Within the LA&E framework, we propose that treat- ments can be classified according to the extent to which they predominantly limit, activate, and/or enhance pa- tient factors. For example, CBT approaches to pain typ- ically focus on limiting maladaptive cognitions and activating appropriately paced behavior, with less em- phasis on enhancing strengths. In recent years, increased attention has been placed on developing “enhance-cen- tric” interventions that build and extend an individual’s existing strengths as a way to facilitate more effective coping. In particular, acceptance-based and mindfulness- based strategies provide an alternative to deficit-focused interventions by taking a strengths-based approach to target a shift in one’s relationship to experience (i.e., thoughts, pain), as opposed to changing the experience. In this context, mindfulness-based cognitivetherapy (MBCT) is a multifaceted pain treatment, which inte- grates such an enhance-oriented approach with the in- corporation of mindfulness techniques (e.g., meditation), as well as techniques that target cognitive (e.g., stress- pain connection exercises) and behavioral (e.g.,
Results: The results of MANCOVA supported the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral therapy in residual depression, dysfunctional attitudes, and the cognitive subscale in BDI-II. On the other hand, Mindfulness-based cognitivetherapy was shown to be more effective in reducing rumination.
Mindfulness that is called the third wave of treatment has been expressed deliberately in the fifth book of Masnavi by Rumi in the story of Guesthouse. Mindfulness can be defined in differ- ent ways, but the common point in all definition is contemplation with flexibility, openness, and curiosity. This simple definition articulates three important issues. First, mindfulness is the process of awareness not the act of thinking; mindfulness includes attention to events coming in our minds in every moment without being caught in the trap of our own thoughts. Second, in mindfulness status, we have a certain attitude, openness, and curios- ity. Instead of escaping from painful thoughts, we are open and curious about them; we allow them to come and go. Third, we are flexible in mind- fulness. In other words, we guide our attention to various aspects of life. Its application causes our awareness, and we appraise all our moments. This method is used in the treatment of mental illnesses like depression (Russ Harris, 2014). Russ Harris’s definition of mindfulness is completely consistent with the implications and teaching of Guesthouse in Masnavi. Likening human body to a guesthouse, the entrance and exit of both good and bad ideas, and the guests’ welcoming situation are explained in verses 3644 to 3706 of the fifth book of Masnavi. It has been argued that determining the true identity of the man is one of the objectives of mindfulness in the works of Rumi from a cognitivetherapy approach. It leads to transformation of vain thoughts and other cognitive distortions in psychological patients. 19 Cognitivetherapy based
At the same time, a second adaptation of the scale was proposed by Haddock et al. (2001) because the practice of CT had broadened over recent years to cover interventions for psychosis, and the standard CTS did not seem well-suited to measuring the skills needed for this style of work. Their CognitiveTherapy Scale for Psychosis (CTS-Psy) not only altered some of the rated areas, but fundamentally changed the rating system used. Instead of a qualitative rating of skill in each domain on a 0–6 point scale, the CTS-Psy uses a check list of six micro-skills within each domain, each of which is allocated one point. Thus the marker simply rates each of these sub-items as being present, absent or appropriately omitted during the therapy session. This scoring method was anticipated to improve reliability by turning a subjective rating into a series of behavioural observations.
ABS II: Attitude and Belief Scale II; ATQ: Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire; B-COPE: Brief COPE; BDI-II: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition; BIS/ BAS: Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System; CMVS: Components of Mate Value Survey; CSQ-8: Client Satisfaction Questionnaire, 8-item version; CT: CognitiveTherapy; DAS: Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; ED-CT: Evolutionary-Driven CognitiveTherapy; FES: Fitness Evaluation Scale; GABS: General Attitudes and Beliefs Scale; MDD: Major Depressive Disorder; MDE: Major Depressive Episode; MVI: Mate Value Inventory; PANAS: Positive and Negative Affect Scale; PHQ: Physical Health Questionnaire; SAS: Social Adjustment Scale; SCSRFQ: Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire; SCID: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; WAI: Working Alliance Inventory; WHO: World Health Organization; WHOQOL-BREF: WHO Quality of Life BREF.
