hold two copper electrodes. Top cover was having small holes for thermometer and wire to supply current to copper electrodes. A heater of 500W was used to heat the different types of water to the saturation temperature. The CHF of those types of water was measured with a NiCr wire of 41 SWG (0.1 or 0.2 mm diameter) vertically submerged in the test fluid at atmospheric pressure. Length of test wire was 110 mm. Two copper electrodes were used having diameter 5mm. Two copper electrodes were used to supply measured AC power to test wire. Both ends of the NiCr wire heater were tightly secured to the clamps of the copper electrodes. These copper electrodes were bolted to the inner Wooden plate inside the container firmly. The pool temperature was measured with a thermometer. All pool boiling experiments were conducted saturated temperature (100°C). heater was heated to saturation temperature. Once the saturation temperature of test fluid was reached. The heater was switched off and the AC power supply to the NiCr wire was switched on. The experiments were conducted by increasing the electric power supply to the wire (test wire). As the wire was becoming red hot the AC supply was increased in smaller steps using Voltage regulator. For each incremental step Voltage and current were recorded during test. At particular Voltage and current NiCr wire breaks, corresponding Voltage and current just before burn out point is recorded and used to calculate CHF of test fluid. For every test, all types of water with additive was used to ensure it was free from contaminants. Water is chosen because of its well known fluid properties, and minimal risk handling the fluid, compared to a refrigerant. The water is allowed to be boiled sufficiently in order to reduce the effects of any dissolved air within the fluid. Periodically during the tests, more water is added to the pool to replenish the evaporated water vapor. The water is allowed to reach steady-state before any data is collected. The average of five readings was used to determine the difference between wall
With the same heating area, the boiling curve for with Nacl- water solution it has been observed that the enhancement of heat flux is much higher than that of Water. Surface tension is generated due to the attractive forces present in a fluid with respect to air .Since surface tension of Nacl-water solution is higher than that of Water and latent heat of evaporation was even smaller, when Sodium Chloride was used as working liquid, the microlayer at the bottom of coalesced bubbles was more liable to be dried out. Heat transfer deterioration appeared in part of the area, and the global effect of heat transfer enhancement was poorer than that of water Through experiments it has been observed that the size of the bubble in case of Nacl solution increases due to its greater volume expansion co-efficient than that of water. With increase in bubble size, frequency of bubble formation decreases which results in reduced heat transfer.
Third, the ph values of the deionised water saturated with co 2 (from sodastream) were measured. the ph value of water before the addition of co 2 was 5.67. the ph values of the saturated deionised water were monitored for 50 hours. external conditions were practically not changed; the room temperature fluctuated within 22 – 24 °c and the atmospheric pressure was stable. We wanted to prove that in an open system the amount of dissolved co 2 decreases and consequently a smaller amount of carbonic acid is formed. at the same time unstable carbonic acid decomposes without heating the system. this assumption was confirmed by rising of ph values, acidity was declined due to the loss of carbonic acid. the results are reported graphically in figure 9.
Swan River solutions was generally similar, suggesting little fluorescence interference due to natural environmental con- ditions of the Swan River water samples. Two of the eight solutions – 10 µg L −1 in Swan River water and 140 µg L −1 in deionised water – exhibited some percentage error val- ues slightly greater than ± 6%, although the mean percent- age error values for all solutions fell within ±6%. The largest amount of variation from expected concentration and greater fluctuations in measured concentration exhibited by the 10 µgL −1 solution may be explained by the lower signal: noise ratio for lower concentration solutions and possible in- terference due to natural background fluorescence. Given the stability of the readings and the lack of significant departure from ± 6% error for any of the eight tested solutions it was not anticipated that stability or accuracy of measurements would present problems in the field study.
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Physicochemical processes that take place at the oil-water interface of an epoxy-amine emulsion polymerisation system influence the properties and structural morphology of the polymeric microparticles formed. Investigating these processes, such as the transport of monomers across the liquid/liquid interface brings new understanding which can be used to tune polymeric morphology. Two different approaches are used to provide new insights on these processes. Microelectrochemical measurements at expanding droplets (MEMED) are used to measure the transfer of amine from an organic phase comprised of epoxide and amine into an aqueous receptor phase. The rate of amine transfer across the liquid/liquid interface is characterised using MEMED and finite element method modelling and kinetic values are reported. Time lapse microscopy of epoxide droplets held in deionised water or an aqueous amine solution heated to different temperatures is further used to characterise epoxide dissolution into the aqueous phase. Mass-transport of epoxide into the aqueous phase is shown to be temperature-dependent. Epoxide homopolymerisation at the droplet-water interface is found to influence the rate of epoxide droplet dissolution. The rate of the epoxy- amine cure reaction is shown to be faster than the rate of the epoxide homopolymerisation reaction.
