During high school, alcohol use and problem drinking are widespread; after high school, rates of alcohol use and problems increase to lifetime peaks in the early twenties. Post– high school alcohol use varies, to some degree, as a function of social role and context, as illus- trated by rapid increases in use and problems among college students. On the basis of multiwave longitudinal data, studies have considered individual- and group- level trajectories of alcohol use and problem drinking, illustrating both the population-level increase that oc- curs during late adolescence and early adulthood and the distinct trajectory courses that characterize different groups (eg, chronic heavy use, increasing use, and low- level use/abstinence). By examining individual- and group-level trajectories, studies can better address how changes in alcohol use relate to changes in other con- structs, providing a stronger foundation for a develop- mental perspective on alcohol use. Numerous gaps exist in this line of research, indicating the need for more multiwave longitudinal research that includes a wide range of developmental biological and psychosocial phe- nomena. An important component of a developmental perspective is an emphasis on how alcohol use relates to developmental tasks. In many ways, the field has yet to address adequately the challenge of Baumrind and Moselle 85 from 2 decades ago regarding the need to
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Another student who was 52 and female was only bothered by her age when she thinks about what she hasn’t done in her life. “I have (a) positive perspective and feel grateful that my past life choices didn’t kill me and I have a chance to be part of my grandchild’s life and maybe become a great grandma someday.” In some cases, the appreciation of being older is because earlier years were more difficult and trying. Several student respondents said they were happier now than before like the following 55 year old female: “I don’t feel 55. I am still somewhere in age between 5 and 55. I am happier now than I have been for most of my life. I work on observing what is in front of me and knowing I will figure it out if I need to.” Another female who was 50 made the following comment: “I love my current age, I would not go back and redo my twenties or thirties for all the tea in China, they were the hard learning years. Don’t get me wrong I loved raising my children every minute of it, I am talking on a very personal level here. Fifty really is fabulous, I feel great (,) look half way decent, and I am just enjoying the ride. Grandparenthood is the best experience ever!! Lastly, a 51 year old female is appreciative of what she has accomplished at her age. “I feel more positive than ever. I believe my personal experience is essential to my job, career, family, community, and society. I feel very valuable in terms of professional career, family role model, and responsible citizen.” This reflects the higher value placed on older people when they have more economic resources which is related to health, education, income and living in an urban and developed country (Vauclair, et. al., 2014).
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The value to the newborn of reading aloud derives from sensitive and contingent speech, touch, and facial gestures, which are elements of parent-child interaction that we know are bene ﬁ cial. 27 Similarly, reading aloud in the NICU, like talking, should be to foster parent engagement that is responsive to the infant ’ s state of arousal: present when the infant is receptive and absent when the infant shows signs of overstimulation. ROR has, in recent years, advocated reading aloud with children who have developmental disabilities. Here, too, responsive interpersonal interaction is crucial. 28
lifespan? How does neural reuse help explain, for example, why adult Japanese speakers who learn English as a second language often have great difficulty in discriminating /r/ from /l/ accurately? Takagi and Mann (1995) examined the perception of /r/ and /l/ in adult Japanese learners of English as a function of their exposure to the English language. They found that although persistent exposure (12 or more years in an English-speaking environment) improved /r/-/l/ identification accuracy, the learners never attained perfect perceptual mastery (see also Flege et al 1999; Takagi 2002; for reviews, see Birdsong 2006; Hernandez & Li 2007). Yet, infants worldwide can initially perceive all the phonetic and phonemic differences across languages (e.g., whatever their mother tongue, early on all can discriminate between English /r/ and /l/) and have the potential to master multiple languages (Eimas 1975). Nevertheless, infants’ perception of nonnative distinctions declines during the second half of the first year of life (Werker & Tees 1984), and their ability to discriminate native speech sounds increases (Kuhl et al. 2006). This developmental process (known as perceptual narrowing) is clearly important, because it correlates with greater language and reading skills later in life (Kuhl et al. 2008). But it also suggests that the neural commitment arising from learning a language early in
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and Zimmerman, 1990). in our study this tendency has shown in spatial and verbal-logical domain and not in the social domain, although there is to perceive that besides the tendency to underestimate the achievements the reason for lower accuracy is also uncertainty. namely, by analyzing the frequency distributions it can be seen that females have higher frequencies in the category »strict uncertain« as well as in the category “lenient uncertain”. thus, a review of the arrangements due to categories indicates that women avoided extreme evaluations (i.e. the estimation »my solution is perfectly correct«) and this tendency could be the origin of lower metacognitive accuracy. lower accuracy of metacognitive evaluations in adolescents and younger adults is probably at least partly dependent on developmental characteristics, as the period of younger adulthood, included into the research, means the entering structure of adulthood, thus as a transition period requires adapting to new demands and criteria that should be characteristic for adulthood.
