only related to diabetes but also related to hypertension, central obesity, obesity, aging, salt intake, dyslipidemia and physical inactivity. Among these hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia per se largely associated with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Individuals with type 2 diabetesmellitus echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy are usually associated with susceptibility to increased albuminuria 10 and atherothrombosis 11 , which is a marker of endothelial dysfunction and microangiopathy 12 . This explains the pathologic link between inflammation and left ventricular hypertrophy.
It is more frequently present in women, older than 60 years, and can last from few weeks to years. Patients blame of a burning sensation that starts in the tongue and gradually spreads throughout the whole mouth; they generally feel pain, tingle or paresthesia that can be felt also in the throat, lips, gingiva or palate. In the great majority of cases it is secondary to some sys- temic diseases, medications or nutritional deficiencies. Many times one single cause cannot be identified. Sys- temic diseases associated with a burning mouth include Sjögren’s Syndrome, diabetesmellitus, thyroid dysfunctions and also iron, zinc and vitamin B com- plex deficiencies, besides infectious states caused gen- erally by candidiasis. Stress and anxiety may also be causal factors.
Type 2 DiabetesMellitus (NIDDM):- Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin dependent or adult - onset diabetes. But it's become more common in children and teens over the past 20 years, largely because more young people are weigh over or obese. About 90% of people with diabetes have type 2. When you have type 2 diabetes your pancreas usually creates some insulin.But either it’s not enough or your body doesn't use it like it should. Insulin resistance, when your calls don't respond to insulin, usually happens in fat,liver, and muscle cell. Type 2 diabetes is often milder than type 1.But it can still cause major health complications, especially in the tiny blood vessels in your Kidneys, nerves, and eyes. Type 2 also raises your risk of heart disease and Stroke. People who are obese-more than 20% Over their target body weight for their height-have an especially high risk of type 2 diabetes and the health problems that can follow. Obesity often cause insulin resistance, so your pancreas has to work harder to make more insulin. But it's still not enough to keep your blood sugar levels where they should be.
Results: Prevalence of diabetesmellitus was 12% in male doctors while it was 8% in female doctors. 11 (91.66%) male doctors and 8 (100%) female doctors were taking medicines for diabetes regularly, 8 (66.66%) male doctors and 7 (87.5%) female doctors were doing blood sugar regularly, 7 (58.33%) male doctors and 5 (62.5%) female doctors were doing diet control, 7 (58.33%) male doctors and 5 (62.5%) female doctors were doing exercise regularly, 9 (75%) male doctors and 8 (100%) female doctors were using footwear while 6 (50%) male doctors and 4 (50%) female doctors were taking proper dental care.
folate states on pregnancy outcomes. The interaction of folate level in B12 deficient pregnant women is found to have positive relationship with Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance whereas the significant reverse relation is observed in non-deficient mothers (Krishnaveni et al 2009). Similarly, it has been reported that high folates low vitamin B12 states during pregnancy can increase the risk of infants with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW) (Dwarkanath et al 2013; Gadgil et al 2014). Moreover, this imbalance can also increase the incidence of gestational diabetesmellitus in mothers (Krishnaveni et al 2009). This might be due to the detrimental effect of B12 deficiency implicated high homocysteine level although the study failed to report homocysteine level. This association has been found to be obesity-related. However, this cross-sectional study was not able to establish the causal role of B12 deficiency in GDM. Recently, Krishnaveni and her group have found higher insulin resistance in the adolescent offspring born from mothers with higher folate concentrations, but not vitamin B12(Krishnaveni et al 2014). Thus, it should be noted that although folates are essential in pregnancy, high folate intakes can have detrimental effects on pregnancy outcomes, especially in the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. The question of whether high folate or low vitamin B12 or combination can have these adverse outcomes are still controvertial.
Though this disease has a low incidence in our country of only 0.1 per 100,000 population the magnitude of the problem is indeed huge considering the chronicity of the illness, its effect on growth and development and long-term complications on the various organ systems causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The disease also brings about with it a change in lifestyle for the young diabetics with the need for daily exogenous insulin therapy, blood glucose monitoring and dietary changes. Due to the same reasons, diabetesmellitus imposes a great drain on the economy.
