Understanding the genetic and evolutionary basis of animal morphological diversity will require comparative developmentalstudies that use new model organisms. This necessitates development of tools for the study of genetics and also the generation of sequence information of the organism to be studied. The development of next generation sequencing technology has enabled quick and cost effective generation of sequence information. Parhyale hawaiensis has emerged as a model organism of choice due to the development of advanced molecular tools, thus P. hawaiensis genetic information will help drive functional studies in this organism. Here we present a transcriptome and miRNA collection generated using next generation sequencing platforms. We generated approximately 1.7 million reads from a P. hawaiensis cDNA library constructed from embryos up to the germ band stage. These reads were assembled into a dataset comprising 163,501 transcripts. Using the combined annotation of Annot8r and pfam2go, Gene Ontology classifications was assigned to 20,597 transcripts. Annot8r was used to provide KEGG orthology to our transcript dataset. A total of 25,292 KEGG pathway assignments were defined and further confirmed with reciprocal blast against the NCBI nr protein database. This has identified many P. hawaiensis gene orthologs of key conserved signalling pathways involved in development. We also generated small RNA sequences from P. hawaiensis, identifying 55 conserved miRNAs. Sequenced small RNAs that were not annotated by stringent comparison to mirBase were used to search the Daphnia pulex for possible novel miRNAs. Using a conservative approach, we have identified 51 possible miRNA candidates conserved in the Daphnia pulex genome, which could be potential crustacean/arthropod specific miRNAs. Our study presents gene and miRNA discovery in a new model organism that does not have a sequenced genome. The data provided by our work will be valuable for the P. hawaiensis community as well as the wider evolutionary developmental biology community.
Int J Ut '\ Riol J J 309 317 t 1(40) 309 Original,\rtirl,' Isolation and characterization of human fibroblast tenascin An extracellular matrix glycoprotein of interest for developmental studies YASUTE[.]
Int I De\" BinI 36 73 84 (1992) 73 Plant protoplasts as genetic tool selectable markers for developmental studies lOAN NEGRUTIU', STEFAN HINNISDAELS, DANIELLE CAMMAERTS, WICHAI CHERDSHEWASART, GOKARNA[.]
Integration of spatio-temporal gene expression patterns with the anatomy from the 3D atlas is important for genetic and developmentalstudies. It is crucial for researchers to be able to access, search and combine such information for an effective understanding of the anatomical development. The 3D-VisQus is an experiment that we derived to investigate a mechanism to intuitively map genotype into phenotype data. With a system such as the 3D-VisQus we could realize a primary mapping between in situ data of different expressions patterns into the 3D digital atlas. Moreover, the 3D-VisQus offers many other advantages. It provides the possibility to explore 3D data and dynamically formulate correct and exact visual query clauses. When compared to a semantic query system, this form of data retrieval offers a great flexibility in formulating complex search queries. In our case, users are not required to have a deep knowledge of development in order to formulate a search query with exact anatomical terms. With a few maneuvers (mouse clicks), users formulate their search queries based on their visual perception and data recognition. The 3D-VisQus extracts and executes text-based SQL statements from the submitted visual query while the underlying databases models and the query language are completely transparent to the users.
Ponzetto pm Met signaling mutants 645 Met signaling mutants as tools for developmental studies CAROLA PONZETTO*,1, GUIDO PANT?1, CHIARA PRUNOTTO1, ALESSANDRO IERACI1 and FLAVIO MAINA2 1Dept of Anatomy[.]
The Advanced Diploma in Leadership in Early Childhood Care and Education is a leadership development program designed for childcare professionals who already have experience in the childcare field (e.g., childcare directors, educators, advocates, policy analysts, trainers, and supervisors). This Advanced Diploma provides a unique combination of courses from the PACE Professional Studies Program area and DevelopmentalStudies, Stream C. It includes the following DEV courses: DEV-3100(3) The Child, Family, and Social Policy, DEV-3610(3) Topics in Leadership in Early Childhood Care and Education, and DEV-3630(3) Advanced Internship. Application Procedures
However, another possibile explanation is that HSCs in the AGM come from yolk sac, but undergo further maturation in the AGM niche during which time they acquire the ability to engraft in adult bone marrow. Actually past studies showed that by co- culturing E8.5 yolk sac cells with AGM-derived stromal cells for 4 days, adult type HSCs that can reconstitute adult bone marrow are generated in vitro (Matsuoka et al., 2001). The signals required to induce the maturation are unknown, however, intro- duction of HoxB4 (Kyba et al., 2002) or Cdx4 (Wang et al., 2005) can make the yolk sac or ES derived hematopoietic cells trans- plantable to adult bone marrow. Since blood circulation between yolk sac and embryo proper is established as early as E8.25, it is therefore possible that the first hematopoietic activity detected in the embryo proper at paraaortic splanchnopleura (P-Sp) region at E8.5 (Cumano et al., 2001) comes from yolk sac. This conclusion needs to be tested by lineage tracing from yolk sac at E8.0 and by lineage tracing from E10.5 dorsal aorta.
