Trust has been studied in the literature from a variety of ways such as transaction, technology, product, and information content. This study investigates the success factors of electronic transaction, one that presents information delivery to consumers’ intention. Trust is important relation with customer and social aspect [1,2]. Trust is a mechanism who controlling a few facilitates related with maintains uncertainty, weakness, and dependency [3,4]. It is showed in online shopping behavior, where customers can not individually to check the subject. In implementation, customer has to limit to get information and resources thereby attempting to the complexity of online transaction directly . Trust refers to the vulnerability and any action on the expectation by other, and this is ability to control the other party . Therefore, trust suggestion becomes considered as component in assessment an implementation.
This case study involves using electronic transaction data from First Data (FD) to com- plement existing MRTS survey data in order to provide more geographically granular estimates of retail sales. FD is a large, global payment processor that processes about 72 billion credit, debit, gift, and prepaid card payment transactions per year in the United States and Canada [9, 10]. The Census Bureau receives monthly datasets con- taining aggregates of FD transaction value, or spend, and the corresponding number of FD merchants broken down by geography, industry, and month. The research question is whether these aggregates, together with statistical models and publicly available aux- iliary data from the EC and other sources, can reasonably produce regional and state- level retail sales estimates. These estimates would offer finer geographic granularity than retail sales estimates currently produced from MRTS. The complexity in this case study is in assessing the quality of the FD transaction data. The volume of the aggregate data allows the use of standard statistical computing techniques. Indeed, the computing environment consists of a Linux server with SAS/STAT ® and R software. No distrib- uted framework is required. However, evaluating the veracity of the data requires careful exploratory analysis and thought.
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Though there are many existing mobile payment protocols, one of the most widely accepted mobile payment protocol is the Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) protocol . Though SET has been accepted by many companies as the standard security protocol for online transactions, SET still has issues which need to be addressed . SET does not provide a way for the customers to know the trustworthiness of the party they are dealing with . This lack of trust is one of the prime reason people abstain from participating in online transactions and this has been a major hurdle for e-commerce. If there was a mechanism to know a priori the trustworthiness of the party the customers are dealing with, people would be more open to e-commerce. SET also does not guarantee the quality of products that will be available to the customers after the transaction, i.e. if the customer is not satisfied with the quality of the product after the transaction then SET does not provide
In fully developing the so-called information society, the use of new technologies for commercial transaction by electronic means and without the traditional paper support is increasingly common. This gives rise to the advantages of higher speed and lower costs in carrying out business activities, as well as the possibility of expanding the potential offers market for business. Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TSL) protocol remain by far the most widely used means for providing security services for e-commerce transactions, despite the fact that these protocols were designed to provide security for communications links, and not for entire e-commerce transactions. Hence, does not support client authentication, which in turn makes certain frauds during online electronic transaction to take place. Though a large number of researches have been carried out in securing electronic transaction there is a lack of research been done in securing client authentication. This paper is to propose a different way of using the GSM Authentication to enhance the security of electronic transactions, which will also in return in increase the mobility when making an Internet transaction.
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Usage of SIP in 3GPP is focusing primarily on telephony issues (including the Instant messaging or SMS). The working group advocates the use of SIP stack in the wireless devices. Embedding SIP stack in the wireless devices is an issue worth pondering at and that this device may not provide rich experience of WAP applications to its end users because it appears that the 3GPP working group has not thought about any other applications like banking, mobile electronic transactions, simple web browsing etc on the same device other than just the telephony application using SIP signaling.
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Abstract—In recent years, the fraudulent cash withdrawal and transaction due to card skimming have become increasingly common. Even though cardholders are increasingly using smartcard and personal identification number (PIN) technology, there are businesses and services still rely on magnetic stripe data transaction in American and Asia-Pacific countries. The personal data on card’s magnetic stripe is not encrypted and hence prone to identity theft and counterfeit card frauds. This paper proposes a framework to enhance the security of magnetic stripe data transaction. The proposed framework consists of two main components: Electronic Transaction Card (ETC) and Issuer Authentication Software (IAS). The ETC is embedded with magnetic stripe emulator which dynamically generates a varying electromagnetic field when the credit/debit card is being swiped across the reader head. The dynamically generated electromagnetic field corresponds to user information that is typically encoded on a static magnetic stripe. The user information can include cardholder’s account number, encrypted Transaction Identification Number (TIN), and even secret codes to enhance the security. The IAS, at the card issuer’s backend mainframe system, decodes the user information together with TIN received from merchant’s point-of-sale terminal to authenticate the transaction. The proposed framework/infrastructure, with dynamic magnetic stripe data broadcast feature, counteracts card skimming and achieves an enhanced security for magnetic data transaction technology.
