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A NONLINEAR STUDY ON TIME EVOLUTION IN GHARANA TRADITION OF INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC

A NONLINEAR STUDY ON TIME EVOLUTION IN GHARANA TRADITION OF INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC

The experimental part of this work was performed in two steps. In the first part, our objective was to study the similarity & changes in the singing pattern of a particular raga over generations of artists of the same gharana. In this study, the renditions of two ragas (Bageshri & Jaijawanti) containing alap & vilambit bandish (sung at a very low tempo) part sung by 4 artists of consecutive generations of a particular gharana (Patiyala) of Hindustani classical music were chosen for analysis. For each raga the chosen bandish was same for all the 4 artists. Alap is the opening section of a raga performance in typical Hindustani classical style. In the alap part the raga is introduced and the paths of its development are revealed using all the notes used in that particular raga and allowed transitions between them with proper distribution over time. Alap is usually accompanied by the tanpura drone only and sung at a slow tempo or sometimes without tempo. Then comes the vilambit bandish part where the lyrics and tala are introduced. A Bandish is a song composed keeping the structural framework of a raga intact, thus bandish provides the literature ingredient of the raga in each individual rendition for traditional structured singing. Bandish is usually performed with rhythmic accompaniment by a tabla or pakhawaj, a steady drone, and melodic accompaniment by a sarangi, harmonium etc. Vilambit is a type of bandish which is sung at a very slow tempo, or laya, of 10-40 beats per minute. The first paragraph of the song – Sthayi is followed by the second one – Antara.
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Concept of Sruti, Svara and Raga of Classical Music in Sanskrit Texts

Concept of Sruti, Svara and Raga of Classical Music in Sanskrit Texts

The seven svaras with their well-known names and vocalization symbols are: adja (Sa), abha (Ri), Gāndhāra (Ga), Madhyama (Ma), Pañcama (Pa), Dhaivata (Da), Niāda (Ni); in the increasing order of pitch. The number count of seven is likely to have continued from the oral tradition of the Sāmaveda that uses largely five but occasionally six and seven svaras in some chants. The Vedic names for the svara are not only different but also arranged in the descending order as Prathama, Dvitīya, Ttīya, Caturtha, Mandra, corresponding to Ma, Ga, Ri, Sa, Da with the infrequent krua and atisvāra equated with Ni and Pa in some places. It is noted that the starting svara in the sacred music is Ma in contrast with the laukika (worldly) music of BNS and other texts starting with Sa. A simple description of sāmagāna practice including variant traditions is available in The Ragas of Karnatik Music by Ramachandran (Ramachandran, 1938). The monograph by Prajñānānanda (1963) and a recent article by Subhadrā Desai (2014) provide some preliminary information on the relation between sāmagāna and classical music.
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Investigate the Effects of Iranian Traditional Music and Western Classical Music on Physical Performance, the Normal Profile of Mood States and Rate of Perceived Exertion

Investigate the Effects of Iranian Traditional Music and Western Classical Music on Physical Performance, the Normal Profile of Mood States and Rate of Perceived Exertion