This search yielded a disappointing number of articles relating to a potentially important area of occupational therapy practice. However, it is encouraging that the quality of the evidence is high. From a theoretical perspective, clinicians working with children and young people following TBI have little information to guide their practice and will be tempted to rely on the adult literature. Some authors have attempted to increase the evidence base by using an adult model and considering its utility with a younger age group (Marcantuono and Prigatano, 2008, Gracey et al., 2010). In the earlier case, the authors acknowledge that this is not an ideal situation as the young people are still in a period of development when they have their injury and may not be directly comparable to the adult population. Other authors (Stuss and Anderson) propose a preferable situation that integrates adult and child theory in order to increase understanding of the complexity of impaired self-awareness following a brain injury in childhood.
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Developmental dyscalculia (DD) and its treatment are receiving increasing research attention. A PsychInfo search for peer- reviewed articles with dyscalculia as a title word reveals 31 papers published from 1991–2001, versus 74 papers published from 2002–2012. Still, these small counts reflect the paucity of research on DD com- pared to dyslexia, despite the prevalence of mathematical difficulties. In the UK, 22% of adults have mathematical diffi- culties sufficient to impose severe practi- cal and occupational restrictions (Bynner and Parsons, 1997; National Center for Education Statistics, 2011). It is unlikely that all of these individuals with math- ematical difficulties have DD, but crite- ria for defining and diagnosing dyscalculia remain ambiguous (Mazzocco and Myers, 2003). What is treated as DD in one study may be conceptualized as another form of mathematical impairment in another study. Furthermore, DD is frequently— but, we believe, mistakenly- considered a largely homogeneous disorder. Here we advocate a differential and developmental perspective on DD focused on identifying behavioral, cognitive, and neural sources of individual differences that contribute to
This study’s inclusion of both mothers and fathers enabled comparisons within couples of each parent’s relative contribution to their infant’s developmental outcome. However, a major limitation of the study was the small sample size, which limited the statistical power and increased the risk for Type II errors. Also, the small sample size restricted the types of analysis possible. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) would have allowed for analysis of more complex interactional effects. The socially low risk sample of well-educated and co-habiting parents in the current sample may have protected the children from negative outcomes and may therefore have restricted the differences in developmental outcomes to be detected (e.g. Bronte-Tinkew et al.,2008). However, it could be argued that the homogenous sample controlled for socio-economical risk factors (e.g., Mensah and Kiernan, 2009) and therefore allowed for these factors to be excluded in the analyses, allowing the focus to be on the predictor variables of interest.
