Confidence interval (CI)

Top PDF Confidence interval (CI):

Nonparametric Confidence Interval for Quantiles

Nonparametric Confidence Interval for Quantiles

In this section, we report the results of the simulation. All studies that follow were carried out with the R statistical software package (R Core Team, 2014). We consider some well- known distribution functions, and therefore we can easily achieve Q u ( ) . These distributions are: Uniform(0, 1), Exponential(1), Normal(0, 1), Lognormal(0, 1) and Weibull(1, 1). By using the simulation, samples from these distributions were generated and then by using the estimator of the quantile density function, we obtain a CI from this sample. By repeating this process, we compute CP, MSE and the expected length of CI. Also, we obtain CI by sectioning and jackknife methods and we compute their CP, MSE and the expected length similarly.
Show more

16 Read more

Exponential Rise in Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) during Anti Androgen Withdrawal Predicts PSA Flare after Docetaxel Chemotherapy in Patients with Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

Exponential Rise in Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) during Anti Androgen Withdrawal Predicts PSA Flare after Docetaxel Chemotherapy in Patients with Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

PSA, prostate-specific antigen; CRPC, castration-resistant prostate cancer; CI, confidence interval; PSADT1, PSA doubling time calculated using the conventional interval from the first rise greater than the nadir during androgen deprivation therapy until the start of the next treatment; PSADT2, PSA doubling time calculated using the period from the initial rise after anti-androgen withdrawal until the start of chemotherapy; PSADT3, PSA doubling time calculated using the total period from the first rise greater than the nadir during androgen deprivation therapy until the start of chemotherapy; ratio of PSA doubling time, PSADT2/ PSADT1.
Show more

7 Read more

Comparative effect of iso-osmolar versus low-osmolar contrast media on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Comparative effect of iso-osmolar versus low-osmolar contrast media on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

CAG: Coronary angiography; CI: Confidence interval; CI-AKI: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury; CKD: Chronic kidney disease; DM: Diabetes mellitus; eGFR: Estimated glomerular rate; ESUR: European Society of Urogenital Radiology; IA: Intraarterial administration; IOCM: Iso-osmolar contrast media; IV: Intravenous administration; KIDGO: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes; LOCM: Low-osmolar contrast media; NAC: N- acetylcysteine; OR: Odds ratio; PRISMA-P: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis protocols cri- teria; RCTs: Randomized controlled trials; RevMan: Review Manager; SCr: Serum creatinine; WMD: Weighted mean difference
Show more

8 Read more

PubMedCentral-PMC5024713.pdf

PubMedCentral-PMC5024713.pdf

RESULTS—We enrolled 1918 women. After a median follow-up of 6.3 years, there were 165 events involving disease recurrence or the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (67 with letrozole and 98 with placebo) and 200 deaths (100 in each group). The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93 to 96) with letrozole and 91% (95% CI; 89 to 93) with placebo (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer, 0.66; P = 0.01 by a two-sided log-rank test stratified according to nodal status, prior adjuvant chemotherapy, the interval from the last dose of aromatase-inhibitor therapy, and the duration of treatment with tamoxifen). The rate of 5-year overall survival was 93% (95% CI, 92 to 95) with letrozole and 94% (95% CI, 92 to 95) with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.97; P = 0.83). The annual incidence rate of contralateral breast cancer in the letrozole group was 0.21% (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.32), and the rate in the placebo group was 0.49% (95% CI, 0.32 to 0.67) (hazard ratio, 0.42; P = 0.007). Bone-related toxic effects occurred more frequently among patients receiving letrozole than among those receiving placebo, including a higher incidence of bone pain, bone fractures, and new-onset osteoporosis. No significant differences between letrozole and placebo were observed in scores on most subscales measuring quality of life.
Show more

17 Read more

Decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions: a meta-analysis

Decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions: a meta-analysis

CI: Confidence interval; DC: Decompressive craniectomy; DECIMAL: Decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction; DESTINY: Decompressive surgery for the treatment of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery; HAMLET: Hemicraniectomy in older patients with extensive middle-cerebral-artery stroke; HeADDFIRST: Hemicraniectomy and durotomy upon deterioration from infarction-related swelling trial; mMCAI: Malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions; mRS: Modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS: National Institute of Health stroke scale; OR: Odds ratio; P: Prospective; R: Retrospective; RCTs: Randomized controlled trials
Show more

