6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Our approach, based on the use of a tabletop technology and physical devices aims at proposing a new way of interaction between designers and collaborative design IT tools. The achieved experiments validate this feasibility work by demonstrating the added value of the implemented handling devices compared to standard keyboard and mouse devices for most of basic tasks. Technical tasks also show some limitations: devices are still too generic for very technical tasks and there is a lack of precision for general tasks. Therefore, in future work their precision and the appropriateness of the devices should be improved. Further work will focus also on the business activities to improve both software behavior and devices. Therefore, first the IT environment in order to propose adequate functions for each handling device has to be improved. Second, more realistic scenarios in relation with the context of use (wall/table, one task/one device, etc.) in order to identify the real added value of dedicated physical devices vs. standard devices (mouse, commercial pens, etc.) should be identified.
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There are many organizations have developed various tools and approaches to help companies to rethink how to design and produce products to improve profits and competitiveness and also reduce environmental impacts at the same time. In 1997 UNEP(United Nations Environment Programme), in conjuction with Delft University of Technology in Delft, the Netherlands and other experts such as in Ecodesign, published the ground-breaking manual “Ecodesign: A Promising Approach to Sustainable Production and Consumption”. The concept of product ecodesign has since then spread as seen in the number of manuals and sector-specific supporting materials that are available in many languages. (Delft University of Technology., 1997)
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In a Distributed Environment, Security risks are a major concern, because the networked workstations and applications are exposed to a variety of threats. The threats can be eavesdrpping, masqaurading,tampering and replaying. To avoid these threats solutions like handshake mechanism, authentication, authrization and cryptography can be used. The main objective of the project is to design and develop security framework encapsulating the above solutions. This project addresses the QoS characteristics namely security, maintainability and adaptability issues in the designed framework
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Cloud computing is a new benchmark towards enterprise application development that can effectively facilitate the execution of workflows in business process management systems. Workflow applications often require very complex execution environments that are difficult to create otherwise. Integration of the workflow management systems for application deployment with any of the cloud platforms is a tedious task. Therefore, various cloud services are required to execute workflows along with workflow management software in cloud environment. In this paper, a comparative analysis of workflow design approaches has been discussed .This paper presents the challenges for implementing workflows in cloud computing and state of the art of workflow design along with a comparison of various workflow engines available. Design of workflow for a real time application has also been discussed with the help of a case study. The experimental results demonstrate how workflow for enterprise applications can be designed, validated, implemented and deployed on any major cloud infrastructures.
Complexity theory was born out of critique of reductionism, thinks "simplicity thinking in the complexity of the world must lurk under relatively simple order is disrupting, you can go to any place where is complex, we are forced to operate all programs from the concept of whole or systematic conception to deal with complexity problem." Simplification is the segmentation and closed to the real. Complexity emphasizes the whole and integrity. Complexity theories are: nonlinear, integrity, relationship, chaos, dynamic, open, self-organizing, etc. Currently, the majority of the learning environment research is still the practice of reductionism, with more and more people aware of the complexity of the education, learning, learning environment, the researchers began to explore the complexity theory applied in the field of education, some researchers also began to discuss complexity theory under the guidance of network learning environment construction, such as master Xie Ran thesis "learning environment based on complexity theory and building" attempt to consider complexity theory as a tool, with a new Angle of view to re-examine learning environment, and proposed the principle of complexity theory and the specific implementation measures to construct learning environment. Complexity theory provides methodology guidance to learners as a whole, complexity theory make us recognize that the learning environment is a complex system, our study should not only pay attention to a side of the learning environment, but pay attention to learning environment in the whole produced by the interaction between various components of integrity and the function achieved by the learning environment as a whole. The main point of complexity science methodology coincide with the ecological ideal, is the most important theories support in the study of ecological network learning environment design.
ABSTRACT: Eliminating Gibbs phenomenon, which occurs during design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter and which is undesirable, is very important in order to provide expected performance from digital filter. Window functions have been developed to eliminate these oscillations and to improve the performance of the filter in this regard. In this work, an application was developed for designing window function using LABVIEW which is a graphical programming environment produced by National Instruments. LABVIEW offers a powerful programming environment away from complexity. In this work, the performances of cosh and exponential window functions, which are designed by using the possibilities of LABVIEW in programming, are examined and the situations that will occur under various conditions are compared.