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Experimental Programme: The influence of KCL at different concentrations (0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 g/lit) may be studied when the KCL is spiked with deionised water. Test samples are compared with the control samples. This comparison is may not be possible in case of control samples made with locally available potable water since it varies in chemical composition from place to place. With the above reason, KCL is mixed with deionised water in the dosage of 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 & 14 g/lit. This water is used for preparation of samples for setting times (initial & final) of cement and M20 & M50 grade concrete. The IS mix design is adopted for M20 and M50 grade concrete mix. For determining the initial and final setting times of cement, Vicat apparatus is used and to assess the compressive and split tensile strengths, 84 cubes of size 150x150x150mm and 84 cylinder of 150x300mm were cast and tested.
osmotic shock, that they would experience being suspended in sterile water. However, new data from this study (Table 3) indicate that there was no difference between Ringer’s solution and deionised water and that, as such, the microbial cells were not lysed in water and that extracted PO 4 in both cases does not represent ‘microbial’ PO 4 released through cellular
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The amount of insulin released from the nanoparticles was studied in deionised water, glucose (1, 2 and 3 mg/ml), fructose (0.002 mg/ml) and a mixture of glucose (2 mg/ml) and fructose (0.002 mg/ml). Several 100 µl replicas of FPBAINP and FTBAINP were placed in Eppendorf tubes containing 1 ml of the various media incubated at 37ºC with horizontal shaking at 100 rpm on a WiseCube WIS-20, Precise Shaking Incubator. At predetermined time points, one of the seeded tubes was withdrawn and centrifuged at 14000 rpm for 5 mins (Beckman Coulter Microfuge 16 centrifuge) followed by direct injection of 20 μl of the supernatant onto the HPLC system. The amount of insulin released in the respective media was computed by comparing peak areas obtained with those from the calibration curve.
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Centrifuge the sample at 10,000 rpm for 15 minutes at 0°C. If the supernatant is not free of particulates centrifuge for a further 15 minutes. Whilst the sample is centrifuging make up fresh 1 - 4 ppm P standards. (Take 1, 2, 3 and 4 ml of the 100 ppm stock solution and place in 100 ml volumetric flasks). Make up to volume with deionised water shaking to ensure thorough mixing.
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In order to reduce water conflicts and to attend to multiple water uses, this study evaluated water quality in the Ribeirão das Botas Stream basin in Brazil's Central-West region, in regards to the l and state scope, mainly with the inclusion of the legal instrument to authorize water use rights. Through a self-purification study with effluent discharge simulated from a wastewater treatment plant, four points along the river were evaluated UFMG model, for the parameters DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) and total coliforms. Three effluent discharge simulations were carried out. The first scenario encompassed a single criterion: maximum BOD concentration ), where it resulted in DO below 7 mg.L -1 and BOD outside of the classification class 2, exceeding the value of 5 mgBOD.L -1 . The second scenario used he receiving water for the BOD (<5 mg.L -1 ) and DO (> ) parameters. The third scenario related the quantitative aspect linked to the authorization instrument to accommodate the uses of the river basin. The physical-chemical and biological analyzes and total phosphorus parameters was in disagreement with the current standards, which shows that there is a negative impact due to anthropic activities in the region caused activities. It was observed that in scenarios 2 and 3, the evaluated parameters respected the river’s support capacity, which presented DO above 7 . However, for the stream’s support capacity to be met without ssification, the wastewater treatment plant that is to be implemented should have a and a minimum efficiency of 96%, not 65% or 88% according to scenarios 1 and 2.This study permits assistance to the water resource management council for decision making in the face of multiple use conflicts with the use of mathematical modeling for self- purification studies according to the evolution in the legislation, taking into account not only
Water is an essential natural resource for the sustainability of human and animal lives on earth. Humans can survive for several weeks without food, but can endure only for about few days without water. This is because water is needed to replenish fluid which is lost during normal body activities including urination, perspiration and respiration.  Only about 0.3% of the estimated 1.36 billion Km 3 of the hydrosphere is fresh water, which is found in rivers, streams, springs and aquifers with the remaining 99.7% locked up in seas and oceans.  Several studies have shown an increase in the demand for freshwater due to rapid growth of population as well as the accelerated pace of industrialization in the last few decades.  All water contains varying level of impurities. As water flows in streams, accumulates in lakes and filters through layers of soil and rock in the ground, it dissolves or absorbs substances it comes in contact with, which may be harmful or harmless.  The availability of potable water to the entire populace has emerged as one of the critical problems facing most developing countries of the world today.  The National Agency for Foods and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) in Nigeria has made the provision of drinking water, safe and aesthetically acceptable as a major goal of the organization. An acceptable drinking water should meet the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for human consumption, being free from physical and chemical substances and microorganisms in an amount that cannot be hazardous to health.  There is no single method of purification that can eliminate 100% contaminants from drinking water, nor make it safe for consumption within acceptable limits. 
