Crime and offending data

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Young people and crime:

Young people and crime: findings from the 2006 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey

1 Introduction This bulletin presents the headline findings from the 2006 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. It focuses on levels and trends in youth offending, anti-social behaviour and victimisation among young people aged from 10 to 25 living in private households in England and Wales. Comparisons are made, where relevant, with the results from previous waves of the OCJS. The survey was conducted between 2003 and 2006 and reports from previous surveys can be found on the Home Office RDS website at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/offending_survey.html. These reports are restricted to cross-sectional analysis from each round of the survey. The Home Office have recently commissioned longitudinal analyses of cases included in the 2003 to 2006 OCJS and no fresh data collection is planned until the results of this work are available.
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Car crime and offending behaviour: Ex-offender perspectives

Car crime and offending behaviour: Ex-offender perspectives

This paper is based upon a wider piece of research looking at the adult male prison experience from a gendered perspective, based in a category C prison. The research involved a period of semi-ethnographic research when the researcher was immersed in the prison setting, observing interactions between prisons and undertaking 31 semi-structured interviews into men’s day-to-day experiences of imprisonment. When analysing this data, the theme of cleanliness emerged unexpectedly yet frequently within interviews. Three sub-themes of cleanliness were drawn from the data — cleanliness of the self, cleanliness of space, and the cleanliness of others — and are discussed in terms of their combined implications in another paper. 1 This paper builds upon that piece and focuses directly upon the notion of cleanliness of space, a factor that tended to pervade the majority of prisoners’ lives in one way or another, having direct implications for their identities as men. The literature pertaining to cleanliness in prisons is extremely limited, although it is mentioned by John Howard 2 as far back as the 1700s when the reports of the state of prisons observed regularly referred to cleanliness (and its implications for prisoner health and well-being). Baer 3 writes about the relationships between control, space and cleanliness within young offenders’ institutions, recognising the importance of the display of items such as cleaning products for individuals’ public displays of ownership, wealth and status. Crawley 4 too, gives some consideration to the issue, albeit from the perspective of prison staff, recognising the ‘quasi-domestic sphere’ 5 of the prison and the often domestic nature of prison staff regimes, consisting of functions that can be seen as forms of
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Car crime and offending behaviour: Ex offender perspectives

Car crime and offending behaviour: Ex offender perspectives

This paper is based upon a wider piece of research looking at the adult male prison experience from a gendered perspective, based in a category C prison. The research involved a period of semi-ethnographic research when the researcher was immersed in the prison setting, observing interactions between prisons and undertaking 31 semi-structured interviews into men’s day-to-day experiences of imprisonment. When analysing this data, the theme of cleanliness emerged unexpectedly yet frequently within interviews. Three sub-themes of cleanliness were drawn from the data — cleanliness of the self, cleanliness of space, and the cleanliness of others — and are discussed in terms of their combined implications in another paper. 1 This paper builds upon that piece and focuses directly upon the notion of cleanliness of space, a factor that tended to pervade the majority of prisoners’ lives in one way or another, having direct implications for their identities as men. The literature pertaining to cleanliness in prisons is extremely limited, although it is mentioned by John Howard 2 as far back as the 1700s when the reports of the state of prisons observed regularly referred to cleanliness (and its implications for prisoner health and well-being). Baer 3 writes about the relationships between control, space and cleanliness within young offenders’ institutions, recognising the importance of the display of items such as cleaning products for individuals’ public displays of ownership, wealth and status. Crawley 4 too, gives some consideration to the issue, albeit from the perspective of prison staff, recognising the ‘quasi-domestic sphere’ 5 of the prison and the often domestic nature of prison staff regimes, consisting of functions that can be seen as forms of
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Minority ethnic groups and crime: findings from the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey 2003

Minority ethnic groups and crime: findings from the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey 2003