Ajith Abraham and Fatos Xhafa (2009) have written a survey paper on computational models for Grid scheduling problems and their resolution using heuristic and meta-heuristic approaches. Scheduling problems are the heart of Grid-like computational system. Scheduling based on different criteria, such as static versus dynamic environment, multi-objectivity, adaptivity and so on. The paper revealed the complexity of the scheduling problems in Computational Grids compared to scheduling in classical parallel and distributed systems, showed usefulness of heuristic and meta-heuristic approaches for the design of efficient Grid schedulers. The author’s discussed various requirements for a modular Grid scheduling and its integration with Grid architecture 8 .
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A smart environment is equipped with numerous devices (i.e., sensors, actuators) that are possibly distributed over different locations (e.g., rooms of a smart building). These devices are automatically controlled to achieve different objectives related, for instance, to comfort, security and energy savings. Controlling smart environment devices is not an easy task. This is due to: the heterogeneity of devices, the inconsistencies that can result from communication errors or devices failure, and the conflicting decisions including those caused by environment dependencies. This paper proposes a design framework for the reliable and environment aware management of smart environment devices. The framework is based on the combination of the rule based middleware LINC and the automata based language Heptagon/BZR (H/BZR). It consists of: an abstraction layer for the heterogeneity of devices, a transactional execution mechanism to avoid inconsistencies and a controller that, based on a generic model of the environment, makes appropriate decisions and avoids conflicts. A case study with concrete devices, in the field of building automation, is presented to illustrate the framework.
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While we consider living environments, wellbeing is strongly related to the needs and cultural backgrounds of users. If the users are already known, an in-depth study about their expectations and requirements is the basic input for user satisfaction. At this point we can say that human centered design is an approach that can contribute to wellbeing of users as it is based on the physical and psychological needs of the users, enabling them to function at the highest level possible. Human-centered design is not a design style, but is an approach, a process for designing and developing buildings, products, and communities that is grounded in information about the people who will be using them—utilizing research findings and data on cognitive abilities, physical abilities and limitations, social needs, and task requirements in order to provide living-environment solutions that enable all users to function at their highest capacity—regardless of age or ability (Greenhouse, 2012).
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Design for Environment now is an important thing in production to develop and distribute pollution prevention and environmental to human health risk on alternative chemicals, processes, and products. The DFE program is a testing ground for new approaches to risk reduction through pollution prevention. This report are about to raise environmental awareness level among a designers and engineers with the DFE method.
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Initially, agents will have no common lexicon and therefore no understanding of what other agents say to them; we expect, in the light of studies on the evolution of language, that in time the agents will develop a shared vocabulary and ultimately a shared idea of grammar (see Vogt & Divina (2005) for de- tails on language evolution in NewTies). However, because of the design of the agents and the envi- ronment, it is not necessary or even likely that this vocabulary will be entirely composed of utterances (i.e. ‘words’). Because talking is just one of the actions available to agents, it would be expected that some actions other than talking will come to take on meaning for the agents – in the same way as human gestures, for example, can substitute for or even be preferred to speech for conveying some meanings. This is in contrast to current studies of the evolution of language, which have generally taken a more purely linguistic approach to interaction.
individual customers wishes; ‘agile’ - the ability of an organisation to switch frequently from one market-driven objective to another; ‘lean production’ - focusing on all forms of ‘waste’ within a system. For a company competing with a consistent product strat- egy ‘Lean’ practices would seem attractive since the processes are unlikely to change significantly between products and hence improvements in these processes would be cu- mulative. Within the automotive industry Lean techniques have been widely adopted by manufacturers and suppliers and are seen as necessary in order to compete in an industry that has a significant amount of over-capacity (Crute et al. (2003)). von Cor- swant and Fredriksson (von Corswant and Fredriksson (2002)) studied sourcing trends in the automotive industry and found that manufacturers and suppliers were placing increasing importance on improvements in key performance criteria. The most impor- tant criteria for manufacturers were ‘quality’ and product cost; suppliers saw, ‘delivery precision’ and ‘product innovation’ as being equally important as quality and cost which are similar to those argued for by Walmsley (1999). The difference between the auto- motive industry and the military / civil aircraft industry is in the volume and relative complexity of the products. Aircraft manufacturers typically produce highly complex, often highly customised products in volumes of 10’s-100’s of aircraft per year, whereas large-scale automotive companies produce relatively less complex, less customised, prod- ucts in volumes of 100,000-1,000,000 vehicles per year. Comparisons between applying Lean practices in the automotive and aerospace sector tend to focus on manufacturing rather than the design of the product (e.g. Jina et al. (1997)). However, Boeing’s imple- mentation of ‘Lean’ engineering practices includes the goals of: improving the quality of the ‘first pass’ through the ‘system’; organising teams that are fully accountable for their product; moving up the value-chain by focusing on core-competencies; reducing the company’s cost-structure (Crute et al. (2003)). A similar set of successful ‘lean’ design rules was developed by Kelly Johnson, former Chief Engineer at Lockheed. He had four- teen operational rules within which the ‘Skunk Works’ advanced projects division would work (Rich and Janos (1994)). These included: delegating authority of a programme to a manager allowing them to make technical, financial and operational decisions; re- stricting the number of people on a project by using a small number of ‘good’ people; ensuring the customer timely funds projects; ensuring there is trust and very close co- operation between the customer and the contractor; rewarding good performance based on performance, not the number of people supervised.
