In this section, we report the results of the simulation. All studies that follow were carried out with the R statistical software package (R Core Team, 2014). We consider some well- known distribution functions, and therefore we can easily achieve Q u ( ) . These distributions are: Uniform(0, 1), Exponential(1), Normal(0, 1), Lognormal(0, 1) and Weibull(1, 1). By using the simulation, samples from these distributions were generated and then by using the estimator of the quantile density function, we obtain a CI from this sample. By repeating this process, we compute CP, MSE and the expected length of CI. Also, we obtain CI by sectioning and jackknife methods and we compute their CP, MSE and the expected length similarly.
PSA, prostate-specific antigen; CRPC, castration-resistant prostate cancer; CI, confidenceinterval; PSADT1, PSA doubling time calculated using the conventional interval from the first rise greater than the nadir during androgen deprivation therapy until the start of the next treatment; PSADT2, PSA doubling time calculated using the period from the initial rise after anti-androgen withdrawal until the start of chemotherapy; PSADT3, PSA doubling time calculated using the total period from the first rise greater than the nadir during androgen deprivation therapy until the start of chemotherapy; ratio of PSA doubling time, PSADT2/ PSADT1.
RESULTS—We enrolled 1918 women. After a median follow-up of 6.3 years, there were 165 events involving disease recurrence or the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (67 with letrozole and 98 with placebo) and 200 deaths (100 in each group). The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 95% (95% confidenceinterval [CI], 93 to 96) with letrozole and 91% (95% CI; 89 to 93) with placebo (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer, 0.66; P = 0.01 by a two-sided log-rank test stratified according to nodal status, prior adjuvant chemotherapy, the interval from the last dose of aromatase-inhibitor therapy, and the duration of treatment with tamoxifen). The rate of 5-year overall survival was 93% (95% CI, 92 to 95) with letrozole and 94% (95% CI, 92 to 95) with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.97; P = 0.83). The annual incidence rate of contralateral breast cancer in the letrozole group was 0.21% (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.32), and the rate in the placebo group was 0.49% (95% CI, 0.32 to 0.67) (hazard ratio, 0.42; P = 0.007). Bone-related toxic effects occurred more frequently among patients receiving letrozole than among those receiving placebo, including a higher incidence of bone pain, bone fractures, and new-onset osteoporosis. No significant differences between letrozole and placebo were observed in scores on most subscales measuring quality of life.
CI: Confidenceinterval; DC: Decompressive craniectomy; DECIMAL: Decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction; DESTINY: Decompressive surgery for the treatment of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery; HAMLET: Hemicraniectomy in older patients with extensive middle-cerebral-artery stroke; HeADDFIRST: Hemicraniectomy and durotomy upon deterioration from infarction-related swelling trial; mMCAI: Malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions; mRS: Modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS: National Institute of Health stroke scale; OR: Odds ratio; P: Prospective; R: Retrospective; RCTs: Randomized controlled trials
In bivariate analysis, correlation was discovered be- tween “publications” and other characteristics of the par- ticipants. For instance, “age” (p = 0.003) and “year of studies” (p = 0.0001) were associated with having pub- lished scientific papers (Table 3). Lastly, multiple logistic regression analysis shows that the opportunity to publish among medical students doing research is 0.22 (95% Confidenceinterval [CI] = 0.14–0.34, p < 0.001). It was found that participants who consider themselves as “in- novators” have an opportunity 3.5 times greater to pub- lish scientific findings than those who do not. Furthermore, “committed” participants had an oppor- tunity to publish scientific papers of 3.38 compared to those who do not. Participants with more than one fin- ished research project had a probability 9.13 times higher of publishing papers than those who have none (Table 4). Difference of log-likelihood ratio of the inter- cept only (−62.786) compared to the full model (−28.825) was statistically significant (Chi-square = 67.9, p = 0.0001, McFadden’s Adjusted R 2
both by total indices on the whole, i.e. by the coordinates of the vectors z 1 ( 1 ) , z 2 ( 1 ) , Z 3 ( 1 ) and by separate economic factors, i.e. by the coordinates of the vectors z 1 ( 1 ) , z 2 ( 1 ) , z 3 ( 1 ) . Furthermore, it is possible to compare prediction values of economic event by three criteria 1) by the results of calculations on linear criterion; 2) by the results of calculations according to continuation of the points of the second piecewise-linear vector-function; 3) by the results of calculations of a vector function with regard to uncertainty factors influence. The scheme of comparison of predictable variants are graphically represented in fig. .1, and in numerical form in tables 5.2 and 5.2. Here for any value of an arbitrary parameter 1 , changing in the interval
available resources at the time this study was conducted. As this was a pilot study, no existing relevant study from Japan was available to justify our sample size calculation. To assess the impact of the workshop, we compared physicians’ skills (average CR and SPRAT scores in each of their assessed domains) between pre- and post- workshop period using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The maternal and neonatal characteristics were compared between the pre- and post-workshop years (April 2008 to March 2009 and April 2009 to March 2010, respectively) using Chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared neo- natal outcomes between pre- and post-workshop periods, adjusting for potential confounders i.e., gender, gestational age, Apgar score at 5 minutes, C-section, antenatal steroid use, maternal hypertension, chorioamnionitis, outborn, and the interaction term between the periods (pre- vs. post-workshop) and sites (intervention vs. control NICUs). A significant interaction term between the periods and sites indicates a significant difference in the intervention impact between the intervention and control NICUs. The ORs with 95% confidenceinterval (CI) determination in the regression model were separately reported for both the intervention and control sites. We also con- ducted difference-in-differences (DID) analysis for the binary outcomes accounting for aggregate time effect [33,34]. We addressed missing data using complete case analyses and excluded observations with missing pre- dictor variables. The data management and statistical analyses were performed using PASW statistics 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Hong Kong) and SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). A significant level of 2-sided p value <0.05 was used.
