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Withasteroid Metal Ion Conjugates: Their Natural Occurrence in Withania Somnifera and Effects on Cold-Restraint Stress in Mice

Withasteroid Metal Ion Conjugates: Their Natural Occurrence in Withania Somnifera and Effects on Cold-Restraint Stress in Mice

Statistical analysis- Statistical analysis was carried out using Prism software ver.4.0 statistical software (Graphpad software Inc). All the results were expressed as Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. In the entire test, the criterion for statistical significance was p<0.05. Abbreviation: WS- Withania somnifera; WSE- Withania somnifera extract; MDA- malondialdehyde; LDL-low density lipoproteins, HDL-high density lipoproteins; TC- total cholesterol; TG- triglyceride; VLDL-very Low Density Lipoproteins; CRS-cold restraint stress; NC- normal control; ABTS- 2,2’-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) diammonium salt; FRAP- ferric reducing ability of plasma; WCER-weak cation exchange resin; SCER-strong cation exchange resin; ACTH- adreno cortico tropic hormone.; AAS-atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
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GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE MIQ  ROOTS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON INDOMETHACIN AND COLD RESTRAINT STRESS INDUCED ULCERS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE MIQ ROOTS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON INDOMETHACIN AND COLD RESTRAINT STRESS INDUCED ULCERS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

ABSTRACT: Ficus dalhousiae Miq. is a plant found in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu on rocky hill top of dry deciduous forests. As it possesses antioxidant property wherein it reduces the elevated levels of ROS, the intent of the present study was to evaluate the Gastro protective effect of Ficus dalhousiae Miq Root ethanolic extract (FDREE) by means of Indomethacin and Cold Restrain stress induced Ulcers in Albino rats. Indomethacin 5mg/kg body weight p.o; for five days and Cold restraint stress models, were used for inducing gastric ulcers in rats. Biochemical parameters such as Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, acidity, Gastric volume, gastric pH and Ulcer index were determined in order to assess the gastro protective activity of FDREE in both the models. Treatment of rats with Indomethacin and subjecting them to Cold restraint stress (CRS) elevated the levels of Gastric volume, acidity, Glutathione, Malondialdehyde and gastric pH in negative control group in comparison with normal group. The elevated levels were significantly reversed when treated with standard drug Ranitidine 50 mg/kg body weight p.o; and Ficus dalhousiae root ethanolic extracts (FDREE). Histopathology of stomach was in support of above mentioned results. In conclusion it can be stated that Ficus dalhousiae Miq root ethanolic extracts showed a significant reversal of ulcerative parameters. It could be conceived that it exerts its activity due to the presence of flavonoids which have been reported to protect the mucosa by formation of a protective layer.
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 GASTRO PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE MIQ ROOTS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN INDOMETHACIN AND COLD RESTRAINT STRESS INDUCED ULCERS

 GASTRO PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE MIQ ROOTS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN INDOMETHACIN AND COLD RESTRAINT STRESS INDUCED ULCERS

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gastro protective effects of FDREE in Indomethacin and cold restraint stress induced ulcer models. Wistar albino rats were employed in the study. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of root showed the presence of various phytoconstituents namely, tannins, alkaloids flavonoids, glycosides. The acute toxicity of the extract revealed that 2000 mg/kg was safe as no mortality was seen at this dose. Three doses 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg were chosen for the study. The extract elicited significant gastro protective effect in both the ulcer models which was evident by the results of gastric parameters and biochemical assays of Glutathione and Malondialdehyde. The extract significantly lowered the elevated levels of free acidity, total acidity, volume of gastric juice and malondialdehyde when compared with the negative control group. The levels of Glutathione were increased in the test groups. The decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and reduction in the levels of Malondialdehyde and increase in the levels of Glutathione in the test groups suggests the gastro protective effect of the plant.
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Effect of Clerodendron Colebrrokianum Walp. Leaf Extract on Cold-Restraint Stress in Mice

