The study was carried out over a 1-year period from January 2015 to December 2015, in a tertiary care teaching hospital in EasternIndia. After getting permission from Institutional Ethical Committee, 20 clinically confirmed patients with uveitis were included in this study, attaining informed consents from them. Blood samples were collected from them for serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Conjunctival swabs were also collected as a routine procedure to know the presence of any pathogenic microbial flora on the eye surface including Brucella. After collection, the swabs were inoculated immediately onto nutrient agar, blood agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (SDC) slants, and in biphasic Castaneda medium. Cultures on nutrient agar and blood agar were observed after overnight incubation at 37°C to find presence of any common pathogenic bacteria; cultures on SDC were incubated at 25°C in BOD incubator and observed up to 21 days; while cultures in Castaneda media were observed for any growth of Brucella up to 21 days post-inoculation, and in subcultures on Brucella selective agar. All isolates were identified by routine diagnostic procedures. Serum samples were kept in separate aliquots and stored at −20°C before further processing. Each sample of serum was
This study, the first of its kind in EasternIndia, was done to assess the adherence of MTX therapy in RA patients, and evaluate the probable factors for non-adherence, so that the rheumatologists can help patients achieve the maximum benefits from the treatment and attain remission or low disease activity as per the treat-to-target protocol. A validated standardised adherence questionnaire as in MMAS-8, has several advantages over other tools. It is easier to perform, inexpensive and provides relatively accurate measure. In addition, the disease activity score (DAS-28-CRP) was used to accurately measure the disease activity of RA. This study showed that higher adherence was significantly associated with more positive beliefs of medication, greater satisfaction to treatment, lesser disease activity and better outcome.
The unprecedented increased rate of human population worldwide with much of these growths taking place in urban areas forced the scientific community and planners internationally to understand the urban ground water issues in depth (Lerner, 1996, Chilton, et al 1997, Chilton, 1999, Howard, 2007). An estimated 1.5 billion people in Asian cities rely on groundwater for their drinking water and other needs (Foster et. al., 2010). The rate of growth of the Asian mega-cities in particular places cause enormous stress on groundwater resources, and leads to the types of over-extraction and pollution that are severely debilitating to these resources (Foster et al., 1998). The urban population of world is expected to reach almost 5 billion, i.e 60% of global population by 2030 ( Howard, 2007). More than half of the world’s population currently lives in cities; urban dwellers will account for 70 percent of humanity in 2050 (UNESCO,2011). Modern India has witnessed large scale shifting of population from rural tourban areas for their livelihood. Due to migration of rural population mass to the cities, the cities are becoming mega cities and urban centres are enveloping with peri-urban areas to cope up the population explosion. India is a vast country with over 31 percent urban population (Census of India, 2011). The cities are hotspots for progressive economic development of the country. Sustenance of India’s economic growth achieved over past two decades needs effective groundwater management (Harsha, 2012). EasternIndia comprising of 315 million population, covers the states of Bihar & Jharkhand, Coastal states of Orissa & West Bengal, Seven states of North East (Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura) and Sikkim. According to the Census of India, 2011, the population in 116 cities of EasternIndia is approx 35 million, out of which 110 cities are having > 0.1 million population and 6 cities have over 1.0 million populations. (Table-1).
All meteorites from north-easternIndia were belongs to ordinary chondrites ex- cept Goalpara, which is stony achondrite. The studies of meteoritic olivine of these meteorites have been reported by many authors (e.g.     ). The carbon polymorphous hexagonal diamond is usually formed in static and shock high pressure. The presence of diamond in Goalpara reflects this phase of temperature and pressure condition under which these diamonds are formed. The crystalline graphite is the main source of the meteoritic diamonds in Goalpara. Presence of nanodiamonds in Dergaon and Mahadevpur is also re- ported by Saikia et al . (see ). This finding has important implications con- cerning the origin of meteoritic diamonds. As the meteorites from north-east India are most common type chondrites, they originate from debris of the solar nebula (e.g.  ). Due to their unique origin, these chondrites are also re- garded as the sole witness for the formation of the early solar system. For exam- ple, Dergaon chondrite reports several significant observations that help to un- derstand both nebular and asteroidal processes (e.g. ). Meteorites still hold many secrets about our earth and other solar system bodies that are yet to be de- ciphered. The researches on the meteorites from north-east India will undenia- bly contribute to the understanding and demystify these secrets.
