According to the conventionalwisdom, rape is generally a case of ‘one person’s word against another’s’ and, in the absence of independent evidence, judgements regarding the truth or otherwise of an allegation are influenced by ‘rape myths’ and gender stereotypes. The meaning of ‘one person’s word against another’s’, however, and the extent to which it accurately describes the evidence in most rape cases, or usefully explains case disposal, are largely unexplored. This article subjects the conventionalwisdom of rape as ‘one person’s word against another’s’, and the implicit claims and assumptions underpinning it, to close critical scrutiny. Drawing on original empirical data, I argue that the concept of ‘one person’s word against another’s’ is vague, ambiguous, and uninformative. It tells us virtually nothing about what rape cases look like evidentially, still less about case progression, and presents a partial and misleading view of English criminal proceedings and the process of proof. If we are to better understand attrition in rape cases, we need to meaningfully engage with the contentious issue of witness credibility and reliability—not only in the absence of independent evidence that supports or corroborates a witness’s account, but in the presence of evidence that undermines or contradicts it.
This failure to use data is in part understandable. Employers associations are not mass or- ganizations. They tend to keep organizational data and internal communications confidential. Still, there are relevant aggregate data available on compensation and productivity that even the more sophisticated studies of German employers associations have not used. This article takes the extra step of employing available data to test the claims of the existing literature. We find that some of the assertions of the conventionalwisdom stand, but others do not. In particular, aggre- gate data confirm the anecdotal findings of previous authors that German firms are far more re- luctant to engage in industrial action, in particular, lockouts. They also show, however, contrary to the stylized claims of the conventionalwisdom, that real compensation growth has been flag- ging in Germany and productivity developments have been mixed. Our alternative explanation is both simpler and consistent with the data. Large firms have still been getting the labor quies- cence and relative wage restraint that they wanted from employers-association membership. In contrast, the deceleration of productivity growth in Germany, which manifested in the 1980s, made it far more difficult for SME s to stay in employers associations and remain profitable. So,
According to conventionalwisdom, cancer is a disease process, aris- ing from genetic errors in the command and control apparatus of a precursor cell. Unregulated clonal expansion coupled with additional genetic errors then follows, and, by Darwinian selection, the tumor evolves to a more aggressive (and drug-resistant) phenotype. This is the somatic mutation theory ( ‘ M-Theory ’ ). Accordingly, the solution to the problem of clinical cancer requires the description of the mo- lecular events mediating escape from growth constraints. This para- digm depends on notions of causality and explanation, leading inevitably to the concept of molecularly targeted therapy to achieve both the required efficacy and the necessary selectivity; it also in- volves the belief that such targets must exist, and are tractable. Technical progress in genomic sequencing seemed to promise the realization of this dream, but despite the torrent of big data, the clinical utility has disappointed; few cancers possess truly ‘ actionable muta- tions ’ and, except for chronic myeloid leukemia (an atypically simplified cancer), the benefits of modern targeted drugs (while undeniable) are transient, usually lasting about one year only. M-Theory has not deliv- ered, and given the inherent and extensive obstacles, may never de- liver . Indeed, it now faces a Kuhnian crisis portending ‘ model revolution ’ . Unfortunately for causality-focused theorists, no deeper level of drill-down exists beyond next-generation sequencing, and hence no obvious alternative routes to a better causality-based model. An alternative model re-focuses on the cancer cell as an organism per se, a different form of life from the host. Malignant transform- ation is seen as speciation, but a form of speciation that is radically different from the usual allopatric speciation generally accounting for the peripheral arborization of the tree of life. In this alternative view, the cancer cell is not another type of metazoan closely related to our phenotype, but in fact a protozoan, and not just an ordinary proto- zoan; it is uniquely adapted to the very different geochemistry of the ancient Proterozoic eon (circa 2.5BYA – 0.514MYA) via a stereotypical set of peculiar characteristics common to all cancers.
Conservatives’ hegemony owed much to their ability to devise ‘a form of social politics driven partly by an overt anti-socialism and partly by a broadening of the Party’s elites’ (p. 90). But, to a lesser extent than he does in ‘Class and conventionalwisdom’, and to a much lesser extent than Philip Williamson has done in his National Crisis and National Government, or in Stanley Baldwin: Conservative Leadership and National Values, McKibbin does not present the Conservatives’ success as the result of their own clever strategy so much as of Labour’s lack of one.(5) Those who read his current London Review of Books columns well know the low regard in which he holds New Labour. Old Labour, here, fares little better. The party is censured for failing to embrace any coherent strategy in the 1920s. Its leaders could not settle on whether they should be ‘the party of the whole of the working class; … the party of useful citizens[; or] … a party which served the specific interests of the unions and their members’ (p. 72). In trying to be all things to all people, it failed to hold the loyalty of any viable majority, and its fragile plurality quickly collapsed under the weight of the 1931 financial crisis.