Effect of Clerodendron Colebrrokianum Walp. Leaf Extract on Cold-Restraint Stress in Mice

This study was undertaken to assess the anti-stress properties of Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp. leaf extract against cold-restraint stress in Swiss albino mice. Three groups of albino mice were employed namely control, cold-restraint stress (3 h/day for 5 days at 4°C) and C. colebrookianum leaf extract + cold- restraint stress. The assessment was done by measuring the white blood cell (WBC) count, differential (neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil) count, blood glucose level, serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity, plasma corticosterone level, liver and spleen weight along with the transmission electron microscopic study and the DNA fragmentation assay of liver tissues. There was a significant reduction in the WBC count, eosinophil, basophil level and spleen weight while the level of ALT, neutrophil, blood glucose and plasma corticosterone along with the liver weight was found to increase significantly on stress treatment. The electron microscopic studies of liver tissues in cold-restraint stress group revealed the sign of apoptosis with significant change in the nucleus structure including chromatin condensation and vacuolization as compared to that of the control group. This was further confirmed by the percentage of fragmented DNA of liver tissue in which cold- restraint stress group showed increased DNA fragmentation percentage compared to the control group. Administration of C. colebrookianum leaf extract (100 mg/kg) significantly prevented the cold-restraint stress induced alterations in all the above parameters.
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Lagerstroemia speciosa L  tannins reduces the gastric mucosal damage caused
by ethanol and cold restraint stress

Lagerstroemia speciosa L tannins reduces the gastric mucosal damage caused by ethanol and cold restraint stress

The present study investigated the possible protective effect of tannins isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves against ethanol and cold stress induced gastric damage. In ethanol induced model, gastric damage was induced by ethanol, one hour after tannin administration by a single dose whereas in cold restraint stress model tannins were administered for seven days and were subjected to cold stress for 4 hours and animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were taken for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Nitric oxide scavenging activity and FRAP assay proved the in vitro antioxidant activity possessed by the tannins. The tannins isolated from L. speciosa were found to be very effective that it protects the mucosa by 72.48 % in ethanol induced model and 55.1% in cold restraint stress model by 50mg/kg. The severity of gastric lesions was markedly decreased by the administration of tannins in both models. Administration of tannins significantly increased both gastric mucous and protein contents. Tannins increased the GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation dose dependently. It can be concluded that the protective effects of tannins in gastric mucosa are mediated atleast partially by upregulation of antioxidant system.
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ANTI-ULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA IN VARIOUS EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

ANTI-ULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA IN VARIOUS EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

The ethanolic extracts from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia showed protective effects against ethanol, indomethacin, and cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. The anti-ulcer effect of ethanol extract was tested against gastric lesions induced by ethanol, the experimental model related to lesion pathogenesis with production of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in vivo [20]. Morinda citrifolia prevented the mucosal lesions induced by ethanol. The gastric mucosal protection against ethanol can be mediated through a number of mechanisms that include enhancement of the gastric mucosal defense through increase in mucus and/or bicarbonate production, reducing the volume of gastric acid secretion or by simply neutralizing the gastric acidity [21]. Ethanol extract may either reduce the gastric acid secretion or enhance the barrier defence of the mucosal wall. Ethanol extract dose dependent inhibition in ethanol induced gastric lesions [22] (Table 1).
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Effect of Fluoxetine on the Hippocampus of Wistar Albino Rats in Cold Restraint Stress Model