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2005), not autism itself, is characterised by a general interoceptive impairment. The predictions of these competing models have been directly tested by comparing the performance of groups of autis- tic and typical individuals with varying degrees of alexithymia on the heartbeat tracking task described above (Shah et al., 2016), and on tests requiring interoception of arousal (Gaigg et al., in press). In each case alexithymia, not autism, was found to be associated with poor interoceptive sensitivity (Shah et al., 2016; Gaigg et al., in press), which was not accounted for by differences in the mag- nitude of interoceptive signals (Gaigg et al., in press). These data conﬁrm the ﬁndings of earlier studies demonstrating poor cardiac sensitivity in typical individuals with high levels of alexithymia (Herbert et al., 2011) and higher self-reported interoceptive con- fusion in alexithymic individuals (Brewer et al., 2016a; Longarzo et al., 2015). The characterisation of alexithymia as a generalised impairment of interoception is also supported by research associat- ing the anterior insula (the brain area in which interoceptive signals concerning the state of the body converge) with both interoceptive difﬁculties (see Iba ˜ nez et al., 2010), and alexithymia. Structural and functional atypicalities of the anterior insula have long been associ- ated with developmental alexithymia (e.g., Silani et al., 2008; Kano et al., 2003; Reker et al., 2010; Bird et al., 2010a; Feldman-Hall et al., 2013; Borsci et al., 2009; Ihme et al., 2013; Bernhardt et al., 2014; Goerlich-Dobre et al., 2014), and a recent study also identiﬁed dam- age to anterior insula as a cause of alexithymia in individuals with traumatic brain injury (Hogeveen et al., 2016). Equally consistent is the observation that an increased prevalence of alexithymia is observed in individuals with a number of physical (e.g., diabetes, obesity) and psychiatric (e.g., eating disorders and depression) con- ditions (e.g., Topsever et al., 2006; Pinna et al., 2011; Cochrane et al., 1993; Honkalampi et al., 2000) where poor interoception is also observed (Pauli et al., 1991; Herbert and Pollatos, 2014; Pollatos et al., 2008; Pollatos et al., 2009).
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As a student of genetics I had received an all too brief exposure to the revolutionary new ideas that were emanating from the Univesidad Autonoma in Madrid in the mid-1970s –but the brilliant exposition of the Compartment Hypothesis and the role of the Selector gene engrailed given one winter’s evening by Peter Lawrence (Lawrence and Morata, 1976) had been enough to convince me that the future of developmental biology lay in understanding the genetic basis of lineage restrictions. Armed with this conviction, I arrived in the laboratory of J.R.S. Whittle at the University of Sussex, England determined to identify other genes that, like engrailed, might be involved in regulating the develop- ment of specific compartments. My first strategy was to scour the Red Book (Lindsley and Grell, 1968) for mutants with phenotypes that could be construed as being compartment specific. Amongst the most promising candidates, the first two that I selected for study were shifted (shf) and elbow (el). The narrowing of the spacing between the LIII and LIV veins in shf wings suggested a possible effect on the growth or patterning of the anterior compartment, whilst the curvature and reduction of size of el mutant wings
As part of a larger study, this report describes the dominant teaching perspectives of faculty members with teaching appointments at an 1862 land-grant institution. A census study of the institution’s faculty was conducted during the Fall semester of 2013; 157 (12.1%) faculty members representing seven colleges provided usable responses. The participants completed Pratt and Collins’ (n.d.) Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) to determine their dominant perspective(s), i.e., apprenticeship, developmental, nurturing, social reform, or transmission, and responded to questions about selected personal characteristics. All five dominant teaching perspectives were expressed by participants; 134 (85.5%) held a single dominant perspective. Apprenticeship was the most prevalent, followed by transmission and then developmental. About 15% identified with two or more perspectives. Some differences in dominant perspectives emerged by gender and college affiliation. Nearly half reported never taking a pedagogy/andragogy course. If faculty members are struggling with teaching or perceive the need to reinvigorate or reorient their approaches to instruction, taking the TPI could be a good first step, especially if followed by specific actions to improve their teaching. The TPI is available online and can be self-administered free of charge; takers receive an individualized report and advice on interpreting the results.
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Adults cycling to school with their children also benefit. While cyclists should be safe when cycling in cycle lanes (lane marked out by painted lines within the carriageway) many motorists do not understand the marking system for cycle lanes, for example, if separated by a solid white line cars are prohibited from entering the cycle lane whereas interrupted white lines signal that the cars may enter if it is safe to do so. Investment in dedicated cycleways separate from traffic, or cycle lanes on widened footpaths in areas of high traffic density are the ideal option from a cycle safety perspective. While there appear to be no economic studies on the value of bicycle lanes in the UK, the benefits of a bicycle economy have been explored elsewhere 31 together with the cycling contribution to the
Over the last few thousand years, man has continued to change the environment so that what benefits it affords, makes life easier (Gibson 1986). Yet, the choices that designers and planner make for designing urban public open spaces may be guided by ideals that are in fact detrimental to the continued growth and sustainability of both the individual and the society. The rules that guide design decisions, although intending to meet the needs of individual population groups, seem to suggest that the segregation of youth and older adult groups from each other is beneficial. Based upon the idea that people prefer it that way because of some inherent differences in needs and desires between the two ages, there is a strong belief in our society that based upon age alone (Cladwell 2005), youth and older adults desire different spaces for social exchange. Since intergenerational research indicates that not only would youth and older adults benefits from social exchange with one another but the developmental needs of the two groups may in fact be similar, this belief may be misguided. Matching development needs of youth and older adults may be a major reason why these two age groups work so well together and achieve such positive results from their interactions and why the value of segregation by age in the design of public open spaces or any other space is not only unfounded but the resulting segregated spaces can be considered flawed.
