This paper presents a study of structural properties of the global and Brazilian scientific collaboration networks in the area of Computer Science. In particular, we use DBLP (large database of mostly Computer Science publications) to char- acterize and compare these two networks, focusing on the intensity of relationships among individuals. We also de- velop a method to rank vertices in collaboration networks. The main idea of the proposed method is to rank individu- als within a group (and not in absolute terms) using a met- ric that is proportional to the relationships of the individual with individuals outside the group. Intuitively, influential in- dividuals within a group tend to play the role of information bridges between the group and the outside, and such metric attempts to identify them.
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Abstract: Numerous studies in management, sociology, and economics have documented that the architecture of collaboration networks affects the innovation performance of individuals, firms, and regions. Little is known though about whether the association between collaboration patterns and innovation outcomes depends on the network geographical boundaries chosen by the researcher. This issue is crucial for both policy-makers and firms that rely on innovation. This article compares the association between collaboration networks and future patenting between regional and country-level collaboration networks. If we relate future innovation to the global, country-wide network our statistical analysis reproduces the findings of the previous literature. However, we find systematically less important effects of regional innovation patterns on subsequent patenting of innovators. Hence, managers and policy makers should choose the boundaries of the innovation networks that they look at carefully, aiming for integration into larger-scale collaboration communities.
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In recent years, data mining in Heterogeneous Information Networks (HINs) has gained popularity. We can colloquially define an HIN as a network with nodes and edges of different types. Gong et al. (2012) give a formal mathematical definition and describe a Social-Attribute Network (SAN) which is an example of a heterogeneous network. HINs are widely used to model and study different types of networks in various fields, like social sciences, biology, medicine, and transportation, as well as across fields (e.g., scientific collaboration networks). The fact that heterogeneous networks include dif- ferent types of entities and relationships in many cases significantly simplifies the process of mapping the properties of objects being studied to the attributes of network entities, as compared to homogeneous networks. For example, in the dblp computer science bibliography database (UT 2016) one node can represent either a publica- tion or an author. Publications and authors are connected with relationships, such as a “coauthor” relationship, and pairs of relationships, like “cite” and “cited-by”, and “publish” and “published-by”. Even though multilayer networks and HINs have differ- ent terminologies they can be essentially treated as networks with multiple types of nodes. At the same time, HINs highlight different types of relationships among the nodes.
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We analyze large-scale data sets about collaborations from two diﬀerent domains: economics, speciﬁcally 22,000 R&D alliances between 14,500 ﬁrms, and science, speciﬁcally 300,000 co-authorship relations between 95,000 scientists. Considering the diﬀerent domains of the data sets, we address two questions: (a) to what extent do the collaboration networks reconstructed from the data share common structural features, and (b) can their structure be reproduced by the same agent-based model. In our data-driven modeling approach we use aggregated network data to calibrate the probabilities at which agents establish collaborations with either newcomers or established agents. The model is then validated by its ability to reproduce network features not used for calibration, including distributions of degrees, path lengths, local clustering coeﬃcients and sizes of disconnected components. Emphasis is put on comparing domains, but also sub-domains (economic sectors, scientiﬁc
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Promoted since the process of changes that the National System of Science and Technology underwent since the year 2000, research collaboration networks have been the subject of study by researchers from the different areas of know- ledge. The studies on this theme seek, among other objectives, to map and ana- lyze the networks of scientific collaboration of the areas, identifying the structure of relationship between institutions or researchers. Soares, Souza and Moura (2010), for example, demonstrated the tendency of scientific collaboration in the production of research in the areas of Political Science and Sociology. Cruz et al. (2011) outlined the profile of the collaboration networks formed among the re- searchers involved in the Congress of Accounting and Accounting of the Uni- versity of São Paulo (USP). Already Çavuşoğlu and Türker (2014) have devel- oped networks of scientific collaboration in the fields of engineering, mathemat- ics, physics and medicine as a subset of the Turkish collaboration network.