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From the results, it was observed that there is an increase in the number of BrdU positive cells in Group 3 when compared to group 2. The number of BrdU positive cells compared to the control group was less but there was significant recovery of cells in Group 3 when treated with fluoxetine after cold restraint stress. It was found in the study that a dose of 10 mg/kg produced increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor and hippocampal neurogenesis but not in lower doses. Long term treatment with fluoxetine more than six weeks has been known to produce a reversal effect on neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone (SVZ) but no such reversal phenomenon was noted in the dentate gyrus region [39]. However, the decrease of neurons in the SVZ may have a role in the side effects of fluoxetine. In our study, the rats were treated with fluoxetine for a period of five weeks. This five week period produced remarkable recovery of BrdU positive cells in the SGZ region hippocampus. Fluoxetine also increased neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus post global transient ischemia [40]. It also improved neurogenesis post traumatic brain injury at a dosage of 10 mg/kg after a period of four weeks [41].
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Ethnopharmacological Importance Of Asparagus Racemosus : A Review

Ethnopharmacological Importance Of Asparagus Racemosus : A Review

Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wister rats was studied by Christina et al., (2005). Oral administration of Asparagus racemosus ethanolic extract reduce oxalate, calcium and phosphate ions in urin which are the main cause of renal stone formation (Chitme et al., 2010). An in vitro assay technique was set up to determine the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of a monocyte-macrophage cell line using Candida species as test organisms. The optimal doses for MDP, Metronidazole, Asparagus racemosus and Tinospora cordifolia were found to be 100 micrograms, 300 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg respectively. Patients with cirrhosis were screened for defects in monocyte function. The depressed monocyte function (20.58 +/- 5% phago and 41.24 +/- 12.19% ICK; P < 0.05) was observed indicating a compromised host defense. The utility of this candidicidal assay in experimental and clinical studies was discussed by Rege and Dahanukar(1993). The aqueous extract of the root was lethal or inhibitory, in vitro studies to hatching of Meloidogyne javanica and M. arenaria. A 1% solution of the active material contained in the nematicide, Nemaphos O-O-diethyl-O-2- pyrazinyl phosphothionate suppressed hatching in dilutions up to 10000 times and was comparable to the activity of 1 ml undiluted plant extract 10 g/100 ml (Swarup and Sharma, 1967). Sairam et al., 2003 have reported antiulcerogenic activity of methanolic extract of fresh roots of AR in the cold restraint stress (CRS), pyloric ligation, aspirin plus pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer models and cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model. AR was found to be effective in the CRU, AL, and cysteamine induced ulcer models, but was ineffective in PL and ASP models. Effectiveness of Asparagus racemosus ethanol extract compare to the methanol and distill water extract of the same plant was reveled by S.Alok et al., 2008. It was found that the ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. had an inhibitory potential on lithiasis induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ethanolic extract, significantly reduced the elevated level of calculogenic ions in urine and it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium,which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization (Alok et al., 2008).
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Evaluation of Antiulcerogenic Activity of Clerodendron Infortunatum Extract on Albino Rat Gastric Ulceration

Evaluation of Antiulcerogenic Activity of Clerodendron Infortunatum Extract on Albino Rat Gastric Ulceration

Results: The EECI showed significant gastric ulcer protective effect in doses of 400 mg/kg, when given twice daily for 5 days against gastric ulcers induced by ethanol (EtOH), cold restraint stress (CRS) and pyloric ligation (PL). EECI showed dose dependent decrease in ulcer index (UI) against ulcers induced by: (i) Ethanol (control UI: 29.52±2.4 mm2/rat, EECI decrease 21.12±2.3 – 5.3±1.0 (ii) Cold restraint stress (CRS) (control UI: 32.13±2.1, EECI decrease 24.02±2.2 – 4.7±1.1 (iii) pylorus ligation (control UI: 29.25±2.4 mm2/rat, EECI decrease 22.32±2.7 – 5.3±1.0, EECI 400 mg/kg significantly healed ulcers induced by 50% acetic acid after 5 (control UI: 32.30 ± 2.9, EECI decrease 26.27±1.9 – 8.56±0.98 and after 10 days treatment (control UI: 29.02 ± 2.6, healing 21.28±2.1 – 5.78±1.2. EECI prevents the oxidative damage of gastric mucosa by blocking lipid peroxidation and by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, and increase in catalase activity.
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Study on phytochemical profile and Anti-ulcerogenic effect of Casuarina equisetifolia (L.)