tempo piece of symphony caused an increase in the performance. 37 So, when exercise intensity is similar, changes of music tempo may increase motivation and work efficiency. Wilson believes that there is a kind of beats making in the brain for coordinating the afferent nerve stimulus of music with a mutually distributed efferent stimulus (e.g., physical movement). 38 Exposure to classical music caused 8.51% reduction in the RPE, and exposure to Iranian traditional music caused 5.88% loss of perception of individual effort. Yamashita investigated influences of favorite music on RPE during pedaling on an ergometer bicycle at low and medium intensities. Compared to the control condition, music reduced RPE in the middle intensity and not much in the low intensity. 15 Part of this finding was predicted by the hypothesis of parallel processing of Rejeski; which states that by increasing exercise intensity, physiological variables (such as heart rate and respiratory rate) prevail. 39 So that in the middle of the test (when the intensity for participants still was not increased), participants reported lower RPE. By comparing the results of this study with other research, it can be concluded that at an average exercise intensity music could cause one to perceive less effort when doing physical activity. In research by Hayakawa et al. (2005), participants’ mood was assessed by POMS questionnaire. Both conditions (Japanese traditional folk song and aerobic dance music) reduced the fatigue parameter compared to the non-music condition. Moreover, aerobic dance music was responsible for the sense of more vigor in comparison to Japanese traditional folk song or non- music conditions. 40 In a study by Brownley et al., participants in responding to music at high and low intensity experienced more positive feelings. Also, exposure to music was useful for non-athlete runners. 41 In a study of Dyer and Mckune, high tempo music increased overall mood disturbance and also increased feeling of tension in athletes. 42 The reason is that maybe athletes focus their attention only on the task they do and do not care for environmental conditions. In intense activity, physiological variables processing capacity is dominant, while in more moderate intensity, internal (kinematics) and external (music) placed variables processed in parallel. In other words, it is not possible to change person's sense of fatigue resulting from strenuous activity, but we could change perception of fatigue towards a more positive
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Applying Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning Techniques for Raga Recognition in Indian Classical Music

Applying Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning Techniques for Raga Recognition in Indian Classical Music

As one of the human mind’s most inspired and purest forms of creativity, music is intrinsic in nature and present in everything around us. It serves as a form of expression, providing entertainment and enjoyment, and even therapy and healing. Irrespective of the many divides in the world, music is a universal language. Cultures across the globe have their own special forms of music that have evolved and blossomed, making classical music a niche art form. Amongst these, Indian Classical Music (ICM) is one the most elaborate, rule intensive and rhythmically structured variants of traditional music [1]. It is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world and has ancient roots, dating all the way back to the thirteenth century. ICM has been passed down through generations, from teacher to student and to this day, has a wide audience base. Several music festivals in India and across the world feature this musical tradition, with abundant active research exploring Music Information Retrieval (MIR) techniques in ICM as well. Research like [49] and [5] have experimentally proven that certain Ragas in ICM can have a positive effect on psychiatric treatment and overall mental health. Many forms of contemporary Indian and South Asian film and folk music draw inspiration from ICM [4].
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Classical music in the waiting room of an ambulant mental healthcare setting

Classical music in the waiting room of an ambulant mental healthcare setting

Another way of intensifying the exposure without adding more topic related features is to find a waiting room that is smaller and quieter. The waiting area at Dimence did not seem calm but noisy because of the size of space and the fact, that the service desk as well as the main entrance was included in this room. Many distracting elements have been available such as talking professionals and secretaries or ringing phones at the desk. Furthermore, there was often a professional or a secretary crossing the room for example to take coffee or to meet for a talk with a workmate at the service desk. Reducing those elements would support intensifying the music exposure. Therefore, further research should seek a calmer waiting room separated from the working place of the professionals and the secretaries. Nevertheless, this also implies that classical music might not be useful in a (frequently occurring) hustling waiting area.
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EFFECTIVENESS OF LAVENDER AROMATHERAPY AND CLASSICAL MUSIC THERAPY IN LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HYPERTENSION

EFFECTIVENESS OF LAVENDER AROMATHERAPY AND CLASSICAL MUSIC THERAPY IN LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HYPERTENSION

However, this study revealed that the combination of lavender aromatherapy and classical music therapy have a highest effect in lowering blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension compared with lavender aromatherapy or music therapy alone. This combination at the same time can simultaneously lower blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension. It can increase the alpha and beta waves in the brain and these waves will form to create a relaxed state. The effect of lavender aromatherapy is similar to the effects of classical music that have similar calming effect, balance, comfort, sense of openness and confidence, while also reducing stress, pain, anxiety, unbalanced emotion, the hysteria, the frustration, and provide a sense of relaxation that can affect blood pressure, heart rate and breathing.
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Addition of Indian Classical Music symbols used in Gurmukhi Script to the Unicode Character Set

Addition of Indian Classical Music symbols used in Gurmukhi Script to the Unicode Character Set

Indian classical music is one of the oldest forms of music in the world. It has its roots in diverse areas such as the ancient religious vedic hymns, tribal chants, devotional temple music, and folk music. Indian music is melodic in nature, as opposed to Western music which is harmonic. Although Indian music is now divided into the two major classes of Hindustani (Northern Indian) and Carnatic (Southern Indian), the origins and fundamental concepts of both the types of music are the same.