these negative elasticities are larger than one in absolute value—in many cases much larger. For example, the elasticities for rice and popcorn cakes, yogurt, mustard and ketchup, and hot cereals are between -4 and -5, while the elasticity for butter is nearly -11. The statistically significant sales elasticities are also negative, though usually smaller in absolute value than the nonprice promotion elasticities. Thus, our findings once again repudiate the conventionalwisdom: Name-brand firms react to increased private-label competition by holding fewer sales and reducing the share of items with nonprice promotions.
this study, will perhaps raise issues to a new level of visibility and controversy concerning the emergence of organized crime in the United States of America. After all is said and done, this holistic view of organized crime as a complex and critical social problem existing more from internal instead of external interacting social processes, seems like a grounded perspective of the social problem. However, this does not mean that it is a "cure all" approach that explains all about crime in general and organized crime in particular. Sixth, after careful explanation of the conventionalwisdom i.e., the importation theoretical explanation of the emergence of organized crime in the United States of America, it is the belief of the author that the lessons learned in the presentation of the deprivation theoretical explanation view of the emergence of organized crime in the United States of America offer an interesting, insightful, and different theoretical perspective of the problem. A perspective that is in tune with the framework of sociological and criminological imagination. Perhaps this perspective may trigger a shift in the conventional thinking on the emergence of organized crime in the United States of America.
Prevailing and conventionalwisdom holds that intermediate gauge Bosons for long range interac- tions such as the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions must be massless as is assumed to be the case for the photon which mediates the electromagnetic interaction. We have argued in a different reading that it should in-principle be possible to have massive photons. The problem of whether or not these photons will lead to short or long range interactions has not been answered. Naturally, because these photons are massive, one would without much pondering and excogita- tion on the matter assume that these photons can only take part in short range interactions. Con- trary to this and to conventionalwisdom; via a subtlety—namely, the foregoing of the Lorenz gauge and in line with ideas set out in out proposed Unified Field Theory, the introduction of a vec- tor potential whose components are 4 × 4 Hermitian matrices; we show within the confines of Proca Electrodynamics under the said modifications that massive photons should be long lived (i.e., stable) and be able to take part in long range interactions without any problem.
From this it becomes transparent that the equilibrium reaction of an existing seller to the presence of a new seller depends on her share of the market and on the elasticity of the strategic demand function, which captures the buyers’ optimal responses. If the elasticity of strategic demand exceeds a critical value that is inversely related to the seller’s market share then that seller will increase her supply at the new equilibrium, otherwise it will decline. Thus, if the elasticity of demand is sufficiently low and/or the seller’s share in the market is small then her optimal supply will reduce 4 and it can be deduced from the expression for the change in the equilibrium payoff that under these circumstances the profit of the existing seller will decline. If sellers are sufficiently numerous, no seller has a market share that is too great and demand is not too elastic then the conventionalwisdom that entry by an additional seller reduces existing sellers’ profit will apply.
In this section, we divide our sample into two groups – one group with firms headquartered in the civil law countries and the other group with firms headquartered in the common law countries. We re-estimate Equation (1) for both groups. Our results are reported in Table 5. Our results show that our earlier findings hold only in the civil law countries. We report significantly negative coefficient of PoR in the civil law countries and insignificant coefficient of PoR in the common law countries. These findings are interesting as well as intuitive. Given that firms in the civil law countries experience higher information asymmetries, conventionalwisdom would suggest that value relevance of dividend policy should be higher in the civil law countries. Our arguments are consistent with Lang et al. (2004) who document a positive valuation effect of mechanisms that improve information asymmetries in countries with poor information environment. They argue that countries with high information asymmetries have scarcity of information. Therefore, whenever information disclosure improves, it is highly valued by investors.
The overall trend of a higher standard deviation exhibited with higher number of issues in the Indian capital market confirms to the conventionalwisdom among both academics and practitioners that the quality of the companies going public deteriorates as a amount of high supply volume progresses. A high level of under pricing for market segment like IT &It is on account of difficulties in valuation of their assets which are largely intangible nature. This is largely intangible nature. This indicates that industries with shorter and fewer data history are a lot of under-priced as there's a lot of uncertainty regarding the supply firms. Further, product victimization high-tech business are thought of risky than the normal business ensuing the ‘high risk high growth’ nature of these companies gives rise to higher uncertainty resulting into higher degree of under pricing.
“Contempt cements the couple,” they write in the chapter’s first line. Having written this, they acknowledge this sentiment’s opposition to conventionalwisdom: “An arguably more plausible view would be that contempt drives the couple apart, a view supported—or so it has been maintained—by Jean-Luc Godard’s 1963 film Contempt, in which a wife’s sudden contempt for her husband deals the death-blow to an idyllic intimacy.” 21 Bersani and Dutoit proceed to argue that, in both Godard’s film and everyday relationality, “the looks that express contempt as well as those that react to it, far from signifying the dissolution of the couple, reduce the entire relational field to the structure of the intimately conjoined couple” (19-21; emphasis mine). The writers oppose this category of the “intimately conjoined couple” to a second mode of interacting with “the relational field”; they call this other mode non-copulative pairing.