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Abstract. Understanding software structural complexity and evolution plays an important role in controlling the software development and maintenance process. Recent studies have shown that the theory behind complex networks, especially the theory of scale-free networks, can be a useful approach to the analysis of concrete software systems. In this paper, class collaboration networks associated with five large Java software systems (JDK, Ant, Tomcat, Lucene and JavaCC) are analyzed in order to determine whether they belong to the class of scale-free networks, and examine their small-world characteristics. For each analyzed network, we detected (approximately) scale-free and (ultra) small- world properties. The results indicate that general conclusions from scale-free network theory can be applied to Java software systems in order to understand their structural complexity and model software evolution at the structural (class collaboration) level. Moreover, we examine class collaboration network evolution of Ant, in order to check the preferential attachment hypothesis of the Barabási-Albert model. For several major Ant network transitions we con- clude that preferential attachment can successfully model Ant evolution at the class collaboration level. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on software engineering, in several aspects: identification of important clas- ses/interfaces, software testing strategy, and efficient communication among software entities.
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The conceptual paper is significant as it will provide important implications to groups of potential users of SME performance evaluation models such as owners or founders of SMEs who want to monitor the performance of their firms. The study attempts to look into the impact of collaboration networks towards the knowledge- processing capabilities on the firm‘s innovation performance. The study will also look into the mediating effect of absorptive capacity between collaboration networks and the innovation performance. The result of these linkages may provide information benefits to SMEs on how to leverage absorptive capacity in order to enhance firm‘s innovation activities.This study is also relevant to policy-makers who design support mechanisms and schemes to promote the creation and growth of small firms. Last but not least, this conceptual paper can add to contribute as a literature for scholars to make reference.
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The stakeholders of regional tourism cooperation use online information systems to reach their potential customers with targeted messages over the web, to process financial accounts, and to manage their human resources. Governments deploy online information systems to provide services cost-effectively to travelers by digital goods, such as software and online services, such as auctions and social networking. The so-called organization elements are essential ingredient and content when organizations are built. Each organization is a system consisted of organization elements, and elements are independent. Leavitt's organization model includes four organization elements, social structure, participants, objectives and technology. Fayol thinks that it includes human-beings, management level, personal capacity, person selection, training and use . These views are basically based on the internal elements of real firms. As regional tourism cooperation organization is an online, multi-generalized organization, it should not only consider internal elements, but also cover environmental elements of the marginalized organization in a certain degree. It is believed that, the organization elements of the regional tourism cooperation organization includes regionalism, collaboration networks, organization infrastructure, market capacity, transmission mechanism of information, technology, innovation, policy and regulations, credit and morality, social environment, organization goals and coordination mechanisms. Regional tourism cooperation serves as a tool to fulfill the effect created by the whole region. Theoretically, the entirety is more than simple addition of resources. According to the module type that they provide for the cooperative organization system, organizational elements for the regional tourism cooperation can be divided into three categories, which are premise elements, collaborative elements and foundation elements. The classification is shown in figure1.
Finally, scientific collaboration networks are not limited to co-authorship networks. Bazzan and Argenta  create a social network of the PC (Program Committee) members of conferences sponsored by the Brazilian Computer Society (SBC). The relations among nodes of this network are estab- lished according to co-authorship data extracted from the DBLP. By using well-known network metrics, such as node degree, largest connected component and clustering coeffi- cient, the authors show that the studied network does not fit any well-established pattern when compared to other net- works studied in the literature. This is probably due to the fact that members of this network do not necessarily inter- act with one another in terms of co-authorship, once they belong to different sub-areas within Computer Science. One of the main findings was that the most connected nodes are non-Brazilian PC members, and they play an important role in the network by acting as connectors between Brazilian researchers. When compared to our work, we point out that SBRC includes both well-established authors and newcom- ers to the symposium, while the PC network is formed exclu- sively by members of senior character, which explains the difference in some of the metrics. Nevertheless, we observed that the SBRC network follows similar patterns to other pre- viously analyzed scientific events and communities, such as the ones in [30,38] and .
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Exponential cutoffs have been identified in protein, e-mail, actor and collaboration net- works, and possibly in the web graph [MBSA02]; it is likely exponential cutoffs also occur in other complex networks. Our model assumes that balls are discarded rather than just be- coming inactive as in actor and collaboration networks (the treatment of such networks with inactive nodes will be dealt in a subsequent paper). We have validated our model with data from a yeast protein network, showing that our model provides a possible explanation for the exponential cutoff. We have also presented convincing numerical evidence of the existence of a cutoff in this network.
