Digital Identity

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Digital identity design and privacy preservation for e-learning

Digital identity design and privacy preservation for e-learning

When the e-learning system enrols these digital identities, an initial alias will be required. All users have to change their aliases when they first log into the e-learning system. All users’ aliases theoretically are only known by the users themselves. If a user uses its alias to communicate with any other users, its real identity will not be aware by the others. For example, an AID can enrol a student digital identity. If this student uses its real digital identity to communicate with this AID, this AID will definitely know who the student is. But now if the student uses its alias to communicate with this AID, the AID will never know who the student is. Suppose the function ƒ is used to define the transformation. The following equations will be needed for the e-learning system.
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To be or not to be, the importance of Digital Identity in the networked society

To be or not to be, the importance of Digital Identity in the networked society

Another dilemma many people face regarding their digital identity deals with the way they separate their private life from their professional sphere. Although it seems quite a straight forward thing to do, it is very hard to achieve. Moreover, the more we use the web as a space for congregation, the harder it becomes to keep a clear distinct between what is personal and private, and what is linked to our professional profile, as some people we connect to will have a different take on their digital footprint. This also interrelates with the issue presented above. How can we keep a single identity closed, when professionally it is arguably much more beneficial to keep it open? Or how do multiple identities fit in with the credibility of our identity? This last question takes us to the last issue we aim to present in this paper, which has to do with the veracity of the information we put online.
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G20 Digital Identity Onboarding

G20 Digital Identity Onboarding

Digital ID and financial inclusion has progressed through a variety of Digital ID programs based on a national framework that had evolved over the years. In 2014, the Digital ID & Authentication Council of Canada was launched as a public-private effort, and in 2016, the Pan-Canadian Trust Framework (PCTF) Overview was published enabling the public and private sector to work collaboratively to safeguard digital identities by standardizing processes and procedures. In 2017, as part of the Pan-Canadian Trust Framework Components, the DIACC (The Digital ID & Authentication Council of Canada) and IMSC ( Identity Management Steering Committee) collaborated to develop conformance standards criteria for trust framework components. Based on the national framework, a set of Digital ID programs were created as pilot projects. These include British Columbians (B.C) ‘Service cards’ which is used for connecting provincial services and Alberta’s ‘My Alberta Digital ID program which is used for digital identity purposes in the state of Alberta. In the latter half of 2018, SecureKey’s‘Verified.me’ will be launched to provide secure and privacy respecting authentication and attribute validations across Canada. In addition, the Government of Canada’s own cyber authentication solution and immigration frameworks mapping trust frameworks has been developed to assist users of these Digital ID’s. There is an attempt being made to unify all the pilot projects into a unified Canadian Digital ID ecosystem and this would enable greater integration of the various Digital ID projects that have been created.
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Applying new thinking from the linked and emerging fields of digital identity and privacy to information governance in health informatics

Applying new thinking from the linked and emerging fields of digital identity and privacy to information governance in health informatics

Recent work in the emerging field of network or digital identity suggests a new approach to the design of informatics systems, in which the individual becomes the guardian of their own personal data, and is assisted in controlling access to it by an infrastructure that is aware of roles, such as ‘doctor’, and relationships, such as ‘doctor–patient’. For these purposes, an ‘identity’ is defined as the history of a relationship between two entities, and thus encompasses not only name and address but also data that would usually be regarded as part of an electronic patient or health record. This paper presents a description of how such a true person- centric architecture might work, and shows how it can be seen as an evolution of current plans in the NHS for a national patient data spine. One applica- tion, the electronic transmission of prescriptions, is described in detail. Other applications, both within
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Establishing and Protecting Digital Identity in Federation Systems

Establishing and Protecting Digital Identity in Federation Systems

We develop solutions for the security and privacy of user identity information in a federation. By federation we mean a group of organizations or service providers which have built trust among each other and enable sharing of user identity information amongst themselves. Our solution supports a step by step approach according to which an individual can first establish a digital identity followed by a secure and protected use of such identity. We first introduce a flexible approach to establish a single sign-on (SSO) ID in a federation. Then we show how a user can leverage this SSO ID to establish certified and uncertified user identity attributes without the dependence on PKI for user authentication. This makes the process more usable and enhances privacy. The major contribution of this paper is a novel solution for protection against identity theft of these identity attributes. Our approach is based on the use of zero-knowledge proof protocols and distributed hash tables. Revocation mechanisms of the identity attributes are also developed. We illustrate how current revocation techniques can benefit from the underlying federation framework and the use of distributed hash tables. Finally, we formally prove correctness and provide complexity results for our protocols. The complexity results show that our approach is efficient. In the paper we also show that the protocol is robust enough even in the case of semi-trusted “honest-yet curious” service providers, thus preventing against insider threat. We believe that the approach represents a precursor to new and innovative cryptographic techniques which can provide solutions for the security and privacy problems in federated identity management.
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Security and privacy preservation for mobile e-learning via digital identity attributes

