Aflatoxins are a group of highly carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops and have a detrimental economic impact on industries, such as corn and ethanol production. They are regulated by the FDA, and therefore, rapid, reliable cleanup techniques with low detection limits are needed for aflatoxins in a wide array of matri- ces. In this study the effect of using an immunoaffinity column versus simple filtering as a cleanup was tested for aflatox- ins extracted from corn and Dried Distillers Grains (DDG). The aflatoxins were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The use of an immunoaffinity column resulted in greater signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), S/N of 70 vs S/N of 5 for corn, as well as fewer non-target peaks in the analysis. Recoveries of aflatoxin using im- munoaffinity ranged from 40% to 104.5% (spiked substrate) and 49% to 120% (spiked extract) while percent recoveries of filtered samples ranged from 84% to 119% (spiked substrate) and 88% to 119% (spiked extract). This comparison study showed that filtering is acceptable for small sample sets or where rapid throughput is needed. However, for larger sample sets a more stringent cleanup method is necessary to ensure instrument performance.
Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars is considered to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid (LA). The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of LA production from distillers grains hydrolysates (DGHs) by the Rhizopus oryzae and to optimize the biological conversion of reducing sugar into LA to evaluate the culture conditions. The effects of factors such as inoculations size, CaCO 3 addition, pH value and fermentation time on the lactic acid concentration (LAC) and the
Background: Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0 – 21 d). Methods: A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results: The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05).
Distillers grains are a by-product of ethanol produc- tion and are typically sold for use as livestock feed. In 2005, ethanol dry mills produced 9 million metric tons of distillers grains, a 290% increase in production since 1999 (Renewable Fuels Association, 2006). The major- ity of distillers grains, most of which are dried and sold as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), are fed to ruminants (75 to 80%), with the remainder fed to ei- ther swine (18 to 20%) or poultry (3 to 5%). Although the majority of grain used for ethanol production in the United States is corn, Canada plans to add 750 mil- lion liters to the country’s annual ethanol production capacity and will rely in part on wheat to reach that goal. The result of this expansion of DDGS produced from both wheat and corn has been the need for more research into the feasibility of incorporating increasing
Dried distillers grains as raw material, each weighed 16 g, solid-liquid ratio was 1:10, adding 40%, 50%, 65%, 80%, 95% ethanol solution, heating with temperature magnetic heating stirrer, maintaining 80 ˚C ~ 85˚C and refluxing for 8 h, till extract was cooled to room temperature, voluming to 250 mL with boiled distilled water, then determining total phenolic content and reducing power of extracts, the measurement results are shown in Figure 1.
Background: One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by- products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when compared to dried distillers grains (DDG), the main by-product of corn ethanol. Fast pyrolysis is an alternative thermal conversion technology for processing biomass. It has recently been optimized to produce a stream rich in levoglucosan, a fermentable glucose precursor for biofuel production. Additional product streams might be of value to the petrochemical industry. However, biomass heteroge- neity is known to impact the composition of pyrolytic product streams, as a complex mixture of aromatic compounds is recovered with the sugars, interfering with subsequent fermentation. The present study investigates the feasibil- ity of fast pyrolysis to produce fermentable pyrolytic glucose from two abundant lignocellulosic biomass sources in Ontario, switchgrass (potential energy crop) and corn cobs (by-product of corn industry).
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According to the cumulative biogas production data, It can be seen that the cumulative biogas yield of distiller's grains is 25200 mL and the biogas yield of TS is as high as 509 mL/g under the temperature of 55°C. The cumulative biogas yield of distiller's grains is 21400 mL and the biogas yield of TS is as high as 432 mL/g under the temperature of 38°C. The cumulative biogas yield of distiller's grains is 19160 mL and the biogas yield of TS is as high as 387 mL/g under the temperature of 25°C. From above dates It can be seen that with the increase of temperature the cumulative biogas yield and the TS biogas yield of distillers grains are increased. This is because the higher the temperature, the more cellulose is degraded, the more raw materials are available to the microorganism, and the more biogas is produced [20-22]. Therefore, the optimum temperature is 55°C at producing biogas about distiller's grains fermentation. The reason why the experiment selected to ferment distillers' grains at high temperature is because the temperature of distiller's grains is higher after distilling and there is a certain amount of heat during the solid-state fermentation of alcohol in the early stage of distiller's grains. If the distiller's grains are directly fermented for biogas after coming out of the distillation tower, This part of the heat can be used to save energy.