Gaskell attempted to replace the nomenclature of the efferent nerves, which to him in part appeared entirely artificial or hypothetical, by fundamental divisions of the nervous system where physiological and structural prop- erties can be grouped together. In a series of landmark papers on the nerves innervating the heart , the vis- ceral and vascular systems  and the cranial nerves , Gaskell noticed the differences in the presence of small and non-myelinated (non-medullated) fibers in the nerves leaving the central nervous system from cranial to sacral levels. This histological approach to classify the efferent nervous system to the vascular and visceral muscles led to a subdivision into bulbar, thoracolumbar and sacral parts in addition to a small mesencephalic section . A very similar conclusion was drawn by Langley  from a series of studies combining histological analysis, electrical stimulation, pharmacological interven- tion and nerve transection in the autonomic nervous sys- tem as exemplified by a series of treatises on the innervation of the pelvic and adjoining viscera [9–12]. The use of nicotine allowed the interruption of ganglionic transmission and the separation of preganglionic and postganglionic effects upon electrical stimulation of auto- nomic nerves. With the help of adrenaline and pilocar- pine, as exemplified by the analysis of sweat gland regulation , muscarine and also choline, the effects of nerve stimulation could be compared to what then be- came known as noradrenergic and cholinergic neurotrans- mission. From a large set of data Langley divided the autonomic nervous system into a sympathetic, a parasym- pathetic and an enteric division . The parasympathetic division is subdivided into a tectal, a bulbar and a sacral
cases these outgrowths become large enough that they result themselves patterned further into distinct neuroepithelial regions (e.g., eye primordium into optic stalk, pigmented retina, iris, ciliary body, and neural retina; telencephalon into pallium and subpal- lium and orthogonal septoamygdaloid variations; midbrain tectum into tectal gray, optic tectum, torus semicircularis and preisthmus; cerebellar primordium into vermis, hemisphere and floccule). Ad- ditional median outgrowths of the primary neural primordium are represented by the neurohypophysis and the epiphysis (Fig. 1E). Other brain subdivisions are those that appear orthogonally disposed relative to the neural length axis, namely the forebrain, hindbrain and spinal initial tagmata (Fig. 2A) and their ulterior proneuromeric divisions and neuromeric subdivisions (Fig. 2 B,C). The forebrain tagma is divided into secondary prosencephalon (hypothalamo-telencephalic complex), diencephalon, and midbrain proneuromeres (Fig. 2B); the hindbrain tagma is divided into prepontine, pontine, retropontine and medullary proneuromeric regions (Fig. 2B), and the spinal tagma is divided into pretrematic, rostral trematic, intertrematic, caudal trematic and posttrematic regions (not shown; ‘trema’, Greek = limb). Each proneuromeric domain generates a few neuromeres. These represent smaller transverse developmental units with differential neural fates (Fig. 2C). These transverse limits (AP pattern), similarly as the DV limits that separate longitudinal zones and microzones, are related to differential molecular profiles (Fig.3; see also Fig.8; details in Pu- elles, 2013). Some of the transverse interneuromeric limits coincide with particular properties, such as restriction of proliferative clonal dispersal of neuroepithelial progenitors, low proliferation rates, particular adhesivity markers, and reduced junctional permeability, which jointly cause the characteristic interneuromeric constrictions seen between overt neuromeres, particularly overt rhombomeres (blue background in Fig. 2C; Heyman et al., 1993, 1995; Martínez et al., 1992, 1995). There exist other such transverse boundar- ies that separate cryptic neuromeres in the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain, which seem so far delimited mainly by molecular and fate boundaries (Puelles and Rubenstein, 1993, 2003, 2015; Cambronero and Puelles, 2000; Marin et al., 2008; Tomás-Roca et al., 2016; Ferran et al., 2015). As regards histogenetic behavior (generation of neuronal types, nuclear boundaries, axonal guidance fields, or topographically-organized synaptic fields) no difference is observed between overt and cryptic neuromeres.