Security and privacy preservation for mobile e-learning via digital identity attributes

Abstract: This paper systematically discusses the security and privacy concerns for e-learning systems. A five-layer architecture of e-learning system is proposed. The security and privacy concerns are addressed respectively for five layers. This paper further examines the relationship among the security & privacy policy, the available security & privacy technology, and the degree of e-learning privacy & security. The digital identity attributes are introduced to e- learning portable devices to enhance the security and privacy of e-learning systems. This will provide significant contributions to the knowledge of e-learning security & privacy research communities and will generate more research interests.
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PKI in Government Digital Identity Management Systems

PKI in Government Digital Identity Management Systems

When the UAE ID card program was launched in 2003, the Government deliberately decided to integrate PKI to create digital identity credentials for its population and as an essential component of its identity management infrastructure. At the time, to determine the PKI requirements and to specify the features and functions of the proposed infrastructure was considered a massive exercise. Back in 2003, there were not too many references or precedents available that boasted of a successful PKI implementation. Our worldwide PKI implementation study revealed that barring Belgium and to a certain extent South Korea, no other country had a proven track record of the architecture required. It was then left to the project team to define the needs of the PKI (See also section 8).
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Digital Identity Management

Digital Identity Management

Federated SSO have some dependencies i.e. it relies on other infrastructure like authentication system, requires interface to the web server and identity management/registration. Most SSO systems are HTTP based and rely on cookies which is widely accepted and supported by the browsers but users who disable cookies or change browser security settings may lose SSO capability, HTTP redirection and placement of token in a query string are other dependencies of the SSO systems. HTTP is a stateless protocol, every time SSO software must check every request by the user’s end, that he/she is authenticated user and have access to the resources. The session or authentication polices should be maintained on the SSO server. This means that every time the user clicks on a link or URL, there is traffic between the user browser, web application and SSO server. This traffic can become large; therefore most modern single sign on systems use LDAP (lightweight Directory Access Protocol) directories to store the authentication and authorization policies [7].
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Digital Identity in Canada The little Trust Framework that could

Digital Identity in Canada The little Trust Framework that could

Darker colours are better positioned for eGov services Two key components of EGDI TII – Telecom/Internet readiness OSI – eGov program readiness... Plot of TII to OSI.[r]

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Forensically ready digital identity management systems, issues of digital identity life cycle and context of usage

Forensically ready digital identity management systems, issues of digital identity life cycle and context of usage

DFIM attempts to address some of the shortcomings of previous methodologies, and provides the following advantages: a consistent, standardised and systematic framework for digital forensic investigation process; a framework that works systematically in a team according to captured evidence; a mechanism for applying the framework according to a country’s digital forensic investigation technologies; and a generalised methodology that judicial members can use to relate technology to non-technical observers (Agarwal et al., 2011). There are various process models to describe the steps and processes to follow during digital forensic investigations. During such investigations, it is not only the digital evidence itself that needs to prevail in a court of law; the process followed and terminology used should also be rigorous and generally accepted within the digital forensic community (Kohn et al., 2013). In this article, integrated DFIM (Kohn et al., 2013) is assumed as a DFIM having a four-step model in order to identify and prioritise DI lifecycle parameters by considering contexts of usage for DFIs. The four steps of the model are as follows: the readiness phase (the goal of this phase is to ensure that the operations and infrastructure are able to fully support an investigation), the deployment phase (the purpose is to provide a mechanism for an incident to be detected and confirmed), the physical crime investigation phase (the goal of this is to collect and analyse the physical evidence and reconstruct the actions that took place during the incident), and digital crime scene investigation phase (the goal is to collect and analyse the digital evidence obtained from the physical investigation phase and through any other future means).
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Citizen s perceptions on digital identity

Citizen s perceptions on digital identity

Biometrics for convenience /protection of personal devices as along as data is protected and not used for unrelated purposes Safety champions Identity is related primarily with form[r]

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Digital identity enrolment and assurance support for VeryIDX