parameters. Widmer et al. (2007) studied energy, amino acid, and phosphorus digestibility in growing pigs fed diets containing high protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG), which are produced in ethanol production, but lack solubles, which are rich in vitamins and high in fat. HPDDG contains approximately 40% crude protein (Stein, 2007), is similar in amino acid and phosphorus digestibility to DDGS, and contains higher digestible and metabolizable energy values than DDGS (Widmer et al., 2007). Widmer et al. (2008) reported including up to 20% HPDDG in growing pig diets before seeing effects on performance. Corn gluten meal is another corn byproduct, more commonly used in dairy rations, that contains approximately 60.2% crude protein (NRC, 1998). Mahan (1993) studied the effect of replacing corn and dried whey with corn gluten meal and lactose in nursery pig diets, and found an improvement in daily gain and in feed intake when fed diets with CGM and lactose. While these byproduct ingredients may be nutritionally adequate to replace other protein sources, palatability has scarcely been
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The AID of AA in nursery and growing pigs is in- creased by the inclusion of additional fat to the diet [7,21]. The increase in dietary fat delays gastric emptying  and although the length of the fatty acid can be different among different sources of vegetable oil, the impact of fatty acids on gastric emptying is similar re- gardless of chain length . The slower gastric empty- ing may result in slower rate of passage of the diet, causing an increase in the time of exposure of feed to Table 4 Apparent ileal digestibilitly of CP and AA in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to pigs 1
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a co-product of the ethanol industry created in the fermentation process of cereal grains, and can be defined as the feed material obtained after the removal of ethyl alcohol, through distillation, from the yeast fermentation of a grain by con- densing and drying at least 75% of the resultant whole stillage by methods employed in the grain distilling industry (AAFCO, 2002). The growth of fuel ethanol production in recent years has resulted in increased availability of DDGS for feed producers. The relatively high nutritional quality of DDGS obtained from modern ethanol technology enables the use of this feed material on a large scale in poultry nutrition, as the most effective and environmentally friendly way of us- ing DDGS (Swiatkiewicz and Koreleski, 2008). In many earlier studies, it was concluded that DDGS was a useful feed ingredient for laying hens (Swiat- kiewicz and Koreleski, 2006; Krawczyk et al., 2012; Niemiec et al., 2012, 2013). Some studies indicated, however, that the utilization of such macroelements as Ca and P decreased in poultry fed diets with high levels of DDGS (Swiatkiewicz and Koreleski, 2007; Thacker and Widyaratne, 2007; Leytem et al., 2008), which could negatively affect the mineralization and quality of bones of highly-performing laying hens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high level of dietary DDGS and selected feed additives with potential positive effects on mineral utiliza- tion, i.e. enzymes (xylanase and phytase), sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria (L. salivarius), a mix- ture of herbal extracts (Taraxaci siccum, Urticae siccum, and Salviae siccum), inulin or chitosan, on biomechanical and geometrical indices of tibia and femur bones in laying hens.
Distillers ’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a low-value agro-industrial by-product, rich in arabinoxylans (AX), which is produced by commercial distillery and bioethanol plants. In a first approach, we investigated the prebiotic potential of four fractions comprising arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of AX fractions derived from DDGS and wet solids (in-process sample of DDGS production process). Anaerobic batch cultures in controlled pH conditions were used to test the prebiotic activity of the samples. Results did not show significant differences between the enzymatic treatments used, and all AXOS/XOS were extensively fermented after 24 h. In addition, significant increases (P < 0.05) in Bifidobacterium and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were observed after 24 h of fermentation. Finally, DDGS-derived hydrolysates were separated on an anionic semi-preparative column to prepare AXOS/XOS fractions with degree of polymerisation (DP) greater than 3. Bifidogenic activity and an increase of SCFAs were again observed after 24 h of fermentation, although this time, the selectivity was higher and the fermentation slower, suggesting that the fermentation of this substrate could take place (at least partially) in the distal part of the colon with highly desirable beneficial effects.
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Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in combination with soy protein concentrate (SPC) with and without an essential amino acid (EAA) complex were assessed as protein alternatives in juvenile Yellow Perch Perca flavescens diets. Diets contained 5% FM, 40% SPC, and 20% or 40% DDGS each with or without EAA. No mortalities or health assessment differences were observed during the trial and all fish readily accepted the experimental diets. Diets supplemented with EAA produced greater weight gain, improved feed con- version, and apparent protein digestibility. Performance was consistently im- proved for fish fed diets containing amino acid supplements. Based on these results, Yellow Perch are able to utilize high levels of the plant proteins, ac- companied with EAAs, as a FM replacer.
