signifies an upright and virtuous mind”. So, adding notes can solve the problem by offering cultural images’ origin, connotation and other information about them.
Finally, this work challenges prior claims that spoken language is “more complex” than other genres with regards to referentiality. On the con- trary: whereas in a spoken discourse the poten- tial addressees are by default the participants, web texts such as the reviews studied here have no such default, and may include complex, creative, and domain-specific deictic reference that can be im- portant for computational systems to address.