The offending count module used Audio CASI whereby the questions and responses are pre-recorded and listened to by the respondents through headphones, as well as being presented on the computer screen. This was to make it easier for those with literacy problems to take part. The response rate for the main sample was 74 per cent. However, for the ethnic boost sample it was considerably lower – 45 per cent in low density ethnic minority areas and 53 per cent in high density ethnic minority areas. The main reasons for non-response at eligible addresses were refusal by the selected individual or by the household before the respondent could be selected, and non-contact. The implication of this lower response rate is that the sample may be biased towards only certain types of respondents from ethnic minorities, with others being less likely to participate for various reasons. Language difficulties may be a factor, as discussed in Appendix B. However, the comparisons that can be made with other sources (e.g. Census data) suggests that the achieved sample is relatively representative.
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Debuts and Legacies: The Crime Drop and the Role of Adolescence-Limited and Persistent Offending

Debuts and Legacies: The Crime Drop and the Role of Adolescence-Limited and Persistent Offending

(c) A lower rate of entry into criminal careers brings with it a reduction in a wide range of offences, including acquisitive and violent ones. Many criminal career research studies involve track- ing cohorts of individuals to collect data on their levels of offending behaviour as well as other variables that may be associated with that offending. This sometimes leads to the production of catalogues of risk factors and sometimes to tests of specific hypotheses relating to the mechanisms that lie behind initial involvement, con- tinued involvement and desistance from offending. The debut crime hypothesis suggests that there may be cohort effects brought about by changes in the nature and distri- bution of opportunities for debut crimes. The supply of debut opportunities is not unchanging and if it shrinks, fewer young people will be drawn into offending careers, whilst if it expands more will be drawn in with wider- ranging crime trend legacies. The 1950s to 1980s saw a blossoming of crime opportunities for cohorts of young people at peak crime ages, as stressed by Cohen and Fel- son (1979), drawing many into offending careers. These lead to two further propositions:
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Does serious offending lead to homicide?:exploring the interrelationships and sequencing of serious crime

Does serious offending lead to homicide?:exploring the interrelationships and sequencing of serious crime

spent in custody. For the individual datasets at the first stage, we examine Kaplan-Meier survival curves; for the combined dataset (where we wish to examine risk factors) we carry out a Cox proportional hazards analysis, Adjustment for time spent in custody is not straightforward, for while we have a record of sentence awarded including the length of any custodial sentence there is no indication of the actual time served since conviction on the OI data. Again certain assumptions must be made. For the target conviction and for every conviction after that date which had a custodial sentence, we make an estimate of the custodial time served from the sentence length. We then adjust the time at risk by the sum of these times spent in custody. There are various unpredictable circumstances that can change the imprisonment time, such as whether the offenders will get remission or not, whether they get parole, and whether it is at the first, second or later opportunity. We estimate the time served as some fraction of the sentence length, taking the fraction to be 0.3 3 in this paper.
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Youth crime: an investigation into the effectiveness of general re-offending risk assessment tools

Youth crime: an investigation into the effectiveness of general re-offending risk assessment tools

170 alongside research which is conducted outside of the USA and which considers girls as a discrete sub-group. Chapter three reviewed and critiqued the ‘Asset’ risk of repeat offending instrument for youths; the risk assessment measure which was used in chapter four of this thesis. The development of this risk assessment instrument was considered in relation to the political era in which it was commissioned. This critique highlighted a number of shortcomings of this measure, for example, weaknesses in the methodology applied to assess consistency in assessor’s ratings of ‘Asset’. The present study overcame these weaknesses by assessing two independent raters’ scores on a subset of the original assessment measures (n=14). There was also a lack of information available relating to the psychometric properties of the tool (e.g., test re-test validity, content validity); only three predictive validity studies with the use of ‘Asset’ data were identified; which is surprising given the widespread use of this tool across the UK. Findings indicated that ‘Asset’ is a poor to moderate predictor of reoffending with Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistics ranging from 0.68 to 0.71. However, the predictive power of this tool varied depending on which assessment (‘Asset’ dynamic, ‘Asset’ Static. OGRS-3 plus ‘Asset dynamic’) and outcome measures (offending versus convictions) were selected (Baker et al., 2003, 2005; Wilson & Hinks, 2011).
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Assessing racial differences in offending trajectories:  A life-course view of the race-crime relationship

Assessing racial differences in offending trajectories: A life-course view of the race-crime relationship