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are independent on climate environment conditions. In the present study, a total of 440 feed ingredients were randomly collected from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Jiangxi, Inner Mongolia, Henan, Guang- dong, Jilin, Anhui, Hebei, Sichuan, Shanxi and Fujian Province, and the water resoureces are abundant in some Province. For example, water resources are abundant in Henan Province has over 1500 rivers, and annual rainfall is between 532 and 1380 mm (Henan province rainfall is between 532 and 1380 mm (Henan province 2015a, http://www.gov.cn/guoqing/ 2013-04/08/content_2583733.htm). In this region, rainfall occurs primarily from June to August and the annual aver- age temperature is 12–19 °C. Thus, this region exhibits abundant rainfall and long periods of high-temperature weather, high temperatures and rainfall occurring in the same periods. Furthermore, if grain is not dried or re- mains exposed to high moisture levels during storage, these mycotoxins may occur. The hot and humid environ- ment of this regeion is particularly suitable for mould growth, resulting in a serious mycotoxin contamination of grains. Therefore, different regions and different collected years may production of different values for mycotoxins. Meanwhile, different countries have different maximum admissible levels for AFB 1 , ZEN and DON [3, 14]. The
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Abstract: Samples of wheat distillers grain with solubles were prepared at 15%, 30%, and 45% condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and dried under 40C, 80C, and 120C to examine the effects of CDS level and drying temperature on their chemical, physical, flow, compression, thermal, and frictional properties. As CDS level increased, protein and ash contents increased while fat and fiber contents decreased. Fat and acid detergent fiber contents were also markedly affected by drying temperature. While CDS level, drying temperature, and their interaction significantly affected a number of the physical properties, results suggest that CDS level had a stronger influence. Samples with high CDS level, for example, were significantly finer, denser, less flowable, and less dispersible than those with lower CDS. These samples also had significantly higher thermal diffusivity and coefficient of internal friction and produced pellets with higher failure stresses than those with lower CDS. Their pellet density increased with CDS level and was also significantly affected by drying temperature. Further, the samples were classified as fairly flowable and floodable and their compression characteristics were adequately described by the Kawakita-Ludde model.
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Number of grains per cob was significantly affected by various organic amendments.Maximum grains per cob (481- 494 grains) was counted on the cobs taken from the plants grown in those plots where PM 8 tons ha -1 or FYM 8 tons ha -1 was applied and seed treatment was done with mixture of both the bio-fertilizers to improve the soil health and to enhance the biological activity in the plant rhizosphere. The lowest number of grains per cob (301 grains) was counted on the cobs taken from control treatment.The effect of FYM or PM in combination with bio-fertilizer 1was found similar with the effect of FYM or PM in combination with bio-fertilizer 2. While significantly higher number of grains per cob was observed with the application of FYM or PM in combination with mixture of bio-fertilizers than using FYM or PM alone.Mehdi et al (2007) and Rehman et al, (2008) also explained that the release of organic acids from decomposed organic manures by the activity of beneficial microbes in plant rhizosphere enhance the uptake of essential plant nutrients and results in formation of healthy cobs with maximum number of grains.
Reducing DDGS particle grind size may be an effective alternative to increase its inclusion in swine diets without adverse effects on pellet quality and pellet mill operation efficiency. Many feed ingredients, especially cereal grains, have been ground before their incorporation into swine diets (Zang et al., 2009). Particle size reduction has been reported to improve pellet quality and live performance in nursery and growing-finishing pigs (Healy et al., 1994; Wondra et al., 1995a) by increasing the surface area of the digesta available for interaction with digestive enzymes, and by allowing the digestive enzymes to release the nutrients more effectively (Goodband et al., 2002; Fastinger and Mahan, 2003). In a preliminary study, DeJong et al. (2011) reported a numerical improvement of 1.1% in F:G when DDGS were further ground at the feed mill from 787 to 692 µm and incorporated into diets fed to finishing pigs. However, this 95 µm difference in particle size of the DDGS was not sufficient to affect overall pig growth performance. Therefore, the objective of the study reported herein was to evaluate the effects of DDGS particle grind size and percentage pellet fines on grower-finisher pig performance.