Study on phytochemical profile and Anti-ulcerogenic effect of Casuarina equisetifolia (L.)

The ethanolic extracts from the leaves of Casuarina equisetifolia showed protective effects against ethanol, indomethacin, and pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. The anti- ulcer effect of ethanol extract was tested against gastric lesions induced by ethanol, the experimental model related to lesion pathogenesis with production of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in vivo [20]. Casuarina equisetifolia prevented the mucosal lesions induced by ethanol. The gastric mucosal protection against ethanol can be mediated through a number of mechanisms that include enhancement of the gastric mucosal defense through increase in mucus and/or bicarbonate production, reducing the volume of gastric acid secretion or by simply neutralizing the gastric acidity [21]. Ethanol extract may either reduce the gastric acid secretion or enhance the barrier defence of the mucosal wall. Ethanol extract dose dependent inhibition in ethanol induced gastric lesions [22] (Table -1).
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Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) for 7 days after 21 days of pretreatment with the extract. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein and corticosterone levels. Pretreatment with the extract signifi cantly ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and reduced number of writhes in physical and chemical-induced stress models respectively. Treatment groups also reverted back perturbed neurotransmitter levels (norepinephrine, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) in brain as well as increase in adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress. In mice immunized with sheep red blood cells, treatment groups subjected to restraint stress prevented the humoral immune response to the antigen. Histopathological studies of adrenal gland of stress control group revealed vacuolar degeneration, loss of architecture and formation of lesions in the cortex, which was reversed by extract treatment. The results indicate that aqueous extract of Nelumbo nucifera has signifi cant adaptogenic activity against a variety of biochemical, histological, physiological and immunological perturbations in acute and chronic stress models.
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FPGA Based Binary Heap Implementation: With an Application to Web Based Anomaly Prioritization

FPGA Based Binary Heap Implementation: With an Application to Web Based Anomaly Prioritization

postnatal stressors, which have been shown to also greatly affect HPA axis response. A next step can be to look at methylation pattern differences in GR, MR or other HPA axis related receptors. We have started this process by performing a bisulfite conversion on genomic DNA from brains of cold-exposed and control juvenile and adults. This procedure converts cytostines to uracils, without affecting 5-methylcytosine. This results in changes in a DNA sequence that reflects the methylation status of that sequence and we are currently designing the appropriate GR and MR primers to use. These studies may yield information on the DNA methylation on the GR and MR promoters. By specifically examining these receptors, we can directly determine if there is an epigenetic role in early life stress specifically in the HPA axis negative feedback response. Following a targeted, gene specific approach, future studies, such as Western blot analysis, are needed to determine GR and MR abundance in the brain, which may address how these proteins are altered during development and in adulthood.
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Effects of Chicken Extract on the Serotonergic System of Mice Loaded with Restraint Stress

Effects of Chicken Extract on the Serotonergic System of Mice Loaded with Restraint Stress