Jordan has rapid development of its virtual and real business environments; the country is improving the framework necessary to support the growth of its e-business activities. The increasing use of Internet and the potential of e-commerce give rise to important policy issues relating to national economic policy and rules of international trade. This article explores the general situation of e-marketplace in Jordan. Over the time, the market has been affected more by regulation than by any economic, social or technological change. The necessary regulations to sustain e-business activities in Jordan started almost with establishing the Electronic Transaction Law in 2001 which covered the electronic records, electronic signature, information letter, transferable electronic deed, electronic money transfer, authentication certificate, and penalties. One of the nations in the Arabian countries which has passed legislation (Electronic Transaction Act 85 of 2001) in terms of regulating e-business is Jordan, which was recently revised with the Electronic Transactions Law No.15 of the year 2015. Obviously, this set of laws requires further steps to deal with the electronic commerce that is governed by other laws and cover all e-business aspects. Likewise, more attention should be taken for legal, financial and market access issues that related to the e-marketplace and improve upon them.
SET (Secure Electronic Transaction) is a specification designed to utilize technology for authenticating the parties involved in payment card purchases on any type of online network, including the Internet. SET was developed by Visa and MasterCard, with participation from leading technology companies, including Microsoft, IBM, RSA, Terisa Systems, and VeriSign. By using sophisticated cryptographic techniques, SET will make cyberspace a safer place for conducting business and is expected to boost consumer confidence in electronic commerce. SET focuses on maintaining confidentiality of information, ensuring message integrity, and authenticating the parties involved in a transaction. The significance of SET, over existing Internet security protocols, is found in the use of digital certificates. Digital certificates will be used to authenticate all the parties involved in a transaction. SET will provide those in the virtual world with the same level of trust and confidence a consumer has today when making a purchase at any of the 13 million Visa-acceptance locations in the physical world. Payments are the important factor of any transaction and Internet hardware/software vendors has put their efforts in concentrating the factor in secured way. They have made a variety of announcements in the past couple of years related to the support for the most popular security payment protocols. Three methods have evolved in the recent past. Netscape Communications Corporation and Microsoft Corporation have promoted their respective payment protocols and installed them in World Wide Web browsers and servers.
E-Commerce plays a vital role in economic development by reducing the cost of products and services. It promotes Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs) and allows them to compete with giants in the same marketplace (Khan et al., 2013). Online applications require a strong security feature to protect user confidential data. Security is a major issue on the internet based online payment system. There are various internet threats which affect the security system of the internet and increase the risk for an electronic transaction. Most of the authentication system relies on passwords, personal identification numbers, and keys to access their personal account information. This type of authentication system cannot verify or authenticate the identity of the users who he or she claims to be (Tiwari, 2007). Security of electronic transaction over an insecure communication channel is a challenging task that includes many critical areas as a secure communication channel, strong data encryption technique and trusted a third party to maintain the electronic database(Gupta & Sharma, 2011).For overcoming these issues in the e- payment field, we proposed a stylized transaction for online commerce using an intermediary. In this model, the intermediary not only settles payments, but it also takes care of such needs as confirming seller and buyer identities, authenticating and verifying ordering and payment information and other transactional requirements lacking in virtual interactions.