The herbs and spices excite the pancreas to interfere with dietary glucose absorption, produce and reinvent insulin, and insulin careful action of the bioactive ingredients. Clove is prominent source of essential oils such as caryophyllene, eugenol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, alpha-humulene, methyl eugenol, eugenyl, naphthalene, actyl eugenol, heptanone, sesquiterpenes, chavicol, vanillian, and methyl salicylate pinene and used in many food based products . Diabetesmellitus is a chronic human health syndrome that associated with high abstaining blood sugar level and lipoprotein complications. During cellular metabolism, production of reactive oxygen species, environmental factors and life style injury the cell membranes that caused diabetes. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats increase the oxidative stress, oxidized LDL-cholesterol and other lipoproteins problems. During oxidation, LDL-cholesterol is quickly absorbs and damages through macrophages and improves the degradation of un-oxidized LDL-cholesterol .
For more than a century, it has been known that diabetes antedat- ing pregnancy can have severe adverse effects on fetal and neona- tal outcomes (1). As early as in the 1940s, it was recognized that women who developed diabetes years after pregnancy had expe- rienced abnormally high fetal and neonatal mortality (2). By the 1950s the term “gestational diabetes” was applied to what was thought to be a transient condition that affected fetal outcomes adversely, then abated after delivery (3). In the 1960s, O’Sullivan found that the degree of glucose intolerance during pregnancy was related to the risk of developing diabetes after pregnancy. He proposed criteria for the interpretation of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) during pregnancy that were fundamentally statisti- cal, establishing cut-off values — approximately 2 standard devia- tions — for diagnosing glucose intolerance during pregnancy (4). In the 1980s those cut-off points were adapted to modern meth- ods for measuring glucose and applied to the modern definition of gestational diabetes — glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy (5). While based on O’Sullivan’s values for predicting diabetes after pregnancy, the diagnosis of gestational diabetesmellitus (GDM) also identifies pregnancies at increased risk for perinatal morbidity (6–8) and long-term obesity and glucose intolerance in offspring (9–11).
We found no evidence that diminished glycemic control was associated with compromises in implant success or clinical complications for patients with type 2 diabetesmellitus. While pre- liminary, our findings are relevant to practicing clinicians in assessing the viability of implant therapy in patients with type 2 diabetesmellitus. However, alterations to implant placement and loading protocols may be important in the initial success of implants in these patients regardless of their diabetic status. For example, in our study we used a specific implant system with a delayed restorative protocol that was approximately twice the time the manufacturer recommended, and we prescribed antibiotics to the subjects with dia- betes for seven to 10 days after placement. This seven- to 10-day course of antibiotics was longer than that we prescribed to patients without dia- betes (three days), owing to the limited informa- tion available on the procedural risks for these patients with diabetes. We could not determine the relationship of these protocol alterations to implant success on the basis of our investigation.
Diabetesmellitus is a very common endocrinopathy, and occurs as a result of absolute or relative deficiency in insulin. It is one of the main threats to human health in the 21 st century, being a leading cause of death. Several distinct types of DM exist and are caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors (3). Diabetes is associated with various microvascular, macrovascular, and metabolic complications (2). Hypomagnesemia has been proposed to be correlated to diabetes, its pathogenesis, complications and comorbidities. Studies have shown that the prevalence of hypomagnesemia among diabetics range from 13.5 to 47.7% (4). Magnesium being the fourth most abundant cation in the body plays an important role in over 300 enzymatic reactions. Thus magnesium deficiency has been proposed as a possible contributor to diabetic complications (2). Of note is the large body of evidence that shows a link between hypomagnesemia and reduction of tyrosine-kinase activity at the insulin receptor level, which may result in the impairment of insulin action and development of insulin resistance (5, 6). There is also evidence that magnesium supplementation may be associated with reduction in the incidence of diabetes and diabetic complications and co- morbidities (7-9).
Fuentes B and colleagues conducted an observational study analyzing the relation between acute ischemic stroke outcome and the use of intravenous thrombolysis among patients with diabetesmellitus. They reviewed 1139 in- patients with ischemic stroke; 24.8% were diabetics, 23.2% of them were treated with intravenous thrombolysis and 21.9% were non- diabetics. It has been shown that those with diabetes were older and with multiple comorbidities. Hyperglycemia was more pronounced in the diabetic group. No major differences were observed regarding intracerebral bleeding, stroke severity and mortality either acute or at 3 months. Stroke severity was linked to poor outcome in those who did not receive thrombolysis. The authors concluded that thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke was associated with better outcome among diabetics and recommended no exclusion of diabetic patients from receiving thrombolysis in case of acute ischemic stroke .