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The development of the information platform is designed to provide a convenient and efficient platform for the Grain and Economic Crops Innovation Team. First of all, we have a clear understanding of the actual needs of the team before the development, and developers master and use Visual Studio and SQL Server operating procedures. Secondly, as the hardware and software environment required by the platform, people is easy to buy or related sites to download on the markets, the platform costs mainly in the development and maintenance, which not caused excessive economic burden to the users. And, the platform is not very complex, the development cycle is shorter, and personnel economic expenditure is not big, therefore, saving a lot of manpower and financial resources will be far greater than the benefits of the system development costs. Thirdly, in the development and maintenance of the whole system, we are able to complete the project research, site security and maintenance of the system platform under the support of certain funds, playing an important role in the development of this system. Finally, platform-oriented users are also easy to operate, and the data update is convenient, efficient and accurate, so, a platform for information display of Grain Economy Team is feasible in the practical operation. In a word, the platform is feasible in the development and design.
This was because there was very little nitrate left in the model soil pro- ﬁ les at the beginning of the simulated run, and during the summer pe- riod (May 2013 – September 2013) there was very little simulated discharge (see Fig. 10). An addition of nitrate on 5th March 2013 to catchment 4 increased the nitrate levels in the soil and a peak in nitrate followed. Further additions of nitrate fertilizer kept the soil nitrate in this simulation at a larger concentration than that in the catchment 5 simulation, which despite having similar levels of nitrate applied, retained less nitrate in the soil. The difference in the simulated soil ni- trate between the two catchments manifests as differences in the ni- trate in the drainage water in the autumn and winter of 2013 where the nitrate leached was greater for catchment 4 than for catchment 5. The simulated nitrate in the drainage water is larger than that measured for catchment 4 yet smaller for catchment 5. This suggests problems with the modelled uptake of nitrate by the grass and retention in the soil in this case, but we have no explanation for the counter-intuitive discrepancy between the measurements on the two plots. Quantifying the fate of nitrate can be dif ﬁ cult (Senapati et al., 2016). Recently calcu- lated ﬁ eld level budgets of N from the North Wyke Farm Platform show unaccounted for losses of between 30 and 60 kg N ha −1 (Misselbrook pers. comm.). This highlights the need for more research on the processes that control N transformations from micro-scale to ﬁ eld scale, and larger-scales. Facilities such as the North Wyke Farm Platform are ideally placed to support this kind of research. Models such as the one described here can help to identify the parts of the processes where understanding is incomplete and so can help to inform the design of experiments as well as bene ﬁ t from any new understanding obtained.
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Most research in the area of supplier selection focuses on the methodology used for the selection process. Also, extensive research activities focus on the effectiveness of cross-functional teams in supplier selection. However, research on the decision support for different managerial levels is almost non-existent. Therefore in this article, we focus on how the supplier selection process can be delegated to different organisational levels and to different functional units within a company. We subsequently demonstrate how this de-centrally executed selection process can be supported by a new type of decision support system (DSS), a so-called end user enabled design environment (EUEDE) (Described in Miah, Kerr and Gammack, 2009). To demonstrate the effectiveness of this type of DSS, the methodology for the supplier selection will be a widely used multi-attribute utility approach, as for example used by Ng (2007); the procedure is described in detail by Min (1994). Beside the methodology chosen for this article, there exist various different approaches, as compiled and listed by Ho, Xu, and Dey (2010). The proposed DSS approach and its applicability for a multi-level and de- centralised decision making might overcome some of the problems in cross-functional decision making discussed by Moses and Ǻhlström (2008). The applicability of such an approach will be demonstrated using a subset of sample data from a real-world project.