As the PatentBook broker, TGL mediates between interested parties, helping to resolve disputes about valuation and leveraging its experience to draft carefully tailored contracts. The enforced patent self-evaluation procedures - based on technical, legal and financial/market assessments that are common in the licensing industry – provide a uniform set of conditions that justifies as well as clarifies royalty distribution among the patent owners contributing to the PatentBook. By regularizing the transaction mechanisms for technology licensing and reducing the total volume of transactions necessary for licensing a specific product, PatentBooks lower overall negotiation costs. Transparent mechanisms for the resolution of disputes reduce uncertainty and uniform license terms reduce the costs of exchanges with manufacturers. TGL helps reassure license partners that negotiations are fair and influences the perception of managers regarding the extent and impact of transaction costs. The exchange mechanism also reduces the need for geographical proximity between contracting partners and helps mitigate some of the opportunistic behavior common in license negotiations. Yet, as the PatentBook administrator, TGL is in a privileged bargaining position relative to patent owners and manufacturers. Since licenses are offered to manufacturers at a uniform price set by TGL, and the manufacturer’s only alternative is to negotiate each co ntract bilaterally, TGL could exploit its position to extract more revenue for patent owners and thus itself. However, because maximum licensing revenue is achieved by balancing high transaction volume with adequate royalty remuneration, TGL benefits from balancing the interests of patent owners and product manufacturers in a transparent manner. Crucially, the PatentBook does not restrict an owner from entering into independent bilateral license negotiations.
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Abbot and Peterson  argue the necessity to avoid both extremes. This has some elements in common with our work. Their object oriented language Morpheus is designed for protocol specification. The key idea of Morpheus is to provide a fixed number of so-called shapes, as building blocks for protocols. The shapes are similar to our components. A shape is a sub class of an abstract super class. Code and data reuse of the abstract class and of the shape make it easy to create specific instances of shapes. These instances are then used as building blocks for a protocol. Morpheus allows only a number of predetermined shapes (a multiplexor, a worker and a router). Abbott and Peterson argue that this provides their Morpheus compiler with more scope for optimisation. Our conformant prototyping system does not need to deliver high performance and offers more flexibility by using a general purpose programming language. Our protocols are represented using only a fixed set of classes, which are used in a disciplined fashion. Abbott and Peterson note that protocols from standards are generally difficult to represent because of their concern for efficiency. In fact they represent the functionality of a standard protocol without necessarily adhering to its exact syntax. Our rendering of the transaction protocols from the standard is exact in that sense. We have prototyped every detail of the load purse transaction as specified in the standard. Admittedly, we are not aiming to specify arbitrary protocols, but a more restricted family of protocols.
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A regression mathematical model of China electronic commerce transaction scale was given based on information reused analysis method. This regression mathematical model could evaluate and predict change tendency of the China electronic commerce transaction volume and could provide reference for electronic commerce transaction researchers.
In addition to this, the identification of parties involved is also essential in electronic transactions. The clarity of contents is most crucial to understand subject matter. If the contents contain of garbage characters, then understanding of the information is a problem (Wyrough & Klien, 1998). While regulations stipulate a number of issues associated with an electronic transmission, the legibility of messages (in a wired environment) are left out as this can‟t be guaranteed by communication providers. In the case of wireless devices, this becomes a crucial issue as external interferences can affect the quality of communication and the service providers may not be able to undertake any responsibility for the poor quality. One example is the „weather‟ conditions such as storms that can affect wireless quality. Currently, there is no protection for businesses as well as consumers.
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The Internet has initiated an electronic revolution in the global banking sector. Its dynamic and flexible nature as well as its everywhere reach has helped in leveraging a variety of banking activities. The Internet has emerged as one of the major distribution channels of banking products and services for banks in the U.S and in European countries. By use of net banking the customer feels that banking is present in their desk. With E- banking services the customer can transact a number of transactions with just a few clicks. Also the customer check their account balance, pay electric and telephone bill, transfer funds, open of fixed deposit account and much more. The customer always gets instant information of their transaction and new schemes. All such transactions are encrypted; using sophisticated multi-layered security architecture, including firewalls and filters. One can be rest assured that one‟s transactions are secure and confidential. MOBILE BANKING
performance of disk –based concurrency control mechanisms to approaches that of in-memory systems. EMA is a variation of the access invariance and pre-fetch schemes outlined in  and . However, unlike access invariance, EMA does not assume a constant database state or that a transaction will access the same set of objects in all its execution histories. Rather, by controlling the length of time that data resides in memory, it guarantees that having pre-fetched its data, any object that a transaction requires will always be in memory even if the set of data required at actual execution time varies from that established during pre-fetch. This allows a very large number of transactions to be pre-fetched and then executed entirely in memory thus dramatically improving system throughput. EMA improves the performance of disk-based systems (using either 2PL, WDL or optimistic concurrency control) to near that achieved by in-memory systems.