While there is accumulating evidence to suggest that a variety of different animal taxa, including non-human primates, birds, fish and amphibians, are able to approximate and differentiate non-symbolic numerical magnitudes (such as deciding which of two dot arrays is larger), the ability to use numerical symbols to represent numerical magnitudes (i.e., the total amount of items in a given set) is a unique human quality. Despite the relevance numeracy has in our modern societies, to date relatively little is known about the ways the human brain represents the semantic meaning of numerical symbols. Even less is known about how the child’s brain represents symbolic numerical magnitudes and how the neural correlates of symbolic numerical magnitude representation change over developmental time. In order to further constrain our current understanding, I conducted a series of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies in children and adults with the aim to investigate how the human cortex represents symbolic numerical magnitudes. The next sections will discuss the results of these functional imaging studies by relating them to our existing knowledge of how the human brain represents symbolic numerical magnitudes.
A few studies have suggested that underlying anxiety levels may predict stress reactivity and a handful of studies identify prior stress experiences as a risk for having a worse response to new stressors. In one experiment researchers used a questionnaire to assess volunteers’ risk for anxiety, then observed brain functioning in those same volunteers while they made decisions in a context where specific colors were paired with stressful conditions, and then finally again in a context where they saw the same colors but this time under normal conditions. Among the volunteers who had been at higher risk of anxiety, neurons involved in fear and emotion remained much more responsive to the sight of stress-paired colors even when those colors were shown under normal conditions . Similarly, a handful of studie provide evidence that experimentally administered acute stress can be more disruptive to attention if adults have experienced traumatic stress in the past [394-397] or if they suffer from an anxiety disorder . Underlying anxiety levels could be related to earlier stress experiences as well as temperament, thus these results are likely intertwined. Overall, these findings are consistent with the stress priming effects seen in animal data. Consider, however, that these data are derived from laboratory volunteers and measure response to acute stressors.
Counterfactual reasoning (CFR) involves mentally representing how the world would be now if things had been different in the past. In everyday discourse, we express counterfactual thoughts in the form of conditional statements; for example: “If p, then q” or “If we had not been interested in counterfactuals, then we would not be writing this paper.” Using conditionals, we indi- cate that the true nature of the antecedent p is suppositional and that q should be assessed within that context (Evans, Over, & Handley, 2005). In our example, the counterfactual supposition p considers a world in which we were not interested in counter- factuals. At this point, the conclusion q—that we would not be writing this paper—is not drawn randomly; we retain as many features of the past as possible and change only those that are causally dependent on the counterfactual supposition (Edging- ton, 2011). For instance, as a consequence, we would not have read papers on counterfactuals, nor would we have run studies to investigate counterfactuals; hence, we would not have had anything to write about. Modeling a counterfactual world in this manner has been referred to as the nearest possible world con- straint (Lewis, 1973). With CFR, we refer to this constraint that “involves a change in some features of the actual world in addi- tion to those required by the truth of the antecedent of the counterfactual, while other such features are left unchanged” (Woodward, 2011, p. 21).
The present study was carried out to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver and skin on different developmental stages of Egyptian toad Bufo regularis to be used as a histological key for such species. Our experiment started when tadpoles began to feed. The adapted embryos are divided into 3 large tanks of 200 embryos each, collections of samples started from feeding age every three days. Both histological and histochemical results showed that the general architecture of the different organs was correlated with the state of development, i.e. larval, me- tamorphic and post-metamorphic. They, therefore, displayed different characteristic features de- pending on the investigated developmental stage starting from the larval stage (stage 44) and end- ing with the post-metamorphic stage 66.
In this work, we are interested in how waves can interact with established patterning mechanisms to control spatial and tempo- ral aspects of development. It is important here to draw a distinc- tion between two different stages involved in patterning an em- bryo. The first is pattern specification, where cells become com- mitted to following a specific developmental program by a pre- patterning mechanism that cannot be visualised simply by looking at physical properties of the cells, but may be driven by the creation of a genetic pre-pattern. The second stage involves the morphological events that take place during pattern formation. For example, changes in adhesion molecule concentration, cell motility, and the process of cell rearrangement. Often these stages cannot be separated; the processes are completely coupled by feedback mechanisms. However, an example of a process in which these two steps are clearly defined is somitogenesis. A wave of FGF signalling is present along the AP axis with a threshold level of FGF8 required for segmentation (Dubrulle et al., 2001). First a genetic pre-pattern irreversibly marks the position of presumptive somites, and then cells undergo epithelialisation and somite boundary formation occurs (Gossler and Hrabé de Angelis, 1998). In feather bud formation, the initial pattern row forms along the midline of the embryo, with subsequent rows added on either side until the field is fully patterned – although no molecular players have been identified with this phenomenon, it is easy to imagine that a similar wave (be it in cell density, chemical concentration or adhesion molecules, for example) could play a role similar to that of FGF signalling in somite formation.