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Performing Civility: International Competitions in Classical Music. By Lisa McCormick

Performing Civility: International Competitions in Classical Music. By Lisa McCormick

In part this is because, although competitions are widespread, they provoke significant disenchantment. They are plagued by controversy and rumours of corruption. They require investment of time and resources by performers who know that they have only a slim chance of winning. And there is very little evidence that competition success translates into a glittering career in the world beyond. As McCormick puts it, ‘to say that competitions are an unloved institution in the classical music world would be putting it mildly’ (p.166), and much of her analysis is concerned with trying to explain why this is so. After setting out in Chapter One the historical background to modern competitions, we begin to get a flavour of the national identity politics that they sometimes engender. The Soviet domination of the inaugural 1937 Ysaÿe Competition led to dark mutterings of state complicity (a historical resonance that modern athletes would surely enjoy). Several cycles of the International Fryderyk Chopin Piano Competition were similarly infused with tensions arising from the competition between Russian and Polish pianists, for understandable historical reasons. The politicising of such competitions is of course evident elsewhere, particularly in relation to the Eurovision Song Contest, which consistently reinforces the point that music competitions are never ‘just’ music competitions.
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Topology and evolution of the network of western classical music composers

Topology and evolution of the network of western classical music composers

We utilized two online data resources: ArkivMusic (http://www.arkivmusic.com), an on- line music retailer, and All Music Guide (http://www.allmusic.com), a comprehensive mu- sical information provider. As of , ArkivMusic lists more than , classical music CDs and its title, release date, and the composers and performers of the music. For this work we specifically use the title, release date and the composers. As we show in Fig- ure (A), the data can be represented as a bipartite network composed of two node classes - CDs and composers - where an edge is drawn when a composer’s pieces were recorded on the CD. A one-mode projection onto the composer class results in a network solely of composers in which two nodes are connected if they have been co-featured on a CD (Figure (A)). Figure (B) shows the so-called network backbone (a scaled-down represen- tation []). Compilation CDs (a repacked collection of previous released recordings) and the ones without release dates were weeded out from the data, resulting in , CDs and , composers for analysis.
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Luang Pradit Phairoh (Sorn Silapabanleng): Transmission and Development of Thai Classical Music

Luang Pradit Phairoh (Sorn Silapabanleng): Transmission and Development of Thai Classical Music

According to the study, it has been found that Luang Pradit Phairoh passed on his knowledge and culture about Thai classical music in every aspect. He focused on both the cultures and methods of playing and singing Thai classical music. He also hosted Wai Kru ceremonies, which is a ritual arranged in order to pay respect to Thai classical music teachers. In this holy ceremony, students have to bring Kun Gam Non (a small bowl), flowers, joss mallets, candles, and money worth six Thai baht to pay respect to the teachers, specifically on Thursdays. When these students are officially accepted, there will be an annual Wai Kru ceremony which they need to at- tend because it is believed that paying respect to the teachers before starting learning will grant you a great be- ginning. This method of transmission is carried by words of mouth and is a casual interaction between the teacher and the student only. The Four Paths of Accomplishment—Aspiration, Effort, Thoughtfulness, and Ex- amination—are used in teaching. Therefore he was lively, satisfied, diligent, and always kept up with his work (Varuesa Lerdsiri, 2004: pp. 7-8). When Luang Pradit Phairoh taught, he always demonstrated and let his stu- dent follow from fundamental knowledge to advanced stage. Therefore, they imitated his ways to pass on to their own students. According to Angkana Saeng-anan (2010: p. 98), who wrote her thesis on “Transmission Methods of Thai Classical Music from Uthai Kaewla-iad,” found that Uthai Kaewla-iad gained his knowledge and improves his skills from Luang Pradit Phairoh. Uthai Kaewla-iad is experienced in hosting Wai Kru cere- monies, managing the teaching and learning process such as equipment and locations, and musical instruments, and setting up obligations for Thai orchestra performances at temples, schools, and music performances. He therefore passed on his knowledge and cultures to his own students in the Thai orchestra. This fact corresponds to Wongsuwan’s
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[B673.Ebook] Download Ebook Mozart In The Jungle Sex Drugs And Classical Music By Blair Tindall.pdf