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(Neuro-developmental/Medical Model) we were told that they had a mild motor delay and flexible joints. I have always known the latter but had not heard of JHS (Kirby & Davies, 2006) until I did the reading for the literature review. It makes sense of their somatic complaints (Dewey et al. 2002). Following this diagnosis we went to weekly Occupational Therapy for Sensory Integration Therapy (Ayres, 1989) for twelve months and did exercises at home. By age six an assessment by an Educational Psychologist concluded they were a bright curious child but was still stopped from progressing with the rest of the peer group for six months with implications for social exclusion (Kanioglou, 2005) emphasising the normative expectations of the school environment (Ames, 1984). Although my child did have an Individual Education Plan they were always on the first stage and always performed averagely so never had any additional resources in school. Finally, at the risk of further educational problems in the local state school in the UK at age ten, we sent our child to a small private school with very small classes and an ethos of valuing every child where they did well (Ames, 1984). At a large state High School in the USA (5000 pupils), my now adolescent child struggled with
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19 risk-factors makes it difficult to disentangle the links between risk factors, the relative effects of moderators and outcomes (Cicchetti and Cohen 1995). Despite this, it is clear that people at greater risk of developing psychosis also are likely to have an enhanced risk of being victims of bullying in their life. In fact, a profile characterized by poor early adjustment, cognitive and emotional disturbances, co-presence of ASD or difficulties in the social domain and environmental factors such as socio-demographic or even a traumatic or neglectful environment, is shared between the two conditions. The current evidence enables a more complex debate to be raised: is bullying a social trigger to psychosis, able to divert the individual’s developmental pathway to the mental disease, or is it a direct manifestation of the inherent vulnerability for psychosis along this pathway? In this regard, Shakoor and colleagues in a large prospective community based twin study have found that bullying and paranoia are almost wholly linked via genetic pattern and then individuals prone to bullying are also phenotypically predisposed to paranoia (Shakoor, McGuire et al. 2014).
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A well-known example is the phenotypic integration of vertebrate limbs (Hall 2015). Left and right hind limbs share developmental pathways, and mutations in a gene regulating bone growth will therefore usually affect both limbs, making them grow equally. In the course of growth, bones themselves help instruct the development of muscles, tendons, and their respective attachment sites, ensuring that mutations in genes that only directly affect skeletal growth nevertheless result in functional, well-integrated limbs. Further, bone growth re- sponds to mechanical pressure, which helps to accommodate both genetic and environmental perturbations in ways that maintain functional integration within and between limbs. By preventing the expression of variants with longer limbs on one side of the body, or variants that have mismatches between bones, muscles, and tendons, regulation of limb de- velopment promotes variants in directions likely to be func- tional, even under evolutionarily novel conditions (e.g., Standen et al. 2014). This is not a special case; the depen- dencies between different components of development have the potential to capture and channel random mutational var- iation toward nonrandom, functional, integrated, pheno- types. This, in turn, can make adaptive variants more easily accessible to selection, and reduces the number of regulatory changes needed to convert developmental variation to evo- lutionary, adaptive changes in form and function (West- Eberhard 2003; Kirschner and Gerhart 2005; Gerhart and Kirschner 2007). This line of reasoning has been interpreted by some (e.g., Félix 2016) to imply that most mutations would produce functional phenotypes—a notion at odds with empir- ical observations. However, facilitated variation (Gerhart and Kirschner 2007) makes no such claim, but merely posits that the interdependencies of developmental processes increase the probability of directing the effect of mutations toward functional phenotypes able to fuel adaptive response to selec- tion more rapidly than would otherwise be the case. Facilitated variation is entirely consistent with the empirical observation that most genetic mutations are either neutral or deleterious, and that changes in amino acids most commonly disrupt the function of proteins.