Chicken extract (CE), which is composed of water-soluble substances extracted from chicken by double boiling, could enhance mental efficiency and are helpful to the recovery from postpartum sickness and mental fatigue. But, little information is available regarding its underlying mechanisms. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), as a central neurotransmitter, involves in various functional changes of brain. In our study, we studied the effects of CE on 5-HT level in restraint-stressed mice. Male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups as follows: normal, restraint stress, restraint stress + 12 mL/kg/d CE (CE-L), restraint stress + 24 mL/kg/d CE (CE-H). On the 14 th day of administration, all mice were
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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECT OF OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID AND BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS ON COLD STRESS INDUCED NEURONAL CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECT OF OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID AND BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS ON COLD STRESS INDUCED NEURONAL CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to compare the effect of Omega3 fatty acids (OFA) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC’s) on stress induced neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus region of rats. For isolation and culture of BMSCs, a three week old Wistar rat was sacrificed, femora and tibiae were collected then mesenchymal cells cultured. The 6 th passage cells are analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD44, CD90 for positivity and CD45 for negative expression. In this experiment, thirty six rats aged 8 weeks old were divided into six Groups (n=6). Group I was control, Group II was given forced cold water swim stress, Group III: cold stress followed by saline Group IV and V, cold stress followed by oral gavages of omega-3 fatty acids 60mg/Kg for 2 weeks (short-term model) and 4 weeks (long term model) respectively and Group VI was cold stress followed by intravenous injection of 1 X 10 6 BMSCs. Behavioural function test performed using Y-maze. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for Cortisol assay and histological studies. Results indicate treatment with BMSC’s shows significantly increased neuronal cell and mean spontaneous alteration behavior compared to OFA. BMSC’s shows better therapeutic effect than OFA in cognitive decline .
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A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns

A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns

A number of different transcription factor types were identified from the ESTs, although no WRKY type transcrip- tion factors were found. This was unexpected as several WRKY transcription factors are important in leaf senescence in both dicotyledonous (Eulgem et al., 2000) and mono- cotyledonous plants (Ross et al., 2007). Different patterns of expression were revealed by the microarray analysis for 21 putative transcription factors, indicating some sharing of transcriptional regulation between the stress and develop- mental senescence (Table 3). This overlap is well documented in leaves both at the level of genes involved in effecting these processes (Weaver et al., 1998) and at the level of transcrip- tion factors (Singh et al., 2002). Less progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control of floral senes- cence, although some of the characterized transcriptional regulators have also shown an overlap in expression between petal senescence and stress (van der Krol et al., 1999). Relatively few of the transcription factors identified from the Alstroemeria ESTs changed in expression during senescence (from stage S0 to S5) on the microarrays; however, analysis of a zinc finger (C2H2 type) family protein and a MADS box protein by RT-PCR reveals a bimodal expression pattern. Expression was high in buds at stage S0 and S1, respectively, and then again from stage S5 and S4, respectively; hence both these transcription factors may well be involved in senescence regulation. Transcription factors associated with petal senescence have been identified in a few systems such as rose (Channelie`re et al., 2002), petunia (van der Krol, 1999), and wallflower (Price et al., 2008). However the detailed expression during petal senescence of multiple transcription factors has not been studied in many species. MADS box transcription factors may well be generally important in petal senescence since overexpression of a MADS box transcrip- tion factor in Arabidopsis delayed petal senescence and abscission (Fang and Fernandez, 2002). Several transcription factors showed patterns of regulation in one or other of the stress treatments that mimicked developmental patterns, but none responded in the same way to all stresses and development. This may indicate the means by which specific responses are elicited to particular stresses. Further analysis of the roles of the different Alstroemeria petal transcription factors may provide further insights into the regulation patterns of stress responses and developmental senescence.
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Assessment of Cold Stress and Its Effects on Workers in a Cold-Storage Warehouse

Assessment of Cold Stress and Its Effects on Workers in a Cold-Storage Warehouse

IREQ is defined as the resultant clothing insulation required during the actual environmental conditions to maintain the body in a state of thermal equilibrium at acceptable levels of body and skin temperature. IREQ integrates the effects of ambient climatic factors such as temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity, air velocity and subject’s metabolic heat production. The levels of IREQ calculated using a computer software program written based on ISO/TR 11079. The calculated IREQ (clo) was compared to the subjects clothing insulation to evaluate the levels of cold stress. In addition, DLE was calculated, using above mentioned software. Duration Limited Exposure (DLE) to cold is defined as the recommended maximum time of exposure with available or selected clothing.
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Effect of Chronic Cold Restraint and Immobilization Stress on Estrous Cycle in Rats

Effect of Chronic Cold Restraint and Immobilization Stress on Estrous Cycle in Rats