8 Read more

An international comparison of the deinstitutionalisation of mental health care: Development and findings of the Mental Health Services Deinstitutionalisation Measure (MENDit)

An international comparison of the deinstitutionalisation of mental health care: Development and findings of the Mental Health Services Deinstitutionalisation Measure (MENDit)

Abbreviations CI: Confidence interval; EUFAMI: European Federation of Associations of Families of People with Mental Illness; DEMoBinc: Development of a Measure of Best Practice for Peop[r]

10 Read more

Targeted temperature management for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: current concepts and clinical applications

Targeted temperature management for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: current concepts and clinical applications

AHA: American Heart Association; CI: confidence interval; CoSTR: Internatinal Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations; CPC: Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category; ERC: European Resuscitation Council; HR: hazard ratio; ICU: intensive care unit; IHCA: in-hospital cardiac arrest; ILCOR: International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; NCS: Neurocritical Care Society; NSE: neuron-specific enolase; OHCA: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; OR: odds ratio; PCAS: post-cardiac arrest syndrome; RCT: randomized controlled trial; ROSC: return of spontaneous circulation; RR: relative risk; TH: therapeutic hypothermia; TTM: targeted temperature management.
Show more

8 Read more

Development of a short scale for assessing economic environmental aspects in patients with spinal diseases using Rasch analysis

Development of a short scale for assessing economic environmental aspects in patients with spinal diseases using Rasch analysis

ANOVA: Analysis of Variance; CI: confidence interval; DIF: Differential item functioning; ICD: International Classification of Diseases; ICF: International Classification of Functioning,[r]

10 Read more

Predictors of mortality in connective tissue disease associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: a cohort study

Predictors of mortality in connective tissue disease associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: a cohort study

6MWD: six minute walk distance; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; CI: cardiac index; CTD: connective tissue disease; CTD-PAH: connective tissue disease- associated pulmonary arterial hypertension; DLCO: diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide; DVT: deep vein thrombosis; ERA: endothelin receptor antagonists; FVC: forced vital capacity; GI: gastrointestinal; HR: hazard ratio; HRCT: high-resolution computed tomography; ILD: interstitial lung disease; INR: International Normalised Ratio; IPAH: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; K-M curves: Kaplan-Meier curves; MCTD: mixed connective tissue disease; mPAP: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; mRAP: mean right atrial pressure; PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; PDE5:
Show more

9 Read more

Medical student researchers in Colombia and associated factors with publication: a cross-sectional study

Medical student researchers in Colombia and associated factors with publication: a cross-sectional study

In bivariate analysis, correlation was discovered be- tween “publications” and other characteristics of the par- ticipants. For instance, “age” (p = 0.003) and “year of studies” (p = 0.0001) were associated with having pub- lished scientific papers (Table 3). Lastly, multiple logistic regression analysis shows that the opportunity to publish among medical students doing research is 0.22 (95% Confidence interval [CI] = 0.14–0.34, p < 0.001). It was found that participants who consider themselves as “in- novators” have an opportunity 3.5 times greater to pub- lish scientific findings than those who do not. Furthermore, “committed” participants had an oppor- tunity to publish scientific papers of 3.38 compared to those who do not. Participants with more than one fin- ished research project had a probability 9.13 times higher of publishing papers than those who have none (Table 4). Difference of log-likelihood ratio of the inter- cept only (−62.786) compared to the full model (−28.825) was statistically significant (Chi-square = 67.9, p = 0.0001, McFadden’s Adjusted R 2
Show more

8 Read more

Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta analysis

Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta analysis

*The risk in the ADHD group and its 95% confidence interval is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the exposure and its 95% CI CI confidence inte[r]

12 Read more

An efficacy comparison of anti-vascular growth factor agents and laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular edema: a network meta-analysis incorporating individual patient-level data

An efficacy comparison of anti-vascular growth factor agents and laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular edema: a network meta-analysis incorporating individual patient-level data

