Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness- related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmentaltrends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmentaltrends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmentaltrends.
A significant factor in the development of settlements and regions represented the commencement of the public administration reform (on the level of settle- ments, later on also regions). The public administra- tion reform, started in 1990 already, has an extensive character, however, it has not been completed yet and so far it has resulted in the decentralization mainly. The reinforcement of competencies and financial instruments still represents a process that is com- plicated and obscure. The orientation to reinforcing the principle of subsidiarity and inter-settlement and interregional solidarity has been just little successful. This initiative has just partially contributed to mobili- zation of internal and acquisition of external resources for incorporation of more permanent developmentaltrends in municipalities and regions.
Interestingly, AAT also predicts additional circumstances under which developmentaltrends in suggestion-based false memories can become attenuated or reversed. In AAT, considerable weight is placed on the link between false memories and theme nodes. So, not only does spreading activation result in the activation of related concepts in one’s knowledge base, but it also leads to the activation of theme nodes: nodes that are related to the subset of concepts being activated (Arndt & Reder, 2003; Howe & Wilkinson, 2011; Otgaar et al., 2014). Theme nodes are part of associative memory networks and they too can give rise to false recollections. The idea is that material (e.g., DRM word lists) that activates fewer themes leads to more false memories than material that converges on multiple themes. The reason is that material containing fewer themes is more likely to activate that theme more quickly than when there are multiple themes. Moreover, the overall activation of this single theme may be greater than that for materials that have more themes because activation in this latter case is more dispersed across the many different themes. The
The designed and fabricated 3 liter capacity laboratory type multifunction biodiesel processor (ILBP3-MF) was used to investigate the effective parameters for the pro- cessor design, development and scale up. Several design parameters could be controlled and altered in this handy version biodiesel processor. This portable multifunction processor was used to produce standard biodiesel fuel from a number of feedstock and was named as first generation biodiesel fuel processor at TMU . Fig- ure 3 shows the sustainable system developmentaltrends and technology innovations at TMU bioenergy research laboratories. This figure shows right from castor sample energy farm to oil extraction and biodiesel production and purification.
This is exactly what we demonstrated in the present study. So, younger and older children evinced higher false memory rates than adults when they received videos with obvious themes of a street fight, birthday party, and an electrician. Furthermore, our findings fit perfectly with recent research showing that when stimuli with obvious themes are employed, age patterns in spontaneous false memories weaken or reverse (Howe & Wilkinson, 2011; Otgaar et al., 2012a; Swanell & Dewhurst, in press). These studies show that stimuli such as story contexts and scene- like pictures are also capable of modifying developmentaltrends in spontaneous false memories. Our study provides additional proof that themes might play a significant role in the formation of false memories and that such themes can be readily identified in stimuli such as pictures (Otgaar et al., 2012) and videos.
The reasons for emerging developmental patterns are likely to involve an interaction of factors that include sex-linked developmental changes in anatomy and physiology and sociophonetic influences. Anatomical and physiological factors affecting the development of vocal characteristics and the sex-linked patterns that emerge are acknowledged and widely documented in the literature (Eguchi & Hirsh, 1969; Hasek et al., 1980; Kent, 1976). VOT is a critical temporal parameter that requires fine coordination between sub-laryngeal, laryngeal and supra-laryngeal systems. On the basis that these systems are still undergoing development up to and beyond puberty, there is no reason to assume that VOT is exempt from the influences of these developmental changes. VOT is therefore likely to reflect some sex-linked developmental patterns in a similar way to those reported on vocal characteristics. Some evidence for the existence of male/female differences in the VOT data of adult speech is documented (Ryalls et al., 1997; Swartz, 1992; Whiteside & Irving, 1997). The data reported here suggest that there is some evidence for the emergence of these sex-linked differences in VOT patterns between the ages of 9 and 11 years.