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Currently, the collaboration in scientific communities has been studied in order to explain, among other things, the knowledge diffusion. The quality of Graduate Programmes is often associated with the scientific collabora- tion. This paper discusses how scientific collaboration processes can be identified and characterized through so- cial and complex networks. For this purpose, collaboration networks of bibliographic production, research projects, and committees of PhD theses and Masters’ dissertations by researchers from a graduate program in computational modeling were studied. The data were obtained from CAPES’ reports of the period from 2001 to 2009. Among the studied indices, centrality indices indicate the presence of prominent researchers who influence others and promptly interact with other researchers in the network. The indices of complex networks reveal the presence of the small-world (i.e. these networks are favorable to increase coordination between researchers) phenomenon and indicate a behavior of scale-free degree distribution (i.e. some researchers promote clustering more than others) for one of the studied networks.
The TVET institutions should growth the linkages between industrial production and education and serve the needs of domestic economic development. The government of Ethiopia should prepare the policies on TVET – industry linkages provided the basis for the policy framework for TVET industry collaboration. Providing quality training to produce competent graduates in Knowledge, Skill and Work ethics and demand-driven and market-oriented are some of the major components of TVET institution mission. The adoption of market-responsive TVET is still on-going process in Ethiopia and a very new experience in emerging economies or those moving away from a centralized, command and control dominated recent history. The major customer of TVET is industry. Without the linkage with the industry TVET graduates cannot maintain professional competencies and also the industrial output can’t be growth only with low-level human resources. Collaboration between TVET and industries is critical for skills development, generation, innovation and technology transfer. The trainees’ feel industrial training provides them with the real experience they can link to theoretical knowledge that TVETs or University exposed them too. Research indicates these industrial training do actually improve trainee's soft skills as expected .The TVET institutions have to strengthen links with industries to improve networking between academia and industries to create a better understanding of each other’s needs and to identify how they can be met through the industry programs. One of the major features of this collaboration is its emphasis on the preparation for trainees’ employment.
argued that being embedded in a very dense, interconnected, “cliquish” network generates benefits by enhancing the trust among individuals and thereby encouraging joint activities and the sharing of tacit and complex knowledge. Consequently, the effect of sharing a mutual acquaintance increases the likelihood of forming a dyad between indirectly connected actors. Said differently, open triads tend to close over time. These so-‐called “triadic closures” occur when an actor becomes connected to one’s partner’s partner, that is, when they share some level of social proximity. As will be discussed later, this social proximity strongly interacts with other forms of proximities since prior ties are highly localized and strongly embedded in kinship, professional and friendship networks (Boschma, 2005, Breschi and Lissoni, 2009, Ter Wal, 2011). For the sake of analytical clarity, social proximity is defined in a very restricted manner; it refers to direct or indirect inter-‐personal connections between any two actors. It is different from other forms of proximity such as being located in the same region, working for the same company or being part of the same technological community. The fact that individuals are proximate in those dimensions does not necessarily mean that they share inter-‐personal relationships.
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Before analysing what the MOZART case has to tell us about the relationships outlined in our theory framework, it is worth noting that one of the most striking features of this case is the sheer complexity of governance and the overall scale of transaction costs involved. Given the uncertain benefits of the R&D collaboration advanced here, as well as the difficulties of appropriation for quasi-public goods, it seems reasonable to argue that MOZART could only have been developed with the institutional and financial support of the EU and its member states. The involvement of the EU is not only important in providing the necessary resources for complex governance structures, but is also a major contributor to their complexity as the vertical relationship between the EU and the programme creates additional needs for coordination, oversight and transparency. The resulting complexity of the governance structure for MOZART also brings into sharp relief the crucial role which new internet-based technologies played in absorbing complexity and reducing transaction costs to a feasible level (Child and McGrath 2001). As was noted in the case, and as we will explore in more detail below, the influence of IT on governance, indeed its role as a mode of governance alongside organizational form (Weick 1990), was not only a feature of the programme as a whole, but was also important in shaping the paths taken by different work packages within that programme.