Hydrological flow renews the water supply to the ecosys- tem by buffering and moderating of the hydrological cycle, which includes water infiltration into soils and aquifers, moderation of runoff, and plant transpiration (Garbach 2014). A bunded and flooded rice field can also be considered as micro-water harvest structure and as a major source of groundwater recharge (Tzia 1993). In easternIndia, rice is cultivated mostly in small bunded fields that facilitate the recharge of rain water by increasing the residence time. In this study, the economic value of the hydrological flow service ranged from US$ 11 to 12 ha −1 year −1 among four rice ACZs (Table 3), which is negligible (~ 1%) compared to mar- keted ES. The primary reasons behind the different values of ES for hydrological flow may be due to the dif- ferent soil types and water intake capacities of soil in different geographical situations. It has been reported that abandonment of rice fields resulted in reduction of groundwater recharge (Imaizumi et al. 2006); the re- charge could be enhanced by prolonging the submerged period of paddies and bringing fallow land under rice cultivation (Tanaka et al. 2010). Sandhu et al. (2008) re- ported ES from hydrological flow service was US$ 54 ha −1 year −1 from conventional fields. Similarly, the ES for hydrological flow in cereals and pastures were US$ 86 ha −1 year −1 and US$ 76 ha −1 year −1 ,
Santhals are the largest tribes in Santhal Pargana region of Jharkhand; Odisha; and Maldah, North Dinajpur, Purulia, Medinipur and Birbhum of West Bengal and allied areas of easternIndia. Discussing with Dr. Santosh Besra lot of information has been gathered about Santhals of easternIndia. Till mid seventy of twentieth century utensils other than kānśa was unknown to Santhals. They used aluminium for cooking rice only and iron for frying and cooking vegetables and meat. For the purpose of eating the standard crockery used to kānśa, the use of pittal was handful of elites among Santhals. The usual utensils of kānśa are plate (thālī or thārī in Santhali), gilas (for tumbler), bowl (bātī) for dal or meat or vegetables even. The most important domestic utensil is lota for water. The tradition of Lota-dak, or Lota-pānī an offering to the guests on arrival has to mandatorily in kānslota as it carries auspicious element with it. It is similar to Lota-pānī among Oraon community. That is exactly similar to Hos of Singhbhum. In fact, this tradition is well practiced by the tribals migrated to tea gardens in Assam, Dooars and Darjeeling. This is also maintained by Santhals of Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. After salutation (Pranām or Namaskār) the guest spills out water from the lotaan offering to the God the Great Marang Buru, ancestors of other Gods More Ku, Turui Ku, means ‘fives & sixes’ , symbolic to the traditional system of self-governance by village council consisting of five persons headed by Manjhi.The lota has to invariably made of kānśa. The water in the offering to the guest is not meant, contrary to popular assumptions for drinking. However for drinking gilas is used.
Although the new generation atypical antidepressant drugs are very commonly prescribed, but the pattern of use of these antidepressant drugs has not been studied from this part of our country. The present study was conducted with the objective to determine the prescribing pattern of antidepressant drugs as well as to assess the dosage schedule of selected antidepressant (TCA, SSRI, SNRI) in a psychiatric out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital of easternIndia.
Several expeditions, focused mainly on collections from the North Eastern states, were organized by the ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore since 1947, to collect and conserve and utilize the wild Saccharum germplasm from the distributional areas in the country (Naidu and Sreenivasan 1987; Nair et al. 1991, 1993). North EasternIndia has a rich diversity of Saccharum and related grasses. The present study involves characterization of 304 S. spontaneum clones maintained in the field gene bank at the ICAR- Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre (ICAR-SBI-RC), Kannur, Kerala (India). The mean sea level was 11 m with latitude of 11.87N and longitude of 75.37E. The monthly average rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures during the crop period (2011-12) was given in Figure 2 (ICAR-SBI-RC meteorological data, 2011-12). These clones represented four states of North EasternIndia and majority of the accessions were representing the states of Arunachal Pradesh (143) and Bihar (129). The states of Sikkim and Manipur were represented by 25 and 7 accessions respectively. Table 1 and Figure 1 shows the collection areas in the four states of North EasternIndia.