During each wave (except wave 5), students were asked whether they ex- perienced speci ﬁ c forms of peer vic- timization (eg, name calling, threats of physical violence, actual physical vio- lence) during the previous 12 months. During waves 1 to 4, respondents re- ported whether they experienced each form of peer victimization; during waves 6 and 7, respondents reported whether they experienced any form of bullying/victimization but were not asked which speci ﬁ c type(s) of victim- ization they experienced. For our ﬁ rst research question (on victimization trends across waves 1 to 7), peer vic- timization was operationalized as a di- chotomous variable (0 = no forms of victimization experienced; 1 = some form(s) of victimization experienced). For our second research question (on victimization and emotional distress across waves 1 to 4), peer victimization
According to availability of suitable maps for evaluation of land use, three time proﬁ les (years: 1953, 1990 and 2007) have been chosen to represent the major stages in the development of this area. In ad- dition to the orthophoto (2003) the basic maps (M 1 : 10 000) and production blocks (LPIS) were used for the assessment of land use in 2007. A detailed ﬁ eld survey of the selected area was needed to cap- ture the current state of land use. The changes that have occurred since 2003 were plotted to the or- thophoto as an outcome of this survey. In addition, digitized archival aerial photographs of model area were used to assess the historical status of the agricultural landscape structure (1953, 1990). Maps of the Land cadastre and Land register recording the state of land tenure to almost 1964 were used for better interpretation of archival black and white aerial photographs from 1953 and correct allocation of the land use categories. Old postcards and photographs from archives and from citizens of Žabčice as well as yearbooks of UAE from the MUAF archives in Brno also served as important materials. Deﬁ - nition of land use categories is necessary to detect changes in land use in diﬀ erent time periods. Thir- teen land use categories have been identiﬁ ed as an outcome of interpretation of maps and aerial pho- tographs. Trends in land use were identiﬁ ed on the basis of the analysis of deﬁ ned categories of land use in diﬀ erent time proﬁ les. Representation in %, average size as well as density of the pads appear to be several of the quantitative characteristics which can monitor changes over the time. Data process- ing and all analyses were realized with the use of ArcGIS 9.1 so ware.
In conclusion, working memory is only a part of cognitive development but there is promising future approaching this field. For this proposed behavioural and visual stimulation, scope of the study has been scaled down in selecting normal children that is between 7 to 12 years old. Furthermore, the proposed visual stimulus using numerous old and new pictures is designed before commencing the experiment, This study also discussed the developmentaltrends by age difference, whether normal children with no working memory difficulties have a working memory deficit or not. By using standardized proposed visual stimuli model for all groups, their scores for mean performances were recorded after the stimulus responses. 97 children were compared among a group of children of various ages, with 7 years old children performed worse on Phase 2 with a score of 37 %.
Changes in knowledge from Grades 6-8 were characterized by both lability and developmentaltrends, confirming our first hypothesis. Consistent with previous studies (Laird et al., 2003), we found normative, gradual linear declines in parents’ knowledge about adolescents’ activities. As adolescents became older, parents, on average, knew less about their activities. These developmentaltrends in knowledge had important implications for youth adjustment, and steeper linear trends were linked to higher alcohol use and delinquency. Linear trends captured only some of the variance in knowledge. There was substantial residual variance in knowledge, which reflects lability, within-person fluctuations in knowledge, as well as error, the sources of which may be known and unknown. These findings suggest that many families experienced fluctuations in knowledge across early adolescence, with many unpredictable ups and downs in knowledge, and they are consistent with recent work reporting evidence of substantial lability in parent-youth closeness and conflict during the early adolescent transition (Marceau et al., 2014). The findings also support a dynamic systems perspective, which posits that there may be many fluctuations in parent-child behaviors during early adolescence as a family adjusts to a more egalitarian parent-youth relationship (Granic et al., 2003). Including lability in studies, in addition to linear trends, may expand our understanding of changes in knowledge during early adolescence and suggest new directions for preventive interventions.
The research is motivated by the needs of strategic management of corporations and advisory law corporations in solving of transformations of large companies as confirmed by reference review of Global U.S. Independent Investment Bank Moelis & Company (2016), which was involved in 151 transactions in 2015. The initial method of research is financial analysis in the form of parallel ratio indicators that will allow the classification of the level of mergers and the separation of successful transformations of companies from failed. The object of the analysis is a representative sample of mergers of all those carried out in the Czech territory at the interval of 6 years. The result of the analysis is the identification of problems and the formulation of research issues in the field of developmentaltrends in mergers in the context of world development, the impact of the sector of economic activities and the size of the successor companies. To quantify the causes of merger failure, a quantitative analysis is selected in the form of a structured questionnaire. Custom solutions, synthesis and evaluation of results broaden knowledge in merger theory. The presented model for the measurement of merger failure can be advantageously applied in economic decision making in any national economy as well as at the level of transnational integration groups. The necessary data are included in the current financial statements published by the companies involved in the transactions. At present,
Following a series of iterative Rasch analyses, a RMPFS integrating three key core components of physical fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, and muscular strength) was developed successfully. The RMPFS and its scale indicators showed fit to the Rasch model sufficient for the intended purposes of measuring overall fitness of children and tracking fitness levels over time. The RMPFS measures were then used to display Hong Kong primary school-aged students’ overall physical fitness levels and developmentaltrends effectively, and the percentile distributions of overall physical fitness, measured by the RMPFS, for age, height, weight, and BMI were illustrated graphically for the sample of students in this research.