To date, there have been several attempts to examine the efficacy of adding cognitivetherapy to medication for bipolar disorder. Lam et al (2000) and Scott et al (2001) have reported that the addition of cognitivetherapy to routine mood stabilisers produced significantly reduced relapse compared with routine mood stabilisers alone. However, both of these were pilot studies with small samples, such that any conclusions from them need to be tentative. Fava et al (2001) reported that cognitive–behavioural therapy reduced residual symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder who relapsed on lithium and may improve lithium prophylaxis. However, this study had a small sample size (n = 15) and there was no comparison treatment group such as treatment as usual. In a randomised controlled trial, Perry et al (1999) taught patients with bipolar disorder to detect early warning signs and seek medical help earlier than those on treatment as usual. Although not a trial of a full cognitivetherapy package, this study did demonstrate that teaching improved monitoring and better coping skills could significantly reduce bipolar relapse. Zaretsky et al (1999) found that cognitivetherapy could be helpful in treating epi- sodes of bipolar depression, although this study was also limited by having only a small sample.
Method: In an experimental study, Forty-five students with high anxiety levels were randomly assigned to a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), religious cognitivetherapy (RCT), or control groups. CBT and RCT were applied to the experimental groups during eight sessions once per week, whereas the control group did not receive any therapy. Cattle’s Anxiety Scale was used as the pre- test, post-test, and follow-up for each of the three groups. Analysis of covariance was applied to analyze the data. Results: The analysis of data showed that mean anxiety scores in the experimental groups were significantly lower than those in the control group on the post test and follow-up. However, no significant difference was observed between the effectiveness of CBT and RCT for decreasing anxiety in students.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive analytic therapy [CAT] with medication, cognitivetherapy [CT] with medication and medication alone on reduction of emotional instability, impulsivity and social instability in bipolar II disorder.
The scale's dimensions were devised for patients assessed as being well/moderately suited for cognitivetherapy (Safran & Segal, 1990). As such, adjustments may need to be made when patient difficulties are evident (e.g. excessive avoidance). Indeed, with problematic patients it is sometimes difficult to apply CT methods successfully; that is, with desirable change. In such circumstances the rater needs to assess the therapist's therapeutic skills in the application of the methods. Thus even though the therapist may be unsuccessful at promoting change, credit should be given for demonstrations of appropriate skilful therapy.
Background: Depressive symptoms are a common problem in patients with diabetes, laying an additional burden on both the patients and the health care system. Patients suffering from these symptoms rarely receive adequate evidence-based psychological help as part of routine clinical care. Offering brief evidence-based treatments aimed at alleviating depressive symptoms could improve patients ’ medical and psychological outcomes. However, well-designed trials focusing on the effectiveness of psychological treatments for depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes are scarce. The Mood Enhancement Therapy Intervention Study (METIS) tests the effectiveness of two treatment protocols in patients with diabetes. Individually administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based CognitiveTherapy (MBCT) are compared with a waiting list control condition in terms of their effectiveness in reducing the severity of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, we explore several potential
In a another study by Gould et al. (2004) found significant treatment effects in 5 controlled trials using cognitivetherapy aiming to modify patients’ distorted beliefs about delusions and hallucinations. In the last decade, there have also been reviews exploring several secondary outcomes of CRT for schizophrenia, especially negative symptoms. Rector and Beck completed an effect size analysis which found moderate to large pre- post treatment improvements on negative symptoms. Finding of present study supports the use of cognitive restructuring therapy to reducing the psychopathology in terms of positive and negative symptoms. However the sample size was small so the parametric test was not done. Only male patient was included in the study so it could not be applied for female patient. Other limitation can be seen like original scale is developed in English country so its translation version could not be so much effective. Further research can be done adding more similar patient with high education.