Digital identity enrolment and assurance support for VeryIDX

Layered Document Model Transformation and Operation Adaptation of Two Dimensional CAD Environments 500 Liping Gao, Tun Lu Application of Collaborative Simulation Based on Interfaces for [r]

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Identity and Mobility in a Digital World

Identity and Mobility in a Digital World

UAE has set a clear vision for digital identity issuance in the country. Figure 2 depicts the smart identity card is- sued by the UAE to all of its citizens and residents. This comes as part of its national identity management pro- gram (also referred to as national identity management infrastructure) that was launched in mid-2005. In the seven short years since its launch, UAE has been a lead- ing country in the Middle East and Africa in issuing more than 8.5 million digital certificates to its population. This represents 96% of its total population—99.9% of the citizens and 95% of the expatriate resident population. The digital identity provided by the UAE is composed of a set of credentials delivered in the form of a smart card, which includes a unique national identification number, biometric data (fingerprints), and a pair of PKI digital
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Securing digital identities in the cloud by selecting an apposite federated identity management from SAML, OAuth and OpenID Connect

Securing digital identities in the cloud by selecting an apposite federated identity management from SAML, OAuth and OpenID Connect

OpenID Connect is a group of lightweight specifications that afford a framework for transmitting digital identity via RESTful APIs [11]. The final OpenID Connect specifications were launched on February 26, 2014 [23]. OpenID Connect is seen as the evolution of OpenID 2.0, and is built as a profile of OAuth 2.0 rather than a completely distinct protocol foundation [11]. OpenID Connect 1.0 is just another identity layer on the top of the OAuth 2.0 protocol [23], as shown in Fig. 5. It facilitates clients to confirm the identity of the user depending on the authentication made by an Authorization Server, in addition to acquire simple profile information about the user [3]. OpenID Connect uses two main types of tokens: an access token and an ID token. The ID contains information about the authenticated user and it is a JWT (JSON Web Token). This token is signed by the identity provider and can be read and verified without accessing the identity provider [24].
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Large-Scale Mapping of Transposable Element Insertion Sites Using Digital Encoding of Sample Identity

Large-Scale Mapping of Transposable Element Insertion Sites Using Digital Encoding of Sample Identity

We tested our method on a collection of 1065 transposon insertion lines in Drosophila, generated using a piggyBac ele- ment (Gohl et al. 2011; Silies et al. 2013). Within this collec- tion, the vast majority of strains contained a single insertion into the genome. Insertion strains were first grouped by the targeted chromosome (determined during strain construc- tion) and then each line on a given chromosome was assigned a unique ID number. Next, each ID number was encoded as a 15-bit binary Hamming “code word.” The use of 15-bit code words, as opposed to the 11 bits that would be the minimum necessary for representing 1065 lines, allowed us to create distance between code words such that at least three errors would be needed to convert one code word into another. Specifically, using a Hamming code, we guaranteed this sep- aration between all code words, enabling the detection of up to two errors and correction of single errors (Hamming 1950). Each of the 15 bits represented a pool of animals. Animals from a specific line were added to each pool corresponding to a digital 1 in the code word encoding the line ID and were not added into pools corresponding to digital 0s. Next, genomic DNA was extracted from each pool, mechanically sheared to an average fragment size of 200 bp, and attached to Illumina adapters (Meyer and Kircher 2010). To verify the distribution of sample DNA within the correct subset of pools, we designed primers to amplify several insertions that had previously been mapped using conventional splinkerette PCR (Potter and Luo 2010). For each of these, the predicted PCR products were observed in the anticipated subset of pools (Figure 1B). Trans- poson sequences in each pool were then amplified using hemi-specific PCR using one primer in the transposon and one primer in the Illumina adapter. Pool-specific DNA barcodes and flow cell adapters were then added using another round of PCR amplification. Next, DNA from the individual, barcoded pools was mixed and sequenced in a single 150-bp, paired-end MiSeq run (Bentley et al. 2008). Using the barcode informa- tion, sequence reads were divided by the pools from which the DNA samples were extracted.
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Hero or anti-hero?: Narratives of newswork and journalistic identity construction in complex digital megastories

Hero or anti-hero?: Narratives of newswork and journalistic identity construction in complex digital megastories