[B673.Ebook] Download Ebook Mozart In The Jungle Sex Drugs And Classical Music By Blair Tindall.pdf

By age 16, the author of this alternately piquant and morose memoir was dealing marijuana, bedding her instructors at a performing arts high school and studying the oboe. Later, her blossoming career as a freelance musician in New York introduced her to a classical music demimonde of cocaine parties and group sex that had her wondering why she "got hired for so many of my gigs in bed." But the vivace of the chapters on her bohemian salad days subsides to a largo as she heads toward 40 and the sex and drugs recede along with dreams of stardom; the reality of a future in Broadway orchestra pits (where she reads magazines as she plays to stave off boredom) sets in. Tindall escaped to journalism, but her resentment of an industry that "squeezed me dry of spontaneity" and turns other musicians into hollow-eyed "galley slaves" is raw. She mounts a biting critique of the conservatories that churn out thousands of graduates each year to pursue a handful of jobs, the superstar conductors and soloists who lord it over orchestral peons and a fine arts establishment she depicts as bloated and ripe for downsizing. Tindall's bitterness over what might still strike many readers as a pretty great career is a bit overdone, but she offers a fresh, highly readable and caustic perspective on an overglamorized world. Photos. Agent, James Fitzgerald. (July)
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Indian Classical Music Swara/Note Transcription System

Indian Classical Music Swara/Note Transcription System

Out of these seven notes, Shadja and Panchama [1] have no variation and are called Achala or immovable note [1]. However, the rest of the notes exhibit microtonal variation, also called vikrit form [1]. Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat, and Nishad have Komal or flat version [1], moved below their natural place and only Madhyam has Tivra or sharp version [1], higher than the /natural one. Taking these variations into account, there are twelve notes in classical music. It is important to know what type of audio signal is taken into account. Following are the types of musical textures [2][3].
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Composing playlists, conducting streams : the life of classical music in the internet age

Composing playlists, conducting streams : the life of classical music in the internet age

As far as Pandora is concerned, the descriptor “highly-trained” refers to both academic training (all of the analysts have music degrees 34 ) and training on Pandora’s genome (learning how to analyze music within the parameters used by the Music Genome Project). Undoubtedly, having been through these two kinds of training ensures that Pandora analysts have a firm grasp of the elements of music and well developed listening skills. But for many listeners the idea that Pandora’s analysts are “highly-trained” may carry additional weight beyond simply confirming that these people are qualified to do their job. Note the terminology in the quote above from Pandora’s FAQ. Words like “comprehensive,” “crazy,” and “complex” stress the technical and scientific aspects of the work of Pandora’s analysts. In fact, they seem to imply that this work is incomprehensible to the layman, and only a select few “highly-trained” individuals have the capability to carry out work of such objective rigor. This emphasis on the credentials of Pandora analysts is not fundamentally positive or negative. In one sense it is an effective marketing strategy for the company. New listeners may be attracted to the service if they believe it employs experts. And these new listeners may in turn be enticed to discover classical music they like through Pandora. On the other hand, Pandora’s insistence on the extraordinary abilities of its analysts and the exactitude of their work may give listeners a false sense of their authority. Listeners could come to believe that Pandora playlists are “right;” that a station started using the name of a
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Evaluation and combination of pitch estimation methods for melody extraction in symphonic classical music