Conclusion The debate over the relationship between race and crime has been going on for decades. In general, official arrest statistics indicate that minorities, especially African- Americans are disproportionately involved in criminal offending. This disproportionate minority involvement is especially pronounced in violent and other serious types of offending. The predominant explanations for minority overrepresentation in official arrest statistics are the differential involvement and differential selection hypotheses. There has been mixed empirical support for both hypotheses and some scholars suggest that a hybrid explanation is more accurate; one that allows for both differential involvement and differential selection effects. Other scholars argue that both differential involvement and differential selection stem from institutional racism and segregation within society. Self- reported survey data present a much less pronounced gap between blacks and whites in terms of offending. These survey data have been used to support differential selection arguments, but have also been questioned in regards to their validity across racial and ethnic groups.
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Targeting crime prevention to reduce offending: Identifying communities that generate chronic and costly offenders

Targeting crime prevention to reduce offending: Identifying communities that generate chronic and costly offenders

trajectories. Attrition and exposure time may result in some variation in the final number of trajectory models identified (Eggleston, Laub & Sampson 2004). Third, there are limitations associated with the costing methodology that was used. Criminal justice system costs were based on averages and did not take into account the considerable variability that is likely to exist based on whether offenders plead guilty, the offence type and the location. Responses in regional and remote locations are likely to cost considerably more than in major cities. Social and economic costs could not be assessed for six ASOC offence codes, which represented 32.7 percent of offending. Therefore, the project is likely to significantly underestimate costs. Fourth, the postcode where offenders resided when they first had contact with the system was used to assign location and the project was reliant on the ABS approximation of postcodes using POAs; however, this is only an approximation of postcodes (ABS 2006). A considerable proportion of chronic offenders changed location, but there was no way of assessing the length of time for which offenders were residentially mobile or whether they changed location before having contact with the criminal justice system. The ABS equivalent of postcodes was used (POAs). Finally, there are limitations resulting from the project’s reliance on ABS population data. These data are subject to the random allocation process used by the ABS to ensure anonymity.
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Fraud and technology crimes Findings from the 2003/04 British Crime Survey, the 2004 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey and administrative sources

Fraud and technology crimes Findings from the 2003/04 British Crime Survey, the 2004 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey and administrative sources

1. Introduction Police recorded crime statistics of fraud and forgery offences fell by 12 per cent from 2003/04 to 278,902 in 2004/05; however, annual statistics on fraud recorded by the police do not provide a reliable indication of the actual level and trends. Many offences are unreported to the police by the victims because they remain unnoticed by account/card-holders or because offences are reported direct to banks or plastic card merchants who subsequently fail to notify the police. This situation is being considered as part of a cross-government review of fraud commenced in October 2005 to consider the scale and costs of fraud, both direct and indirect, to the country. The scope of the review includes examination of fraud data collection systems across different organisations to identify the most appropriate statistical information to help contribute to the Government’s response to fraud and their role in dealing with it (for more information refer to http://www.lslo.gov.uk/fraud_review.htm ).
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Young People\u27s Experiences of Crime: an Investigation into the Victimisation and Offending of Inner-City Dublin Youth

Young People\u27s Experiences of Crime: an Investigation into the Victimisation and Offending of Inner-City Dublin Youth

3.3 A Review of Seminal Youth Victimisation Studies 3.3.1 Introduction Youth victimisation surveys have been undertaken across the globe, but for the purpose of this study, only notable studies carried out in the United Kingdom will be reviewed 4 in detail, while international studies will only be reviewed at a more general level. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulties involved with comparing data and measures, particularly at an international level, as Enzmann et al. explain “our attempts to compare ISRD-2, ICVS and ESB data on three specific offences (robbery/extortion, assault and theft), illustrate, once again, the enormous challenges associated with trying to disentangle – at the international level – the (possible) convergence of different measures of crime” (p. 178). Furthermore, reviewing studies undertaken in the United Kingdom will more than suffice in creating a picture of what might be found in Ireland, due to the two countries similar demographics and social structures, as well as their geographical proximity. Since studies focusing exclusively on youth victimisation have not taken place in Ireland to date, it is helpful to look at studies that have been done in the United Kingdom, in hopes of learning from them and designing an Irish survey according to the methods, practices and procedures that were most effective in such a comparable country. Similarly, attempts will be made to avoid the pitfalls and problems found within these studies.
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Does employment contribute to desistance? Offending trajectories of crime-prone men around the time of job entry