This paper looks at the coverage of Snowden and Assange as megastories as a type of what-a-story coverage focused on non-routine news, with wide-reaching revelations, and involving prominent discussions around digital technologies and journalism. For reaffirming a cultural belief in the work of journalists in a digital era, both provide rallying points for the democratic identity narratives of the journalistic field, particularly watchdog roles, and both continue to fuel public discussions of their disclosures (Thorsen, et al. 2013). Whereas what-a- story news is defined by unexpectedness – Princess Diana’s death explored by Berkowitz (2000) and Bishop (1999), or Lyndon Johnson’s announcement that he would not seek re- election in the study defining what-a-story as “routinization of the unexpected” by Tuchman (1978) – these megastories demanded significant advanced planning and while surprising to audiences, releases were methodically rolled out by news organisations. However, prominence and public attention with what-a-story coverage offer opportunities to rebuild public appreciation in the form of positive role performances.
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A Case of Mistaken Identity? News Accounts of Hacker, Consumer, and Organizational Responsibility for Compromised Digital Records

A Case of Mistaken Identity? News Accounts of Hacker, Consumer, and Organizational Responsibility for Compromised Digital Records

Legislators at the federal and state level have adopted two main strategies to address the problem of electronic record management. On one hand, they have directly targeted those individuals (computer hackers) whose actions potentially threaten the security of private electronic data. The CFAA has been repeatedly strengthened in response to a perception that electronic data theft represents a mate- rial and growing concern. The fact that punishments for digital trespass now surpass those for many other more violent forms of crime suggests that federal legislators consider computer crime to constitute a serious threat to our personal and collective security. However, the data in this study suggest that malicious intrusion by hackers makes up only a portion of all reported cases, while other factors, including poor management practices by organizations themselves, contribute more to the problem. The second strategy employed by regulators might be thought of as an indirect or ‘‘disciplinary’’ strategy. Notification of Breach legislation obliges institutions that manage electronic data to report any loss of that data to the individuals concerned. While this directly addresses the problem of consumer protection by empowering individuals to protect themselves in case of lost or stolen data, it has probably been intended to produce secondary effects. Companies and institutions, wary of both the negative publicity and the financial costs generated by an incident of data loss, are encouraged to adopt more responsible network administration practices. Similarly, end-users are urged to weigh both the risk of doing business electronically and the costs associated with taking action once they are notified of a potential breach. The practice of using a risk/reward calculus to achieve policy objectives through legislation has been termed governing ‘‘in the shadow of the law’’ by some authors in the critical legal studies and governmentality literature (Mnookin & Kornhauser, 1979; Rose, 1999).
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NATIONAL IDENTITY SECURITY STRATEGY. Identity crime and misuse in Australia IDENTITY SECURITY

NATIONAL IDENTITY SECURITY STRATEGY. Identity crime and misuse in Australia IDENTITY SECURITY

Data provided by DFAT regarding the total number of investigations carried out in 2013–14 which were found to explicitly involve identity crime, indicated that fraudulently-obtained genuine passports were the most common type of identity-related passport fraud committed during 2013–14. The next most common type of passport fraud was the use of another person’s passport by imposters (ie individuals using a passport that has been issued in another person’s name, date of birth, and photo), passports which had been physically altered, and the electronic alteration or creation of an electronic copy of a passport biographic page. These data should not be confused with the data illustrated in Figure 25, which captures a broader range of investigations involving identity or application fraud or the improper use or possession of an Australian passport.
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Digital Literacy and Identity Formation in 21st Century Classrooms: Implications for Second Language Development

Digital Literacy and Identity Formation in 21st Century Classrooms: Implications for Second Language Development

According to Norton (1995), the field of SLA has not adequately addressed the ways in which relations of power inform social interactions between ELs and native speakers, and these interactions and subjectivities are always imbued in relations of power. Economic literacy capital, e.g., Internet access, technology resources, private tutoring, and other resources are often allocated and distributed based on social class and power (Compton Lilly 2007; Luke 2004; Warschauer, 2010). Therefore, Luke challenges us to question the “material consequences” of languages and literacies that are highly privileged and sanctioned by the state and other globalized educational systems (p. 334). Previous studies on ELs’ identities are committed to understanding how the changes of learners’ identities, for different purposes and in various contexts, affect their second language learning (Norton, 2000, 2012; Duff, 2002). However, there is a need for empirical research that examines identity formation, motivation to learn a second language, and digital literacy in 21st century classrooms.
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Net-ID 2006 Berlin PROTECTING IDENTITY IN THE DIGITAL ERA. Robin Wilton

Net-ID 2006 Berlin PROTECTING IDENTITY IN THE DIGITAL ERA. Robin Wilton

Disk theft, 'trash analysis', insider attack (abuse of authorised access). Phishing, email scams, 'trusted source', duress,[r]

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