Introduction: Gestational diabetesmellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM post- partum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. Patients and methods: A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012.
Table 12 shows the percentages and comparison of cases admitted of delayed causes of administration to NICU in different years (1993-1994), (1996-1997), (2003-2004), and (2013 to 2014). It was found that the percentage of neonatal Hypoglycemia reached 3.3%, (19 neonate), which showed that there is an increase in neonatal hypoglycemia, with new values used for screening of gestational diabetesmellitus. It was found that the other causes of delayed admission to neonatal intensive care unit like sepsis and asphyxia were 0.17%, much less than previous years. The incidences of preterm were 6.45%, and small for gestational age was 8.2% & 12.2% for large for gestational age. The percentage of babies who had expired due to mothers with gestational diabetesmellitus showed a signi icant decrease to reach 1.5% in comparison to previous years, (Tables 12,13), which re lect the effectiveness of control by the use of new values.
Abstract: The incidence of gestational diabetesmellitus (GDM) is on the increase and, if not diagnosed, managed and treated adequately, can have unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Several studies have shown that glycemic values considered as adequate in the past when monitoring GDM failed to contain these adverse outcomes and randomized trials are needed to ascertain whether these targets should be lowered. Dietary restrictions remain the mainstay of GDM management and suitable physical exercise can help too. The use of rapid-acting insulin analogues (lispro and aspart) are novel treatments for improving metabolic control by reducing postprandial glycemia, while long-acting insulin analogues need to be evaluated by further studies for safety in clinical use before they can be prescribed. Numerous studies have found glyburide and metformin safe in women with GDM but more randomized controlled trials are needed, with a long-term follow-up of mother and child, to confirm these results.
Abstract: DiabetesMellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes, not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes, there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life, provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle, particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.
3. Pathologic changes in the pancreas of diabetics Pathologic changes, similar to those accompanying other auto- immune endocrine disorders, termed as "insulitis" have been demonstrated in diabetesmellitus 19,20 . “Insulitis” includes lymphocytic infiltration of the islets and a halo of lymphocytes around the capsule of the islet. The fact that insulitis can be induced in experimental animals by injection of homologous or heterologous endocrine pancreas 21 suggests an autoimmune process involved in insulitis. Recently, examination of frozen blocks of fresh pancreas obtained at postmortem from a child who died shortly after diagnosis of IDDM revealed new information 22 . Using various monoclonal reagents with flourochrome technique, it was found 22 that majority of the mononuclear infiltrate were T cells, mostly T cytotoxic/suppressor cells. Moreover, B cells, IgG and complement deposition were also observed.
Diabetesmellitus is a disorder characterized by high blood glucose level. Several classifications of diabetes have existed. Only one type of classification must be considered to avoid confusion. Classification has importance because different type of diabetes has different treatment.
Diabetesmellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Several distinct types of DM are caused by a complex interaction of genetics and environmental factors. Depending on the etiology of the DM, The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system 1
Diabetesmellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. In 2006, according to the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people world wide suffer from diabetesmellitus and is estimated that by the year 2030, this number will double. The major symptom of diabetesmellitus includes excessive thirst, frequent urination, increased appetite, weakness, fatigue and weight loss. Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates uptake of glucose into most cells from the blood and deficiency of insulin or insensitivity of its receptor cells plays a central role in all forms of diabetesmellitus. There are two major types of diabetesmellitus namely type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The complication of diabetesmellitus includes long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs of the body. Some risk factors of diabetesmellitus include genetic predispositions, obesity and age. The primary goal in the management of diabetes is to control blood sugar levels. In the type 1 Diabetics, this requires regular insulin injections whereas in type 2 diabetes dietary modification is required. Breastfeeding has been documented to decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes while type 2 diabetes risks can be reduced by making changes in diet and increasing physical activity. To stem the economic, social and health implications of diabetesmellitus, the government of member nations of the United Nations should encourage more research on diabetesmellitus especially researches exploiting different treatment options like herbal medicine. It is also necessary to subsidies the cost of oral hypoglycaemic drugs and insulin injections used by diabetics especially in developing countries so that diabetics can easily afford them.