Does employment contribute to desistance? Offending trajectories of crime-prone men around the time of job entry

Offending trajectories of crime-prone men around the time of job entry Abstract: Influential perspectives in life course criminology maintain that transitions to adult social roles play an important role in the termination of criminal careers. Along with marriage, employment is frequently associated with potential to assist in the desistance process. At this time, the empirical status of these claims remains contested. Although several studies report negative associations between within-individual changes in employment and offending, the evidence regarding time-order remains limited to anecdotal observations from qualitative data. The present investigation took advantage of administrative data sources available in Norway. Focusing on a sample of criminally active males who became employed during 2001-2006 (n=1,063), general and group based estimation techniques were used to examine monthly changes in offending trajectories around the point of job entry.
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Changing crime mix patterns of offending over the life course:a comparative study in England & Wales and the Netherlands

Changing crime mix patterns of offending over the life course:a comparative study in England & Wales and the Netherlands

To be able to identify crime mix patterns in the data, latent Marvov modelling is used. We first describe the latent class analysis model, and then extend the model to allow transitions to be included. The Latent Class Model A set of binary indicator variables were constructed to indicate whether there was a conviction for each of the 11 offence categories in each specific time period for each offender. The binary indicator had the value of 1 if a conviction for that offence category occurred and 0 if not. Within each age period, we look at which of the J=11 offence types have had convictions to get a response pattern. The end data file produces a prevalence matrix of offence categories by person-time period strips.
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What is the nature and extent of mate crime offending against disabled people and how effective are institutional responses?

What is the nature and extent of mate crime offending against disabled people and how effective are institutional responses?

However, the ethical issues in relation to the documentary case study with Alpha Police were more complex. One of the main ethical issues that this part of the study needed to address was to ensure that any incidents catalogued during this method of data collection did not contain any personal identifying details. In order to ensure that individual officers were in no doubt as to the nature of the research, the case study within Alpha force was given the short title, the Mate Crime Research Project. As well as the protocol requested by the legal services department of Alpha Police (see para 4.3.1 above), the police representatives were provided with a brief overview of the aims and objectives of the whole research study as well as a similar overview of the part of the study occurring within the police station. In addition to these documents, the representative signing on behalf of Alpha Police was provided with a pre-prepared written consent form, which also gave a concise overview of the research. The content of all of these forms had been previously approved by the Faculty Research Ethics Committee of the University of Leeds.
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Examining offending behaviour following receipt of a Business Crime Reduction Partnership’s place-based exclusion sanction

Examining offending behaviour following receipt of a Business Crime Reduction Partnership’s place-based exclusion sanction

26 question was somewhat limited. Further data on offender behaviour post-sanction is required for significant predictions to be made concerning this. Although noteworthy, these limitations do not negate the value of this study’s contribution to the literature. The insight into the design, operation, benefits and limitations of the warning and exclusion system used by this BCRP and into the behaviour of individuals post-sanction presented here will be of interest to those involved in crime reduction partnerships and in other collectives or organisations that employ similar mechanisms, as well as to researchers examining these issues. The activity and operation of such partnerships and the offending that they are subject to remain relatively under-researched topics, however, and there is great need for further study of the various crime reduction practices employed in this domain to ensure that partnerships can draw upon research evidence when conducting their activity.
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Offending and Victimization in the Digital Age : Comparing Correlates of Cybercrime and Traditional Offending-Only, Victimization-Only and the Victimization-Offending Overlap

Offending and Victimization in the Digital Age : Comparing Correlates of Cybercrime and Traditional Offending-Only, Victimization-Only and the Victimization-Offending Overlap

Victimization and offending in the preceding 12 months were measured using self-report questions with the following response categories: 0 times, 1 time, 2 times, 3–5 times, 6–10 times, more often. Victimization questions were introduced as follows: ‘The following questions are about your experiences with online (digital) [traditional crime: offline (non-digital)] crime in the preceding twelve months. How often in the preceding twelve months. . .’ followed by descriptions of different types of victimization. For example, malware victimization was measured by asking: ‘How often in the preceding twelve months. . .’ ‘. . . did malware (malicious software) damage your computer and/or the files on your computer?’ And offline vandalism was measured by using the description: ‘. . . did somebody break or damage something that belonged to you, without stealing something?’. The survey included six types of cybercrime victimization: malware, hacking, phishing, defacing, data theft or damage, and DoS attacks. These items were formulated by using the overview of cybercrime types of the Dutch National Cyber Security Centre ( 2012 ). Eight types of traditional victimization, based on the Dutch Safety Monitor (Statistics Netherlands 2014 ), were included: bicycle theft, vandalism, other theft, threats, violence, attempted burglary, burglary, and sexual assault.
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The Nature of Female Offending:

The Nature of Female Offending:

The gendered paradigm is also useful for understanding current trends in male and female offending, including female increases in minor property of- fending as well as the discrepancy in female violence trends across data sources that we have identified. Women’s crime has expanded most in areas of offend- ing that are minor, are nonconfrontational, and involve legitimate or domestic skills and little physical strength, such as larceny-theft, fraud, and forgery. The visibility of minor forms of female violence has increased, but, based on multi- ple sources of evidence, it is doubtful that this is a result of changes in the ag- gressive nature of women or gender norms governing violent behavior. Rather, evidence suggests that authorities are increasingly targeting offending contexts more typical of women—minor acts of aggression that take place in private set- tings. Recent changes in law enforcement policy that widen the arrest net to in- corporate more minor forms of criminal behavior will artificially elevate female arrest levels, given the differing contexts of female and male offending as shaped by the organization of gender.
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Effect of initiating drug treatment on the risk of drug-related poisoning death and acquisitive crime among offending heroin users.

Effect of initiating drug treatment on the risk of drug-related poisoning death and acquisitive crime among offending heroin users.

Methods: Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment. Subjects were classed as initiators if they attended a triage appointment within two weeks of their assessment; non-initiators otherwise. Initiator and non- initiators were compared over a maximum of one year, with respect to their risk of recorded acquisitive offence or DRP-death. Balance was sought using propensity score matching and missing data were accounted for using multiple imputation.
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Longitudinal analysis of the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey 2003–06

Longitudinal analysis of the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey 2003–06

In some cases, interventions targeting young people involved in anti-social behaviour may help to reduce the likelihood of an individual following an offending trajectory. But the OCJS also shows that some types of anti-social behaviour are not exclusively found among the very young: some patterns appeared to change little from mid-teens to mid-twenties. In accordance with previous findings, this analysis identified family breakdown, poor or inconsistent parenting and truancy and exclusion from school as risk factors for offending and/or drug use. Some of these factors, such as family breakdown, may be causal factors while others, such as truancy and exclusion, are more likely to be indicators of an underlying anti-social personality. The most recent policy initiatives, as outlined in the Youth Crime Action Plan published in July 2008, already emphasise early intervention with families in which young people are at risk of an escalating pattern of offending and drug use. Family Intervention Projects (FIPS) are being expanded from their original emphasis on anti- social behaviour to a youth-crime programme that will soon be available in every local authority across England and Wales; there will also be a child poverty version of FIPS. Children and young people excluded from school are already likely to be involved in prompt and wide-ranging assessments of their situation.
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Representations of sexual offending: the British press, public attitudes and desistance from crime

Representations of sexual offending: the British press, public attitudes and desistance from crime

politically-driven by a fusion of the rhetoric around the ‘rehabilitation revolution’ with individually held punitive attitudes about sexual crime. Public attitudes, ex-offender reintegration, and desistance from crime It is important to note the potential negative impact that punitive press reporting (and associated public attitudes) may have on the post-custody reintegration of people with sexual convictions. Willis, Levenson and Ward (2010) state that negative public attitudes toward this group hinders the reintegration process, meaning that opportunities for obtaining suitable housing and gaining employment are limited. These are prominent factors within the criminological literature associated with the process of desistance from crime, and it is therefore suggested that media content and public attitudes form part of a society-fulfilling prophecy (see Figure 3), where the ‘once a sex offender, always a sex offender’ stereotype is not only accepted, but indirectly promoted. Not only does this prophecy potentially contribute to the maintenance of an offending cycle, and to the continued curtailment of the civil liberties of ex-offenders (even after formal criminal sanctions have been completed), it also helps to reinforce the feelings that resolve the public’s feelings of cognitive dissonance between political rhetoric and personal attitudes toward offender rehabilitation.
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