Evaluation and combination of pitch estimation methods for melody extraction in symphonic classical music

correlation between the estimated ratio and the accuracy results of each ex- cerpt, as shown in Table 5. In the case of salience functions (with N=1), we observe that SF-SAL has the highest correlation (0.83). On the other hand, SF- DUR presents the lowest correlation (0.44). Other approaches such as SF-MAR (0.51) or SF-CAN (0.53) obtain intermediate correlations. This shows that the harmonic salience function used by SF-SAL is less capable than SF-DUR to identify melodic pitches as the most salient when they are not energetically predominant over the accompaniment. Since salience functions strongly affect the performance of whole melody extraction algorithm, ME-DUR presents the smallest correlation among them (0.36), while ME-SAL (0.76), ME-FUE (0.75) and ME-DRE (0.71) present much stronger correlations. These results sug- gest that separation-based approaches such as ME-DUR are specially useful in the context of orchestral classical music, since they are better able to ex- tract melodies played by non-predominant instruments, partially thanks to the melody-oriented pitch salience function.
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Computational methods for tonality-based style analysis of classical music audio recordings

Computational methods for tonality-based style analysis of classical music audio recordings

As one of our main contributions, we tested the proposed features for classifying audio recordings of Western classical music. For comparison, we used standardized spectrum- based features as a baseline system. We considered two scenarios of subgenres, namely four historical periods (Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Modern) and classical composers (five and eleven composers, respectively). For this purpose, we compiled two datasets. To test the separation of classes in the feature space, we visualized the datasets using dimensionality reduction (Linear Discriminant Analysis) for chroma-based features, standard features, and the combination of both. The plots revealed that chroma-based features have problems to discriminate Baroque and Classical music whereas standard features struggle with discrim- inating Romantic and Modern music. Possibly, this may point to similar tonal character- istics of Baroque and Classical music and similar timbral characteristics of Romantic and Modern. The combination of both feature types led to a good separation of instances, in general. Moreover, we tested common machine learning classifiers on our datasets in a cross- validation scenario. Here, we found a different situation. Both chroma-based and standard features led to high mean accuracies up to 90 % using different types of classifiers. However, performing classification in a more realistic scenario by applying filtering techniques 1 in the cross validation resulted in a severe deterioration of results. This observation indicates that, without filtering, our system may learn non-meaningful characteristics such as artist-specific properties—known as “album effect” [63, 178]. With filtering, a classification with standard features led to very low accuracies. In contrast, chroma-based features seem to be less prone to overfitting because of the album effect (73 % accuracy for four eras). Surprisingly, the com- bination of both feature types performed worse than using chroma features alone. Adding standard features seems to negatively affect the robustness of tonal features. Concerning the classifier complexity, a rather simple model (Gaussian Mixture Model with one Gaussian) seemed to result in a robust system when applying filters in the cross validation. Such a model also produced meaningful classification results of up to 62 % for unseen data without using cross validation. Among the tonal features, template-based interval and chord features alone already resulted in good performances. Combining these features with chord progres- sions and complexity features led to an increase of accuracy in several scenarios. Regarding the different chroma feature types, NNLS chroma features [147] led to best results for deriv- ing tonal features. We also showed that classification with tonal features is timbre-invariant to a certain extent. Training on piano data and evaluating on orchestral data resulted in 65 % accuracy for classifying into four eras.
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The curating composer: mediating the production, exhibition and dissemination of non-classical music

The curating composer: mediating the production, exhibition and dissemination of non-classical music