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ABSTRACT Evidence of the morphological evolution of metazoans has been preserved, in varying degrees of completeness, in the fossil record of the last 600 million years. Although extinction has been incessant at lower taxonomic levels, genomic comparisons among surviving members of higher taxa suggest that much of the developmental systems that pattern their bodyplans has been conserved from early in their history. Comparisons between the origin of morphological disparity in the record and patterns of genomic disparity among living taxa promise to be interesting. For example, Hox cluster composition varies among major taxa, and the fossil record suggests that many of the changes in Hox clusters may have been associated with late Neoproterozoic evolution among minute benthic vermiform clades, from which crown bilaterian phyla arose just before or during the Cambrian explosion. Study of genomic differences among crown classes and orders whose timing and mode of origin can be inferred from morphological data in the fossil record should throw further light on the timing and mode of origin of genomic disparities.
The development of the amphibian immune system and functions used to defend against pathogens have been reviewed elsewhere (Carey et al., 1999; Du Pasquier et al., 1989; Rollins-Smith, 1998; Rollins-Smith, 2009; Rollins-Smith et al., 2002; Rollins-Smith, 2001), so will not be addressed here. Although the impact of other stressors on immune function as they relate to Bd spread has not been fully examined directly, the impacts of stress on immune function and subsequent disease susceptibility, in general, have been demonstrated in numerous cases. Amphibians show particular sensitivity to environmental stressors, both natural and anthropogenic in origin (but see Kerby et al., 2010). In addition to naturally occurring factors that influence disease resistance, such as season, temperature and developmental stage (Maniero and Carey, 1997; Raffel et al., 2006; Rollins-Smith, 1998), host–pathogen ecology may also be affected by anthropogenic activity. For example, altered environmental conditions may increase the success of pathogens by enhancing their growth or virulence. These advantages may be facilitated through increased population size or crowding of hosts, increased populations of secondary host, eutrophication, general increase in pathogen resources, or atmospheric changes toward pathogen optimum conditions. Many of these factors have already been discussed here.
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Apart from the issue of encouraging technological development by the stock market, there are other ways in which the market can contribute to development through a variety of channels. It could raise savings and investment by making it possible for individuals and households to purchase a fraction of a shipyard or a steel mill, thereby spreading the risk, without which such investment may not occur at all. Similarly the monitoring function performed automatically and from the perspective of an entrepreneur, costlessly, by the stock market also helps raise investment. Moreover, a well-functioning stock market purportedly allocates resources more efficiently through its normal pricing process, which would accord, other things being equal, higher share prices to efficient firms and lower prices to inefficient ones. Furthermore, the take-over mechanism ostensibly ensures that not just the new investment resources but also the existing capital stock is efficiently utilised. Inefficient use of existing resources is punished by the market for corporate control through disciplinary takeovers.
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PcG repressors are required for the maintenance of transcriptional gene repression patterns (cellular memory), and their upregulation is considered to be a key step towards malignancy in several carcinomas. As such, several PcG genes (including HPC1 and EZH2) are considered to be proto-oncogenes (Lun and van Lohuizen, 2004). One of the most surprising talks at the meeting, by Giacomo Cavalli (Institute of Human Genetic, CNRS, Montpellier, France), concerned the direct association of PcG mutations and cancer. Cavalli continued the discussion of the key role of PcG proteins in the heritable maintenance of cell fate and in the regulation of cell proliferation in Drosophila. His lab’s genome-wide studies have shown that these epigenetic repressors bind to and regulate a variety of key developmental genes (Schuettengruber et al., 2007). As a consequence, loss-of-function mutations in PcG genes are lethal during embryogenesis. In order to analyze later stages of development, the Cavalli group induced clones of homozygous mutant cells in larval tissues. Strikingly, besides derepressing known targets, such as the Hox genes, these PcG gene mutations could induce malignant tumors characterized by altered Notch signaling, demonstrating a link between epigenetic regulation by Pc proteins and Notch-mediated proliferation control.