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Easier We Must Make it Harder - Study Hacks - Cal Newport,” n.d.). Another way that communication costs might be harnessed is through the geographic costs associated with physical distance. Managers might physically position research divisions at geographically distant regions to make it more costly in terms of time and effort for individuals to communicate, while still allowing these ties to exist (Benner & Tushman, 2003; O’Reilly & Tushman, 2004). Additionally, corporate trends toward creating virtual teams that are geographically dispersed, which has traditionally been seen as a problem, may actually have the benefit of increasing the costs of collaboration and thus lowering collaborative efficiency (Maznevski & Chudoba, 2000). Finally, organizations might use desk and office layouts to structure more effective collaborate
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Moreover, it is important to remember that the British Empire furnished networks and resources accessed by a wide range of scholars from different countries, who worked with each other, as well as with the British. While we should certainly recover historical evidence for a “ British academic world ” , this should not be achieved at the expense of recognising vital ties which continued to exist between British (and colonial British) scholars and their counterparts based in other (especially European) countries who also made profitable use of the spaces and networks of empire. 21 With a view to reconstructing a clearer picture of the motivations driving scholars who made use of British imperial networks in their work and the identities which they fashioned in relation to their participation in these networks, this article is divided into three distinct sections: first, an examination of those scholars, for whom an identification with imperialism and the ideal of empire was indeed an important factor; second, a section exploring alternative reasons for participating in imperial networks and the multiple loyalties and attachments which frequently co-existed in individual scholars who traversed them; and finally, a section which focuses upon the development of discourses
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Institutions-industry collaborations are expected to develop research capacity on both directions, change production rate and promote commercialization powers of products that emerged from the research projects. To develop institution- industry collaboration, Organizational assist should be providing through center for research and for TVET (University) relations. Increasing research capabilities is one of the goals of collaborations in the higher education sector. The main of the work-based learning program will be to increase employability potential of graduates by promoting their soft skills, practical skills. Despite its capacity benefits, the WBL faces many problems in terms of students’ logistics services .
“unique pedagogical affordances” (Alexander & Hammond, 2012, p. 56) different tools offer. Scott engaged new technologies in the design of his courses; he managed his own technical learning; and then shared with others or sought assistance from others as part of his learning journey. The availability of software, tools and network access impacted on the usage of ICT tools for Alison. Scott commented that he has found “informal networks are useful to gain knowledge of new ICT tools; I need to hook into others who know”. He also commented that in his role as ICT mentor he has found that “helping others has been a good way to learn new skills”.
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Abstract : This article was written with the aim of to develop a technology for teaching photonics and optoinformatics using distance learning in collaboration with social networks. The following problems are considered in the article: application of social networks and distance education as a means of teaching photonics and optoinformatics. The hypothesis is verified: to use social networks like ―VKontakte‖, ―Facebook‖, ―Odnoklassniki‖ and ―Telegram‖ when teaching photonics and optoinformatics in physics courses at universities, then students' interest in science will increase, and the level and volume of work can also be optimized, which will contribute to improving the quality of physics education; whether teachers' interest in using distance education in physics lessons will increase. To achieve the goal of the study, the following tasks were verified: to analyze the state of the problem of using distance learning complete with social networks in the educational process as a whole and in teaching physics, in particular; to develop recommendations for their use in teaching physics; to offer productive areas for teachers to use social networks and distance learning physics. The methodological basis of the study was the work on the theory, methodology and practice of teaching physics, photonics and opto-informatics. The article analyzes the basic concepts of creating courses in the platform of distance education, including the creation of interdisciplinary courses in physics, mechanics and chemistry. At the end of the article, recommendations are developed and conclusions are given.
VF deployment options in ‘deep’ networks: Two require- ments compete in deploying a verification filter. First, it must be deployed sufficiently deep in the network to be beyond the saturation boundary. Second, the deeper the network, the less willing its operator is to deploy complex forwarding logic beyond examination of the destination host address, as capacities aggregate, and speed dominates requirements. Even with hardware data-plane programmability such as proposed by BPFabric, the overhead of a VF deployment might be too great for the network in which it must be deployed. However, the H component (Figure 2) has been consciously separated from other functionality to suggest a solution in such high-performance and low-programmability environments. H is fundamentally a destination-host forwarding function, so it already exists, even in deep networks. It can be used to separate attack traffic to auxiliary devices that have greater programmability, and so are capable of hosting VF. This is feasible so long as the attack volume exceeds the capacity of neither the channel that carries the separated traffic to VF, nor the receiving hardware itself. Extended forwarding functionality offered by the likes of OpenFlow and BPFabric could also help, e.g., source hashing for load-balancing across multiple VFs, and tunneling for reaching non-adjacent VFs.
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