of couples after infidelity disclosure was also admitted in the study of Atkins et al who performed a meta-analysis on results of couple therapy on couples involved in marital infidelity. In this study, outcomes of interventions on 145 couples with and 385 couples with non-marital infidelity problems were compared. The results indicated although in early stages of couple therapy, couples with marital infidelity problems had higher levels of disturbances and depression symptoms, their recovery continued as interventions went up, and at the end of therapy, they were not recognizable from those with non-marital infidelity problems. It was also found that cognitivetherapy could enhance verbal communication skills in infidelity- affected mothers. Most of the couples with marital- relationship experiences react to this happening with strong feeling of anger, high degrees of depression symptoms, and insecurity feeling . The results showed that there was significant difference in mental health of the betrayed women at post-test. The findings released the significant effect of group psychotherapy sessions on improving mental health of the betrayed women. All components of mental health have been recovered at the post-test stage. Given review of literature and findings of the current study, it is clear that marital infelicity traces its negative effects both on the couples and their children, and may threaten their physical and psychological health even in long term. Therefore, it is strongly suggested to use media as well as curriculums of schools and universities to encourage people to keep their commitments to marital life, and to inform them about negative impacts of extra-marital relationships on family members, and health
There are several alternative models for handling the written account that have been used clinically in VA settings, although there is no research to support one model over another. One alternative model for the group format is to conduct individual sessions with the patients to give them an opportunity to read their accounts to a therapist and to provide the therapist the opportunity for in-depth cognitivetherapy around major stuck points that emerge. Some VA programs, particularly smaller residential programs have had the combat veterans read their accounts to the group. They have added a couple of sessions in order to accommodate everyone. Finally, another option is to delete the account writing completely and conduct the protocol without the two written account sessions (see previous section for more information on CPT-) If a patient in individual therapy misses a session, it can be rescheduled or delayed until the next scheduled appointment. However, the same opportunity is not possible with groups. Instead, if a patient misses a group session, she/he is contacted by telephone. If the next practice assignment can be given over the phone, then the therapist does so and asks the patient how the last assignment went. Another purpose for the telephone call is to discuss why the patient missed the session and to discuss the likely problem of avoidance. If necessary, the therapist invites the patient to arrive early for the next session so the last session can be reviewed and the practice assignment given. At the beginning of the next session, the other members of the group can also give the patient who missed a session a synopsis of what occurred the previous week. This approach has the advantage of solidifying the group members’ knowledge as well.
Abstract: Cognitivetherapy for psychosis has developed over the past 30 years from initial case studies, treatment manuals, pilot randomized controlled studies to fully powered and methodologically rigorous efficacy and, subsequently, effectiveness trials. Reviews and meta- analyses have confirmed the benefits of the interventions. Considered appraisal by government and professional organizations has now led to its inclusion in international treatment guidelines for schizophrenia. Patients consistently ask for access to psychotherapeutic interventions, and it is slowly becoming available in many European countries and other parts of the world, eg, US and the People’s Republic of China. However, it remains unacceptably difficult to access for the vast majority of people with psychosis who could benefit from it. Psychosis affects people in the prime of their lives and leads to major effects on their levels of distress, well-being, and functioning, and also results in major costs to society. Providing effective interventions at an early stage has the potential to reduce the high relapse rates that occur after recovery from first episode and the ensuing morbidity and premature mortality associated with psychosis. Keywords: psychosis, schizophrenia, psychotherapy, cognitivetherapy, history
This article considered how CBT might be adapted for working with individuals experiencing FTD, including assessment, formulation, and intervention strategies. The proposed techniques represent a starting point from which to develop, evaluate and refine therapy. It is important to recognise that FTD is a heterogeneous and multidimensional construct. Various, and sometimes distinct, cognitive and language difficulties have been observed in individuals with psychosis, which likely lie on a continuum of severity (Roche et al., 2014). Therefore, although we provide guidance on how therapists might use CBT in the presence of FTD, they also need to remain flexible and adapt our recommendations to meet clients’ presenting needs and priorities.
Internet-delivered CBT has already and will continue to have a profound effect on CBT. The internet makes information about CBT more available , but the effective use of the internet to deliver CBT also raises questions for the CBT field. Training of therapists is regarded as important in CBT , but the evidence to date clearly suggests that therapist effects (in other words, does it matter who gives the support?) are mini- mal in internet-delivered CBT . In a series of studies, Titov and colleagues have found that support adminis- tered from a technician can be equivalent to the support provided by a psychologist [26,27]. Indeed, this could be because in internet treatment the therapy is mainly pre- sented via text and the computer program (which can include audio files, films, stories and so on), and hence the supportive role of the therapist in most cases will require less skills than in face-to-face therapies.