2q8: 2 mg bimonthly; BCVA: Best-corrected visual acuity; CI: Confidence interval; CrI: Credible interval; CRT: Central retinal thickness; DME: Diabetic macular edema; DRCR.net: Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network; ETDRS: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; IPD: Individual patient- level data; IVT-AFL: Intravitreal aflibercept; NMA: Network meta-analysis; OR: Odds ratio; PICOS: Populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study design; PRN: As-needed; RCT: Randomised controlled trial; SD: Standard deviation; SE: Standard error; T&E: Treat-and-extend; VAS: Visual acuity score; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor
Show more

11 Read more

Estimation of Central Osteopenia in Children With Chronic Polyarthritis Treated With Glucocorticoids

Estimation of Central Osteopenia in Children With Chronic Polyarthritis Treated With Glucocorticoids

Abbreviations: BMD, bone mineral density; BMDvol, bone volumetric density; JCA, juvenile chronic. polyarthritis; CI, confidence interval[r]

6 Read more

An Improved Confidence Interval

An Improved Confidence Interval

both by total indices on the whole, i.e. by the coordinates of the vectors z  1 (  1 ) , z  2 (  1 ) , Z  3 (  1 ) and by separate economic factors, i.e. by the coordinates of the vectors z  1 (  1 ) , z  2 (  1 ) , z  3 (  1 ) . Furthermore, it is possible to compare prediction values of economic event by three criteria 1) by the results of calculations on linear criterion; 2) by the results of calculations according to continuation of the points of the second piecewise-linear vector-function; 3) by the results of calculations of a vector function with regard to uncertainty factors influence. The scheme of comparison of predictable variants are graphically represented in fig. .1, and in numerical form in tables 5.2 and 5.2. Here for any value of an arbitrary parameter  1 , changing in the interval
Show more

25 Read more

The effect of professional-led guideline workshops on clinical practice for the management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates in Japan: a controlled before-and-after study

The effect of professional-led guideline workshops on clinical practice for the management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates in Japan: a controlled before-and-after study

available resources at the time this study was conducted. As this was a pilot study, no existing relevant study from Japan was available to justify our sample size calculation. To assess the impact of the workshop, we compared physicians’ skills (average CR and SPRAT scores in each of their assessed domains) between pre- and post- workshop period using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The maternal and neonatal characteristics were compared between the pre- and post-workshop years (April 2008 to March 2009 and April 2009 to March 2010, respectively) using Chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared neo- natal outcomes between pre- and post-workshop periods, adjusting for potential confounders i.e., gender, gestational age, Apgar score at 5 minutes, C-section, antenatal steroid use, maternal hypertension, chorioamnionitis, outborn, and the interaction term between the periods (pre- vs. post-workshop) and sites (intervention vs. control NICUs). A significant interaction term between the periods and sites indicates a significant difference in the intervention impact between the intervention and control NICUs. The ORs with 95% confidence interval (CI) determination in the regression model were separately reported for both the intervention and control sites. We also con- ducted difference-in-differences (DID) analysis for the binary outcomes accounting for aggregate time effect [33,34]. We addressed missing data using complete case analyses and excluded observations with missing pre- dictor variables. The data management and statistical analyses were performed using PASW statistics 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Hong Kong) and SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). A significant level of 2-sided p value <0.05 was used.
Show more

10 Read more

Systematic review and network meta analysis of tedizolid for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by MRSA

Systematic review and network meta analysis of tedizolid for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by MRSA

ABSSSI: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection; AE: Adverse event; CI: Confidence interval; CrI: Credible interval; cSSSI: Complicated skin and skin structure infections; cSSTI: Complicated skin and soft tissue infections; EOT: End of treatment; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; ITC: Indirect treatment comparison; ITT: Intention to treat; mITT: Modified intention to treat; MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ; MSSA: Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ; NICE: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; NMA: Network meta-analysis; OR: Odds ratio; PBAC: Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee; PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; PTE: Post-treatment evaluation; RCT: Randomised controlled trial; TOC: Test of cure.
Show more

11 Read more

Organisation of semantic knowledge:
A comparison between the semantic system and the mental model