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The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of heat treatment on the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to develop regression equations that may be used to predict the concentration of SID AA in corn DDGS. A source of corn DDGS was divided into 4 batches that were either not autoclaved or autoclaved at 130°C for 10, 20, or 30 min. Four diets containing DDGS from each of the 4 batches were formulated with DDGS being the only source of AA and CP in the diets. A N-free diet also was formulated and used to determine the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Ten growing pigs (initial BW: 53.5 ± 3.9 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a replicated 5 × 4 Youden square design with 5 diets and 4 periods in each square. The SID of CP decreased linearly (P < 0.05) from 77.9% in non-autoclaved DDGS to 72.1, 66.1, and 68.5% in the DDGS samples that were autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The SID of lysine was quadratically reduced (P < 0.05) from 66.8% in the non-autoclaved DDGS to 54.9, 55.3, and 51.9% in the DDGS autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The concentrations of SID Arginine, Histidine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, or Threonine may be best predicted by equations that include the concentration of acid detergent insoluble N in the model (r 2 = 0.76, 0.68, 0.67, 0.84, 0.76, 0.73, or 0.54, respectively). The concentrations of SID Isoleucine and Valine were predicted (r 2 = 0.58 and 0.54, respectively) by the Lysine:CP ratio, whereas the concentration of SID Tryptophan was predicted (r 2 = 0.70) by the analyzed concentration of Tryptophan in DDGS. In conclusion, the SID of AA is decreased as a result of heat damage and the concentration of SID AA in heat-damaged DDGS may be predicted by regression equations developed in this experiment.
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Abstract:The objective of this project was to separate distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) into high protein and high fiber fractions, in order to improve the value and utility as a livestock feed. This project used a laboratory-scale cylindrical blower (Iowa blower) and a laboratory-scale gravity table (Whippet V-80 separator, Sutton, Steele & Steele, Inc.). The raw DDGS was sieved into multiple streams using 10 mesh, 20 mesh and 40 mesh screens. The 10-20 mesh fraction and 20-40 mesh fraction were then run on the blower and the separator separately, using the same settings for air velocity in the range of 0.32 m/s to 3.06 m/s. A high protein fraction was achieved (37.13% db) for the 10-20 mesh fraction with an air velocity of 2.42 m/s by the blower. For the separator, using the same settings for airflow speed, the rate of eccentric shaft vibration, feedstock loading rate, side and end slopes, a high protein fraction was achieved (39.24% db) for the 10-20 mesh fraction with a range of the rate of eccentric shaft vibration from 350 rotation per minute to 500 rotation per minute. Another high protein fraction was also achieved (40.61% db) for the 20-40 mesh fraction with the same range of eccentric shaft vibration (350-500 r/min). As a result, good protein separation could be achieved by operating either the blower or the gravity table, although further study is required to optimize the separation efficiency.
The aim of our study was detected the eﬀ ect of distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler feed mix- tures on their performance. We used 1000 one day old male broilers Ross 308 hybrid combination in our experiment, they were divided into 5 groups in two duplications. Broilers were fed by a starter until 11 day of experiment; it was a standard commercial diet BR1 without any DDGS. Experimental feed mixtures BR2 were fed from 12 day to 35 day. Experimental diets were formulated to contain: 1) 0 % DDGS (control group), 2) 10 % DDGS, 3) 15 % DDGS, 4) 20 % DDGS, 5) 25 % DDGS and were iso-ni- trogenous. Individual weighing of chickens was realized at the 12 th , 26 th and 35 th day of age.
Global bioethanol production reached 25.7 billion gallons in 2015 , with further increase in annual production projected. During the ethanol refining process, starch in the grain flour is converted into ethanol and the remain- der of the grain components, such as proteins, lipids and fibers comprise a residual coproduct, commonly known as distillers’ grains with solubles (DGS) . It is estimated that in the dry milling process, the utilization of a bushel of corn (56 lb) results in 2.8 gallon of ethanol and 18 lb of DGS . In 2015, 40 million metric tons of DGS were produced from US ethanol biorefineries . DGS is con- sidered as a rich source of cellulosic polysaccharides (52– 57%), protein (27–31%), oil (10–12%) and other nutrients  and has long been marketed as a ruminant feed adjunct. However, due to the variability in nutrient con- tent and digestibility issues as well as other concerns such as mycotoxins, antibiotic residues, sulphur content and the risk of introducing bacterial pathogens , accept- ance of DGS in the feed industry has been limited. Alter- natively, because of its vast supply and sugar and protein content, DGS is a potentially promising biomass source for upgrading to valuable fuel products using bioconver- sion strategies that are compatible with the established starch ethanol process. Therefore, efficient valorization of DGS to produce value-added products would signifi- cantly improve the techno-economic feasibility of the established starch bioethanol process.
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