The present study was undertaken to study the effect of cold restraint and immobilization stress on estrous cycle in female rats. The estrous cycle in females involves many histological, physiological, morphological and biochemical changes within the ovary. During the estrous cycle the maturation and ovulation of preovulatory follicles takes place under the combine and balance influence of ovarian and extra ovarian hormones [9]. Any imbalance in these hormones leads to irregularity in the function of ovary and irregular changes in the duration of estrous cycle. Both the stressors produced a significant increase in the proestrous phase when compared to control indicating the arrest of follicular development at the initial stages, presence of atretic follicles supported by the histopathological studies (Fig 1,2,3). Atretic follicles are degenerating preovulatory follicles, the degeneration of preovulatory follicles takes place when their growth and differentiation becomes disrupted [10]. The disruption in the growth and differentiation of preovulatory follicles takes place either due to non availability of steroidal hormones, which are essential for their maturation and differentiation [11], or due to non availability of local estrogen produced by granulosa cells [12], or due to availability of imbalanced endogeneous steroid and protein hormones [13].
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Evaluation of Potential Central Protective Role of Ethanol Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. In Acute and Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) Induced Models in SD Rats

Evaluation of Potential Central Protective Role of Ethanol Extract of Pedalium Murex Linn. In Acute and Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) Induced Models in SD Rats

In an organism, diverse stressors activate a wide spectrum of interacting hormonal and neuronal systems resulting in behavioral (anxiety disorders, decrease in food intake, decrease in sexual behavior, and loss of cognitive function) and physiological responses [activation of pituitary adrenal axis and release of glucocorticoids into the blood stream] (Henry & Stephens, 1977). These stressors are stimulators of arousal and lead to autonomic (changes in body temperature and tachycardia) and behavioral changes; however, when arousal increases to stress‐like levels, it results in psychiatric and physical disorders (Hennessy et al., 1979) [Figure 1]. Different animal models have been developed for chronic stress  induced neurological disorders such as the olfactory bulbectomy model, and the chronic unpredictable stress model. These animal models are used to screen various new chemical entities and to develop a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathway in chronic stress pathology. Stress responses are variable and there are individual differences both physiologically and behaviorally in how an organism perceives a perturbation and in the resulting adaptational/maladaptational processes (Weiner, 1992).
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Adrenergic modulation of focal adhesion kinase protects human ovarian cancer cells from anoikis

Adrenergic modulation of focal adhesion kinase protects human ovarian cancer cells from anoikis

Chronic stress is associated with hormonal changes that are known to affect multiple systems, including the immune and endocrine systems, but the effects of stress on cancer growth and progression are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that human ovarian cancer cells exposed to either norepinephrine or epinephrine exhibit lower levels of anoikis, the process by which cells enter apoptosis when separated from ECM and neighboring cells. In an orthotopic mouse model of human ovarian cancer, restraint stress and the associated increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine protected the tumor cells from anoikis and promoted their growth by activating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). These effects involved phosphorylation of FAK Y397 , which was itself associated with actin-dependent Src interaction with membrane-associated FAK. Importantly, in human ovarian cancer patients, behavioral states related to greater adrenergic activity were associated with higher levels of pFAK Y397 , which was in turn linked to substantially accelerated mortality. These data
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The ethanol extract of Aquilariae Lignum ameliorates hippocampal oxidative stress in a repeated restraint stress mouse model

The ethanol extract of Aquilariae Lignum ameliorates hippocampal oxidative stress in a repeated restraint stress mouse model

Results: Restraint stress considerably increased the serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline and the hippocampal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). ALE administration significantly attenuated the above abnormalities. ALE also significantly normalized the stress-induced activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in the hippocampus as well as the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ). The in vitro assay outcome supplemented ALE could dramatically block NF- κ B activation in microglia. The anti-oxidative stress effects of ALE were supported by the results of antioxidant components, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NFE2L2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampal tissues.
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