North-eastern part of India is home to many ethnic communities with rich natural resources, yet relatively backward in economic development. It is having the landscape with potential racial, lingual and ethnic diversity which creates ethnic tensions and conflicts. While studying ethnic conflicts in the 'north-east of India', one cannot but look at Manipur which exhibits as many problems that could possibly appear in the discourse of collective conflict. Perhaps it is the only state in the entire north-east which experiences such varied forms of issues and problems. A study on the state will show the complexity of ethnicity and politics that an amalgamated culture would possess. It is a different issue if such a pattern would successfully explain all other instances of ethnic conflict in the region or the country, but the attempt is to provide a generic picture of conflict as it seems in a territorial entity having multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-cultural, multi- religious, and multi-sub-national identities. Narahari, (2002), in his study on “Socio-Ethnic Conflict in the North-East”, explains the socio-ethnic conflict emerging in north-east states. It deals basically north Bengal and Sikkim situation. These states are connected with international border, and the insurgency has caused ethnic conflict in a greater context. The peace and tranquilities of this region no more in exist, these region are intensified with ethnic conflict, insurgency and the movement of various underground groups. As for the Sikkim is concerned Lepchas are the real inhabitant of Sikkim but later Bhutias migrated from Tibet to Sikkim. The Bhutias and Lepchas are under Scheduled Tribe categories and always ISSN: 0975-833X
to provide adequate languages through which to govern, ‘stable hermeneutic practices’ (p. 97) to resolve disputes, define and prosecute crime, or collect revenue. On the other, this alienation was also epistemic, psychological, and emotional, informed by the rampant loneliness, strangeness, and linguistic and cultural distance experienced by Britons in India itself.(4) The result was ‘a mood of anxious detachment [that] dominated the way officials privately discussed their lives’ (p. 66). (It would be of course tempting to quip that Wilson has just replaced utilitarianism and liberalism with another British export: the quintessentially ‘English malady’ of melancholy). This is a compelling insight, though it does suggest that there is much more story to be told about the history of British India (and empire more broadly) as a history of emotions, especially how this kind of unhappy detachment translated into policy, society, and culture as these colonial figures and administrators came ‘home’. It also leaves open the possibility for others to think through how this might affect our vision of another quite vibrant subject in the historical literature on empire: that is, Britons’ fascination with actual ‘pictures on the wall’, the kinds of art, artifacts, and collecting that also characterized this engagement with India. After all, while it is true that ‘Robert Clive had his Claremont’ (p. 68) he also had his Plassey in County Clare, both populated with physical reminders of India and neither of which could prevent at least his, ultimately fatal, melancholy.
twice every day in patients with ongoing bleeding. Mostly the haematocrit was initially low, but in patients of DHF or DSS had high hematocrit values; although the lower values of hematocrit can be attributed to Iron deficiency anemia and malaria, which is vastly prevalent in this part of the India. While 39% of all patients had bleeding, 61% of patients with platelet count less than 25000 had bleeding manifestations. and no bleeding was seen in patients with platelet counts of more than 1,50,000. It was observed that 95.8% of patients with platelet counts between 20,000-50,000/cu.mm developed haemorrhage according to Sreenivasa et al, While Joshi et al, Sunil Gomber et al, and Dhooria et al, reported poor correlation between thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations. 25-28 Authors found that the percentage of
Background: Molecular techniques have facilitated the studies on genetic diversity of Plasmodium species particularly from field isolates collected directly from patients. The msp-1 and msp-2 are highly polymorphic markers and the large allelic polymorphism has been reported in the block 2 of the msp-1 gene and the central repetitive domain (block3) of the msp-2 gene. Families differing in nucleotide sequences and in number of repetitive sequences (length variation) were used for genotyping purposes. As limited reports are available on the genetic diversity existing among Plasmodium falciparum population of India, this report evaluates the extent of genetic diversity in the field isolates of P. falciparum in eastern and north-eastern regions of India.
As indicated in introduction,MSMEs are facing a more and more severe technological competition in the globalization era. This technological competition and the globalization of value chains increase the necessity to integrate IPR at the core of business policies and decision making. While large enterprises often act at their innovative and technological frontier, fully exploiting their technological capabilities, MSMEs often have the potential for further increase.This study examines the participation rate of MSMEsin patenting activities, differentiating patent filings by technology area, for MSMEs located in Kolkata, India.
I ndia is one of the 11 countries in the WHO South-East Asia region and has nearly 980 million people at risk of acquiring malaria. According to the WHO’s estimates, India has the largest number of malaria cases outside Africa. India’s official statistics suggest that Plasmodium falciparum accounts for about 50% of the clinical cases in India. India has a long history of attacking malaria. Organized control programs, which started in the 1940s, used dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control mosquitoes. These programs were originally very successful in India and nearly eliminated malaria by 1961. In the subsequent years, however, the disease has reestablished itself in India.
The parameters included gender distribution, age of the patients, type of illness, types of antipsychotic medication prescribed, prescribed in generic form, average number of drugs per prescription, percentage of the drugs prescribed from NLEM 2011(National List of Essential Medicines of India),and percentage of injectable drugs prescribed per day.
Introduction: Anemia is a major public health issue affecting both developed and developing countries. As per WHO report (2011), globally 29.4% of women of reproductive age group and 38.2% of pregnant women are anemic. Same report revealed that 54% of pregnant women in India are anemic. There are various causes of anemia, most common being iron deficiency anemia, followed by onal deficiency anemia (folate, riboflavin. Vitamin B12) and many other causes. An anemic pregnant woman is at increased risk of not only of maternal and perinatal mortality but they are also at increased risk of serious impact on fetal health.
hypertensive, diabetics, suffering from renal diseases, liver disease, obstructive jaundice, cancer, obesity, alcoholism and persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The age range of participants was between 18 to 40 years. Clinically suspected malaria cases were confirmed using rapid antibody-based diagnostic card tests (Alere Trueline™ Rapid Diagnostic Kit, Bio Standard Diagnostic, Haryana, India) that detect histidine- rich protein 2 (HRP2) or lactate dehydrogenase antigens in finger-prick blood samples. Confirmation by microscopic detection of malaria parasite was also done.