As next, each group within the regular items was analysed on the same statistics as before (Table 5). Here to point out are the results of the category “Time” which scored the lowest of all categories with a mean of 1.49, a standard deviation of 0.325 and a ConfidenceInterval of 1.04 and 1.94. This shows a high relation of the items to the pre-established categories and internal consistency of the answers due to the lowest standard deviation. In contrast, the category “Outdoor” scored the highest in this questionnaire. Here, the results are a mean of 2.950, a standard deviation of 0.826 and a 95% ConfidenceInterval of 2.5 to 3.4 95%. Therefore, together with the category “Visual”, a 95% ConfidenceInterval of 2.4 to 3.29, either of them lies within the ConfidenceInterval of the Filler items. That indicates the means of the categories Social, Tactile and Time are with a probability of 95% or more distinct from the ones of the Filler items. Whereas, the means of the categories Outdoor and Visual are not clearly distinct with a probability of 95% or more from random Filler items (Table 5).
Methods: From November 2007 through April 2012, adult renal transplant recipients were randomized, in an open-label, single-center study, at a 1:1 ratio to 3-month prophylaxis with valganciclovir ( n = 60) or valacyclovir ( n = 59). The primary endpoint was moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy assessed by protocol biopsy at 3 years evaluated by a single pathologist blinded to the study group. The analysis was conducted in an intention-to-treat population. Results: Among the 101 patients who had a protocol biopsy specimen available, the risk of moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy was significantly lower in those treated with valganciclovir (22% versus 34%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidenceinterval, 0.11 – 0.90; P = 0.032 by multivariate logistic regression). The incidence of CMV disease (9% versus 2%; P = 0.115) and CMV DNAemia (36% versus 42%; P = 0.361) were not different at 3 years.
accuracy problems caused by experimental imperfections are to some extend deterministic in nature and they can potentially be corrected if suitable calibration or correc- tion data can be measured [8-10]. Other measurement imperfections such as errors caused by vessel segmenta- tion are not necessarily deterministic and can be hard to correct. The noise level and how this noise propagates through the measurement and analysis determine the lower bound of the precision. Like all CMR measure- ments, PC studies are affected by thermal noise. This thermal noise propagates from the individual k-space samples through the reconstruction to the image pixels and finally through the analysis to the volume flow mea- surements calculated using region of interest (ROI) mea- surements. As a result, all PC derived measurements such as flow curves, stroke volumes, or Qp:Qs (ratio of pulmonary to systemic flow) have uncertainty (or confi- dence interval) associated with them caused by thermal noise. This confidenceinterval is influenced by a num- ber of parameters such as magnetic field strength, field of view, spatial resolution, actual flow rates, velocity sensitivity settings, vessel sizes, contrast agents, receive coil configuration, parallel imaging, reconstruction algo- rithm, etc. Some of these parameters remain fixed from patient to patient but others change regularly and may affect the confidenceinterval (or precision) of flow mea- surements in ways that are less than intuitive. This makes it challenging to calculate the confidence intervals or the precision for flow measurements.
Statistical analysis was performed on the log-transformed plasma PK parameters. Point estimates and their asso- ciated 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed for the differences between test and reference treatments. Dolutegravir (treatment A) or DCV (treatment B), when given alone under fasted conditions, was considered to be the reference treatment. The test treatments were DTG coadministered with DCV (treatment C) under fasted conditions. The point estimates and their associated 90 % CIs were back-transformed to provide the ratios of geometric least-squares means and associated 90 % CIs for test/reference for the PK parameters AUC 0-τ , C τ , C max ,