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Underground space is a precious natural resource that can never be restored. The development of the underground space in some residential quarters is stuck with such problems as low level of utilization and failure to optimize overall efficiency owing to the disunion between ground constructions and underground ones. Apart from that, characteristics of underground space and a long time neglect of its improvement has been hindering the development of the space in living districts. The thesis contemplates the planning and environment design of underground space in living quarters, summarizes the forms, models and patterns for developing the space, and expounds the necessity of the planning and its problems and suggestions, principles as well as the spatial layouts it may cover. All of these aim to serve the sound and orderly development of underground space in residential quarters. The environment design of the space is discussed from the aspects of psychological environment, air environment, lighting environment as well as sonic environment, with a hope to offer some ideas and suggestions on building a cozy underground space in the quarters.
Can ‘restoration and therapy in design’ signify something more than the places like hospitals and healing gardens? Can those restorative environments be brought inside the working and living environments to mitigate the psychological problem at the source? The main objective of this paper is to look at the strategies and developments of Biophilic design with respect to therapy and restoration in order to achieve sustainability in terms of quality of life within the immediate built-environment. The paper explores the mental health issues under the domains of built-environment and indoor environment with respect to their connection with nature. Biophilic design has gained a favourable momentum within the last four decades and is now visualised as a medium that bridges the gap between humans and the nature. Out of a variety of measures of sustainable environmental design, biophilic design focuses on the end-results of naturally nurtured or inspired habitats and workplaces. It embodies strategies of Green and Intelligent buildings, works as a mitigation strategy for foul indoor environment and establishes
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or the mapping of additional information (for example, the tRNA genes with introns) onto the universal codon usage table. Similarly, we expect the “top-down” effort, when based on anatomical models, to resonate with the user community, especially with medical doctors and biologists. Given that many biologists have limited knowledge of computer technology, ease-of-use is one of the most important practical considerations in the design of bioinformatics tools. In the context of bioinformatics visualization, we have identified two key usability factors: fully visual data exploration and software portability. Fully visual exploration means that no configuration, command line parameters, or scripting are required by the end-user. Full portability means that Java 3D bioinformatics applications, commonly developed for 2D desktops, can be reconfigured at runtime for a required physical environment, such as an immersive virtual reality environment, using JABIRU (Stromer et al 2005).
The literature on nanosatellites lies in three categories. First category [1,2,3,4] is of the emergence of nanosatellite trend and survey papers, which investigate recently launched or planned systems, their capabilities, on-board technologies within the CubeSat Design Specification constraints and the possibilities in the space data services from these missions. The second category is of papers on the techniques for the modeling and analysis of sensors, actuators or a subsystem. This seems to be a pervasive theme. Numerous study cases are reported on variety of hardware e.g., solar panels, attitude control schemes and hardware in the loop controls. These studies are narrow in scope and lack a generalized methodology for the broader process of mission design and development. The third category is related to mission failures, whether review of missions or probabilistic analysis of system reliability [5,6,7]. According to , in a survey of 2500 spacecraft failures, 25% of the problems were attributed to design (functionality), 20% due to the environment and 24% were parts and quality related. Given that the objective of mission assurance is failure minimization, the works do not shed light on the principles and procedures that the CubeSat developers community may adopt. The effort outlined by Cho et al.  is a first account of comprehensive tests contemplated for the nanosatellite mission success. This work is largely environmental qualification related and does not address functional testing; the dominant and urgent focus of the developers working with budgetary constraints, and omits assurance methodology for missions on short timetables. The portrayal in  is also about a quick and light facility. It, however, targets linked observational assets built for space and aerospace domains such as network of CubeSats and UAVs. The body of work is a concurrent design center, at a leaner scale than existing ones at JPL (Team X) and GSFC (MDL). Thus, confines to Phase-B level of concept development and iterates using the established methods, processes for compatibility reasons and the experience of NASA. With the present introductory work, we hope to instigate interest in the development groups to share ideas, experiences, replicate methodologies and for the new entrants to start at a higher foundation.
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The National Institute of Building Sciences (USA) introduced the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG) term to cover the whole design process while taking into consideration the building life cycle. This integrates the multi-objectives design of project teams to accomplish high performance buildings (Prowler, 2012). The evolution towards holistic views of construction include the design process as a key success factor for projects. A new project delivery method proposed by the American Institute of Architects (AIA, 2013), attempts to use integrated project delivery (IPD) to tackle the challenges of waste, inefficiency and adversarial relations in the AEC industry, and to enhance the possibility of project success (Autodesk White Paper, 2008). This allows the designer to take the advantage of the early involvement of construction experts during the design phase, which demands more effort during early design phases, but has an obvious impacts on the project quality and economic performance (Ghassemi and Becerik-Gerber, 2011).
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