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2.1 Mobile computing verses distributed computing: A mobile computing system is a dynamic type of distributed system where links between nodes in the network change dynamically. A single site cannot play the role of co-ordinator as in a centralized system. The mobile host and FHs also differ in computational power and memory. The distributed algorithms for mobile environments should be structured such as that the main bulk of the communication and computation costs is borne by the static portion of the network. In a mobile environment, a DBMS also needs to be able to recover from site, network and transaction failure, as in case of distributed systems. However, the frequency of most of these failures increases and mobility complicates the recovery. In location-dependent data management, same object in different locations may have different values but still these values are considered as consistent. For example, tax object have different values in different states in United States. The most important issue remains is transaction processing in such an environment. Transaction failures may increase due to the possibility of problem during hand-off when the MU moves between cells. An MU failure creates a partitioning of the network, which in turn complicates updating and routing algorithms. Another major difference lies in the transaction model. Unlike a distributed transaction, a mobile transaction is not identified by a cell or a remote site. It is identified by the collection of cells it passes through. A distributed transaction is executed concurrently on multiple processors
In a large database of customer transactions, where each transaction consists of customer-id, transaction time, and the items bought in the transaction. Mining sequential patterns over such databases is needed in many real time applications. Data mining is motivated by the decision support Problem faced by most large retail organizations. Database D contains customer transactions. Each transaction consists of the following fields: customer-id, transaction-time, and the items purchased in the transaction. No customer has more than one transaction with the same transaction-time. Each item is a binary variable representing whether an item was bought or not. An item set is a non-empty set of items. A sequence is an ordered list of item sets without loss of generality. By default sequential patterns means positive sequential patterns only [1, 14, 15].
A deadlock is a situation in a system where transactions wait for one another  and none of them is able to proceed. In such situations, Deadlocks are generally depicted by wait-for graphs, which is a directed graph that indicates which transactions is waiting for which transaction for its completion. The graph consists of nodes and edges, where nodes of the graph represent transactions and edges of the graph represent the dependency among transactions. A direct edge from transaction T i to transaction T j is drawn, if the
The major objective of dismantling/recycling operations is reduction of size and separation of steel, plastics, PCBs, non-ferrous metals, glass etc. After reduction, the parts are sent to the recyclers for treatment and recovery of materials. Different activities mentioned in figure 4 are required while treating the electronic waste. As given in figure 4 approx. 70% of dismantler/recyclers have their own collection centre. 100% are doing proper segregation of dismantled e-waste. 46% have the facility for refurbishment & repair, 57% are recycling & recovering the components extracted from e-waste, 35% handover the waste to particular recyclers, 32% utilize the processed e-waste by their own, 32% have bag dust collectors followed by wet (chemical) scrubbers for control of fugitive emissions from furnaces or chemical reactor fumes.
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BEFTN (Bangladesh Electronic Funds Transfer Network) that is operated by Bangladesh Bank plays a key role for the rapid progress of internet banking system. BEFTN settles not only credit transactions but also debit transactions. There are different types of credit transactions such as: foreign and domestic remittances, payroll, social security payments, company bonuses, bill payments, corporate payments, government tax payments and person to person payments etc. There are different types of debit transactions such as transactions utility bill payments, insurance premium payments, EMI payments of a product etc. As a result, paper based instrument is reducing and electronic payment is increasing. In the year 2018, on average, 67956 transactions were established per day through the BEFTN system, and this transaction rate was 33.333 percent higher than that of 2017. Nearly 1,72,285 crore taka was processed successfully via BEFTN and this trend was 29.2 percent higher than the transaction trends of 2017.