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Groundwater is by far the largest unfrozen volume of fresh water in the world. The rapid growth in population, indiscriminate industrial and agricultural expansion has led to of this natural resource. On a global level, the key issue that needs to be addressed is the sustainability of groundwater by putting a check on the rate of its depletion and pollution from anthropogenic cause (Jac van der gun, 2012). imate change has resulted in major alterations to the hydrological cycle which has resulted in random, untimely and scanty rainfalls in several regions of the world leading to an alarming decline of groundwater level in In a country like where nearly 17.5% of the world population is residing (Worldometers, 2015), groundwater caters to 65% irrigation water and 85% of drinking water requirements of the country
Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health, it is mostly based on the hydrochemical characteristics which reveals the suitability of water for drinking and agriculture. The beach zone of Red Sea in Egypt is considered as one of the most promising areas for development in the Eastern Desert, especially for the agricultural activities. The underground water would be one of the most important resources for such development process. The underground water in the beach zone is of great importance where it is the unique source for drinking and irrigation water. The main target of this study is to evaluate the suitability of underground water for drinking, domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. Also, this study is to assist and outline how Egypt will safeguard its water resources in the future, both with respect to quantity and quality and how it will use its resources in the best way from a socio-economic and environmental point of view. To assess the water quality, underground water were collected and subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The analysis provides information on physico-chemical properties (pH, density, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, resistivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, alkalinity and hardness) as well as major and minor constituents were also determined for nine water wells selected between Quseir and Safaga cities. The results were compared with the standard permissible limits. In general, data analysis indicates that most of the studied shallow wells require treatment before using it as drinking water or as irrigation water. Different sources of pollution were detected as sea infiltration, decay of organic matter, industrial, agriculture and domestic wastewater.
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diesel using nonionic surfactant, nonionic emulsifier and different water content from 14 to 40% (v/v) was investigated. The effect of water content on the emulsion stability was studied. The efficiency of the formed water- in- diesel was studied by measuring open burning time, calorific value, viscosity and mean droplet sizes using atomic transmission microscope (ATM). It was found that the optimum water content was 30% at which longer burning time is obtained and the mean sizes of the formed droplets between 20 and 27 nm depending on the water content. Measuring the viscosity it was 8 cP while its calorific value was 35.9 KJ/kg while ignition time was 15.5 minutes with flame length 15 cm.
The study was carried out in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. The lake is located at (0°45ʼS, 36° 20ʼ E) at altitude 1890m above sea level. It lies on the floor of Africa’s Rift Valley and covers approximately 140km 2 with an average depth of about 6m, the deepest part being the Cresent Island (approximately 30m). It is the second largest fresh water lake in Kenya and one of the series of lakes in the Eastern arm of Africa’s Great Rift Valley spanning latitudes from approximately 7° N to 5° S (Bercht et al., 2006). Lake Naivasha is an endorheic shallow lake basin and has two perennial inflowing rivers namely; Malewa River and Gilgil River and an intermittent River Karati (Figure 1). According to Mireri (2005), Lake Naivasha is located in the rain shadow of the Aberdare Range with a mean annual rainfall of about 650mm. The mean annual rainfall in the Aberdare Range is 1350mm. The lake itself is located in the south east of the basin catchment and consists of four lake basins; the main lake, Crescent Island, Oloidien and Sonachi Crater Lake. Sonachi Crater Lake is situated in the south west of the main lake and is completely detached, while Oloidien is located to the south of the main lake and it is influenced by the main lake level fluctuations making it either part of the main lake during high water levels or separate completely at low water levels, at different times of the year (WWF, 2011).