‘Blank Canvas 17’ reached a capacity audience at Village Underground (Fig. 1-9). Did I successfully communicate ‘edge culture’ and the wider context of non-classical music in this edition? Did the desegregation of performers work? How was spatial co-presence emphasised? The musical material featured in this edition deliberately reinforced the continuum of Gamelan, minimalism and electronic club music and I am satisfied that the programme embodied the idea of ‘edge culture’ and provided a suitable context for non-classical music. However, I did not produce any interpretive materials (excluding a double-sided handout, which featured composer notes and performer/funder credits) in which to make explicit ‘edge culture’ as a curatorial device so the success of this is mixed. In my opinion the desegregation of performers also achieved its aim. Spectators were encouraged to move around the space, as the focus shifted from live performance to DJ, but the desegregation was intentionally limited and controlled (see Chapter 2: Part 2B, Section 7.2 for an expanded application of this concept). Spatial co-presence was emphasised through Poletti’s multi-channel electronic renderings: the live situation was unique from any mediatised versions because of this. Again, this could have been used to greater effect because Bardo EP was not spatialised.
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Classical Music and Literature

Classical Music and Literature

In literature, music often stands in for what cannot be put into words. While language creates meaning through differences, associations, and complex chains of signification, music also affects the body: it vibrates the organism, stimulating physical sensation and emotion. For many writers, classical music seemed to offer a different sort of communication: more direct than language, transmitting meanings directly to the listener, and transcending language by communicating through form. For Schopenhauer, music contained the essence of human emotion, offering not a representation of ‘joy, sorrow, pain, horror, exaltation, cheerfulness,’ but expressing these things ‘as such in themselves, abstractly’. 1 Brad Bucknell writes that modernists
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Coreference Resolution to Support IE from Indian Classical Music Forums

Coreference Resolution to Support IE from Indian Classical Music Forums

with content based information. The need for metadata led to information extraction from blogs and forums related to music. This should con- tain information about artistes, performances, mu- sic concepts etc. Apart from the available litera- ture about Indian classical music, there are a few forums and blogs having rich metadata. Extract- ing information from these sources help to aug- ment music ontology for Indian classical music with meta information along with content based information. Among the two main divisions in In- dian classical music, Carnatic music community is more involved in web based discussions and infor- mation dissemination. Rasikas.org (rasikas, 2015) is one among the prominent discussion forums where they have discussions pertaining to Carnatic music topics comprising ragas, talas, artistes etc.
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Knowledge based recommender system using First 
		Order Logic for Indian 
		classical music

Knowledge based recommender system using First Order Logic for Indian classical music

A recommender system is a type of system which performs filtering of information and produces useful inferences. In Indian classical music, a raga is a series of swaras (musical notes) in a particular order. Many musicians of Indian classical music follow the practice of transitioning from one raga to another while singing. The source raga and the destination ragas resulting from the transition have relationships with each other. In this research article, Carnatic music which is a form of Indian classical music, is taken as an application and a recommender system is proposed using methodologies related to Artificial Intelligence and other domains, like First Order Logic (FOL), gauging using distance measures and chi-square distribution in order to determine the destination ragas and their relationships with the source raga. Among the ragas which can be reached from a particular raga by raga-to-raga transition, the best-fit destination raga(s) are found out using distance measures. As an analysis of the gap between the source and destination ragas, one-way chi-square distribution is deployed. The hypothesis is tested for accuracy using confusion matrix. The application of this recommender system is to provide a list of all possible destination ragas reachable from an input source raga, thereby proving to be of great use to musicians, Music Information Retrieval (MIR) systems, automatic music creation software etc.
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A Novel Method to Identify Audio Descriptors,
          Useful in Gender Identification from North Indian
          Classical Music Vocal

A Novel Method to Identify Audio Descriptors, Useful in Gender Identification from North Indian Classical Music Vocal

In North Indian Classical music, the traditional Indian teacher- student system of inheriting the singing knowledge is observed strictly. Where, the Gharana [6] that the guru belongs to, the singing style, the presentation style and most important the stylization of the performer towards throwing the sound notes while singing is strictly observed. For example, a male singer from Gwalior Gharana may adapt to a stylization of singing a raga very softly (like a female) depending upon the stylization its teacher has adopted and taught and there may also exist a female singer from Kirana Gharana that uses a rash or harsh way (sounding similar to a man) of producing the sound for the same raga.
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