The analysis of the variability of average annual increases in the researched set of enterprises (Chart 2) suggests an idea of considerable diﬀ erentiation of developmentaltrends in intensity of agricultural production among agricultural farms in the Czech Republic. In the years of our research, on the one hand average agricultural production in the whole Czech Republic and in the selected set moderately decreased, but on the other hand 31 farms out of the set increased their production, and 20 farms went considerably high. This means
The paper is aimed at the presentation of findings achieved in the study of the dynamics and trends of the rate of unemployment in selected countries with market and transitive economy in the reference pe- riod 1995–2001. In addition to the description of developmentaltrends of analysed time series by means of trend functions of linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, power and inverse types their informa- tive ability was verified as a starting base for the realization of point prediction of investigated events for 2005. With given 95% probability, minimum and maximum values are determined of the evaluated macroeconomic indicator for a defined time horizon.
The paper is focused on the description of average level, variability and developmentaltrends the export prices of selected agricultural and food commodities in the Czech Republic with differentiation accord- ing to particular countries within the defined reference period 1993–2002. Thre is also presented the short-time point and interval extrapolation prediction of studied events. Methods of regression and cor- relation analysis and developmentaltrends were applied for the mathematical-statistical analysis. agricultural and food commodities, export prices, Czech Republic, variability, average level, develop- mental trends, prediction
Layer 1 contains a distinctive set of morphologically di- verse local circuit neurons along with varied populations of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia [11, 40, 81, 97, 102, 125, 127]. Feedback connections from cortical areas as well as the thalamus, amygdala, and neuromodulatory sys- tems target layer 1 [5, 7, 10, 15, 48, 60, 87, 112, 128], where they interact with local excitatory and inhibitory circuits and affect spatiotemporal characteristics of cortical activity patterns [17, 26, 33]. In prenatal development, the intrinsic Cajal-Retzius cells of layer 1 secrete reelin to direct the de- velopment of the distinct cortical layers [39, 53, 93]. Studies of the development of layer 1 have examined mostly the pre- and postnatal maturation of Cajal-Retzius neurons and few other cell types [78, 82, 88, 90, 102, 114, 126, 127]. However, we know little about the postnatal changes in the diverse cellular populations of layer 1 and their relationship with the maturation of the pathways that terminate there, which serve to transition this layer from a developmental mediator to a processor of feedback input. Importantly, changes in the expression of factors that determine the maturation and activity of cortical networks have been de- scribed in layer 1 neurons in LPFC in neurodevelopmental connectivity disorders such as schizophrenia  and aut- ism . The effects of these disruptions on the cellular organization and axonal networks within layer 1 in child- hood and adulthood are unknown.
At a bivariate level, the results in Table 1 indicated a substantial increase in reported standardized screening tool use across surveys. To assess whether this trend of increased standardized tool use remains statistically signi ﬁ cant even when taking into account the changing demographics and practice characteristics of pediatricians over time, we employed a multivariable logistic regression model estimating the use of any standardized tool for developmental screening (Table 4). Even after adjusting for other available characteristics, pediatricians in 2016 were much more likely to report using a standardized screening tool relative to pediatricians in 2002 (adjusted odds ratio = 7.3; 95% con ﬁ dence interval = 5.4 – 9.9). Among our control variables, pediatricians practicing in urban, inner-city areas and rural areas were more likely than those in suburban areas to report using a standardized screening tool, whereas women (adjusted odds ratio = 1.47; 95% conﬁdence interval = 1.1–1.8) were more likely than men to report standardized tool use. Referral Practices