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Roof top rain water harvesting is the process of collecting rain water falling on rooftops in a tank or sump for future productive use. Thus in brief, the methods of rain water harvesting consists of two types: 1. is the method in which rain water is stored in the above ground or underground sumps or overhead tanks and is used directly for flushing, gardening, washing , and all likewise domestic purposes, while in another method rain water is recharged to ground through recharge pits, dug wells, borewells, soak pits etc. In the present study the researcher used the method of ground water recharge in which 5x5ft. pit was dug, plasterd with concrete and pipeline connecting all the roof outholes has been introduced in it. Water storing in this pit is directed to enter into borewell through drilled holes and through the percolations. The tank is sealed from the top either with Cuddappah slabs or Concrete slabs or any local stone. Since rainwater is pure as it falls from the sky, it is necessary that the roof be kept clean for it to remain pure when it is collected.
Surya Water Bogor Drinking Water Company is demanded to be more independent and has real ability in carrying out its line with the developments that occur, In an effort to improve the quality of employees, stabilization of the implementation of the main tasks and functions is carried out by equalizing the vision and exploring potential. Thus the urya Water Bogor is required to have competent employees, who always have high work motivation and are dynamic in anticipating any changes. Based on the description above, the authors are interested in examining the quality of work productivity of the Water Drinking Company Surya Water Bogor.
This study evaluated the post-supply drinking-water quality in eight rural communities in department of Tiassalé, Côte d’Ivoire, using either a protected hand-dug wells or boreholes supply. Water management practices were documented as a basis for further research to improve household drinking-water quality. The methods used were administration of a questionnaire, observation and by assessing the stored drinking water quality and the water quality of supply point. Escherichia coli were used as the indicator of potential health risks. Most of the hand dug wells were Escherichia coli positive (100 %), with a more half having (68%) more than 100 colonies in the 100 ml sample (>100 CFU/100ml). 17% of water samples collected at the pump had Escherichia coli colonies >100 CFU/100ml compared to 58% at the point of consumption. The bacteriological quality of drinking water significantly declines after collection. Observation of household water management shows that there are multiple points during the collection to use sequence where pollution could occur. The commonality of water management practice would be an asset in introducing appropriate intervention measures.
Observation station 6 is precisely the settlement region, changes in lake waters are dominated by E. crassipes, From 2006 to 2011 growth of E. crassipes in this area is quite high. The rapid spread of the E. crassipes invasion in this region can not be separated from the influence of land use upstream areas such as rice fields, homes, and fields. The land use generally as a contributor of pollutants to waters of the lake in the form of pesticides, nitrate, phosphate, household waste and other activities where such elements as a source of nutrients for the growth of E. crassipes. Another fact of the high growth of E. crassipes in this area is also influenced by circulating water lake that is not good. Where the area is located on a corner of the lake that resembles a bay. Winds that move E. crassipes from other areas generally overlaid on the area. In 2006 from land-use change maps can be known stretch of E. crassipes are many and located around the region. In 2011, the development of E. crassipes showed wider distribution area. While the land use in the form of cages are not experiencing rapid development. This is due to the rapid growth of E. crassipes making it difficult to be penetrated by the community. Interpretation of results from the fact that many farms have been turned into a cage of E. crassipes. The following figure 7 map changes in land use observation station 6
The minimum ICF value 0.04 is recorded for Anamirta cocculus followed by Euphorbia hirta (0.045), Lobelia nicotonifolia (0.045) and Derris brevipes (0.05) indicates the limited usage of this plant as bio-pesticide. The most used families were Fabaceae with 8 species, Lamiaceae (7), Asteraceae (5) and Zingiberaceae (4). Out of 33 families, five families namely Araceae, Liliaceae, Zingiberaceae, Poaceae and Arecaceae belong to monocotyledonous subdivision while the rest are dicotyledonous. Leaves were named as plant parts most-used in formulation of pesticides. They were reported for 51 species out of the total 68 cited in the survey. They were followed by root/rhizomes/bulb and the fruits/seeds with 8 and 7 species, respectively. Flowers of 3 plants, bark of 1 species is also being used as pesticide and young branch of Toddalia asiatica and Zizhiphus oenoplia are used as physical trap against rodents and birds in agriculture fields (Fig. 1). Water extract was the most common mode of formulation accounting for 49 formulations. Others included use of the whole plant as an intercrop, that is, trap/ crop repellant (3), use of crushed seed cake (2), application of plant oil extract (7), latex spray (5), ash admixture (5), use of thorns as deterrents (5) and use of powder from plant parts (6). Numerous pests were mentioned during the survey but it was apparent that farmers were neither familiar with formal classification nor names of pests and diseases. Most farmers gave broad answers such as weevils, storage pests, caterpillars, insects, moths or field pests. It was therefore difficult to obtain meaningful data for comparison. During interviews respondents also pointed out the difficulty of naming particular pests affecting certain plants as the extracts are used for controlling the pests when there is infestation