Organisation of semantic knowledge: A comparison between the semantic system and the mental model

As next, each group within the regular items was analysed on the same statistics as before (Table 5). Here to point out are the results of the category “Time” which scored the lowest of all categories with a mean of 1.49, a standard deviation of 0.325 and a Confidence Interval of 1.04 and 1.94. This shows a high relation of the items to the pre-established categories and internal consistency of the answers due to the lowest standard deviation. In contrast, the category “Outdoor” scored the highest in this questionnaire. Here, the results are a mean of 2.950, a standard deviation of 0.826 and a 95% Confidence Interval of 2.5 to 3.4 95%. Therefore, together with the category “Visual”, a 95% Confidence Interval of 2.4 to 3.29, either of them lies within the Confidence Interval of the Filler items. That indicates the means of the categories Social, Tactile and Time are with a probability of 95% or more distinct from the ones of the Filler items. Whereas, the means of the categories Outdoor and Visual are not clearly distinct with a probability of 95% or more from random Filler items (Table 5).
Show more

31 Read more

Less renal allograft fibrosis with valganciclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus compared to high dose valacyclovir: a parallel group, open label, randomized controlled trial

Less renal allograft fibrosis with valganciclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus compared to high dose valacyclovir: a parallel group, open label, randomized controlled trial

Methods: From November 2007 through April 2012, adult renal transplant recipients were randomized, in an open-label, single-center study, at a 1:1 ratio to 3-month prophylaxis with valganciclovir ( n = 60) or valacyclovir ( n = 59). The primary endpoint was moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy assessed by protocol biopsy at 3 years evaluated by a single pathologist blinded to the study group. The analysis was conducted in an intention-to-treat population. Results: Among the 101 patients who had a protocol biopsy specimen available, the risk of moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy was significantly lower in those treated with valganciclovir (22% versus 34%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.11 – 0.90; P = 0.032 by multivariate logistic regression). The incidence of CMV disease (9% versus 2%; P = 0.115) and CMV DNAemia (36% versus 42%; P = 0.361) were not different at 3 years.
Show more

9 Read more

Method for calculating confidence intervals for phase contrast flow measurements

Method for calculating confidence intervals for phase contrast flow measurements

accuracy problems caused by experimental imperfections are to some extend deterministic in nature and they can potentially be corrected if suitable calibration or correc- tion data can be measured [8-10]. Other measurement imperfections such as errors caused by vessel segmenta- tion are not necessarily deterministic and can be hard to correct. The noise level and how this noise propagates through the measurement and analysis determine the lower bound of the precision. Like all CMR measure- ments, PC studies are affected by thermal noise. This thermal noise propagates from the individual k-space samples through the reconstruction to the image pixels and finally through the analysis to the volume flow mea- surements calculated using region of interest (ROI) mea- surements. As a result, all PC derived measurements such as flow curves, stroke volumes, or Qp:Qs (ratio of pulmonary to systemic flow) have uncertainty (or confi- dence interval) associated with them caused by thermal noise. This confidence interval is influenced by a num- ber of parameters such as magnetic field strength, field of view, spatial resolution, actual flow rates, velocity sensitivity settings, vessel sizes, contrast agents, receive coil configuration, parallel imaging, reconstruction algo- rithm, etc. Some of these parameters remain fixed from patient to patient but others change regularly and may affect the confidence interval (or precision) of flow mea- surements in ways that are less than intuitive. This makes it challenging to calculate the confidence intervals or the precision for flow measurements.
Show more

12 Read more

No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dolutegravir and daclatasvir in healthy adult subjects

No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dolutegravir and daclatasvir in healthy adult subjects

Statistical analysis was performed on the log-transformed plasma PK parameters. Point estimates and their asso- ciated 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed for the differences between test and reference treatments. Dolutegravir (treatment A) or DCV (treatment B), when given alone under fasted conditions, was considered to be the reference treatment. The test treatments were DTG coadministered with DCV (treatment C) under fasted conditions. The point estimates and their associated 90 % CIs were back-transformed to provide the ratios of geometric least-squares means and associated 90 % CIs for test/reference for the PK parameters AUC 0-τ , C τ , C max ,
Show more

7 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...