when subsistence economy is dominant, when humans produce for their own needs and the local market, when the cycle of nutrients is self-contained within local parameters’ (pp. 36–7). Chapter three, ‘Water, Forests and Power’ deal with societies in which management is handled at larger scales and power brokers begin to mediate between the interests of different groups, creating a more complex and often less reliable feedback cycle between human behaviors and the environment. The chapter includes a rich and nuanced discussion of Wittfogel’s ideas on the relations between irrigation and power. But Radkau is less interested in how large-scale irrigation sustained new power relationships than in the ecological dangers created by their complexity: ‘the center expands the networks of irrigation and drainage to a size and complexity at which their vulnerability to crises – whether political or ecological in nature – increases to an alarming extent’ (p. 92). Chapter four, ‘Colonialism as a Watershed in Environmental History’, describes a world in which those who took the crucial decisions often had little or no interest in their environmental impacts because they occurred so far away. Colonialism relaxed many of the constraints on ecological behavior that had existed in earlier societies because the costs of predatory behavior were rarely paid by those responsible for it.
they moved from discovery to discovery and in the process brought with them extractive techniques and social relationships for the creation of new communities. Paul also looked closely at the impact new technology had on the industry in his book, The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition. In this book, he examined the rapid changes brought by the machinery and new technology used in the mining rushes including the effective but environmentally destructive hydraulic mining and the massive gold dredges. Mark Wyman, in his book, Hard Rock Epic: Western Miners and the Industrial Revolution, 1860-1910, looked at the effect the economic and technological transformations had on the western miners. Duane Smith has written several books and articles on mining history including, Rocky Mountain Mining Camps – The Urban Frontier and Mining America, and The Industry and the Environment, 1800-1980. The early gold rush era is well chronicled in both William S Greever, The Bonanza West: The Story of the Western Mining Rushes, 1848-1900, and Elliot West, Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848- 1880. Although these aforementioned books on mining rarely mention Warren itself, they are an excellent source of information on all of the various methods of mining in the West and the political, economical, social, environmental and racial effects that mining had on the respective communities written about. Because Warren’s mining history included all the methods of mining, including; placer, quartz, hydraulic and dredge, this collection of books helps when comparing and contrasting Warren with other western mining towns.
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In past times Castellana-Grotte has long been affected by floods, which occurrence was related to a combination of some peculiarities of the local karst environment and to land mismanagement by man. Aimed at reconstructing the lo- cal flood history, a review of the existing literature about Castellana-Grotte and the surrounding territory, integrated by critical analysis of additional historical documents recently republished (AA.VV., 1996), was performed. A number of sources have been investigated, from national archives and inventories dealing with flooding events, to scientific and his- torical publications, and to documents and publications of lo- cal history. Additional information was also extracted from further sources, which were often helpful in the location of some specific event, and in the description of related dam- age, but generally did not provide any date of occurrence, or resulted in uncertain dating. Eventually, further useful data were collected through direct inspections and survey of nat- ural and artificial cavities and tunnels in the area.
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Considerable literature exists regarding the effect of cigarette smoke on CD and UC [11,35-38]. It is well recognized that current smoking is a risk factor for inci- dent CD and more aggressive disease course [29,36-40]. Passive exposure to cigarette smoke has a similar direction of effect though the magnitude of association is weaker than that existing for personal history of smoking . Our findings suggest that remote exposure even early on in childhood may exert a similar effect on natural history of CD. Several prior studies have suggested childhood ex- posure to be a risk factor for incident CD or UC [42,43] but have not examined it as a risk factor for more aggres- sive subsequent course. There are a few possible ways through which early exposure to cigarette smoke may exert its effect. First, it may alter the intestinal microbiome composition . It has been consistently demonstrated that early life exposure may have greater and more sus- tained effects on the gut microbiome than exposures later on in adult life [30,33,34,45]. Second, cigarette smoke may disrupt protective immune mechanisms by impairing re- covery from oxidative stress through its effect on the mononuclear cells . Finally, it is possible that smoking may lead to epigenetic alterations that subsequently in- fluence natural history of disease . All these avenues merit further exploration and may offer important clues to the effect of environment on disease.
These results reinforce out findings from Fig. 7, implying that the effect of the cluster environment on the spiral galaxy popu- lation is to increase the fraction of passive smooth spiral galax- ies without destroying their spiral morphology. This would signify that spirals on entering clusters become structurally smooth due to the quenching of their star formation followed later by mor- phological transformation, perhaps into S0s. This implies that that the mechanisms ultimately responsible for the quenching of these galaxies’ star formation in clusters must be reasonably gentle, af- fecting primarily the gas while leaving the galaxies’ stellar struc- ture largely unchanged. These galaxies become smoother due to the suppression of the star formation itself, since ‘rough’ structures such as H II regions would disappear (see e.g. Hoyos et al. 2016).
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In this study, maternal effects were evaluated for two environmental variables: the food regime available to larvae and infection by V. culicis. Similarly to micro- sporidian infection, poor nutrition of mosquito larvae increases development time [23,29] and decreases survi- val . Here, a full factorial experiment where Ano- pheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes were exposed to a low or high food regime with or without infection with V. culi- cis was conducted. It was investigated how these mater- nal experimental conditions influence the offspring with regard to susceptibility to malaria, which directly deter- mines malaria transmission, and two life-history traits that influence the transmission indirectly by affecting the mosquitoes’ population dynamics (larval survival and developmental time).
cost, such as immune function, antioxidant defence and DNA repair processes . The relationship between en- vironmental conditions and oxidative stress has not been examined in healthy humans. In a previous study, we have shown that antioxidant defence is decreased in children and adolescents with early onset first-episode psychosis . If environmental factors play a role in this, antioxidant defence may also be decreased in the unaffected relatives of such patients. Our hypothesis is that healthy control subjects with a family history of psychosis will have a lower antioxidant capacity than healthy subjects without this family history, and that the antioxidant capacity will be modulated by environmental family factors.
It is a common misconception, however, to presume that medieval dike-building and drainage measures cre- ated the present-day marshland environment. For sure, they represented a major socio-ecological innovation, accompanied by novel patterns of co-operation and organization that could only be undone at great cost. But the dikes were feeble, and major storm surges swept freely over their tops. Several districts relapsed into their original state for decades. The indigenous population continued to live on elevations, and they restricted their agricultural activities to cattle farming and growing spring wheat. In fact, the coastal economy was largely seasonal. Each spring its inhabitants consecrated their outﬁelds with festivities and large bonﬁres, which also marked the beginning of the shipping and ﬁshing season. With the arrival of the autumnal rains, which inundated most of their ﬁelds, they returned to the safety of their farmsteads, followed by rodents, mustelids and hedge- hogs that could only survive in the vicinity of men (Knottnerus 1997).
DocuDrama is based on the recording of the history of events and activities generated by a project team in the Tower collaborative work environment. Avatars that enact the events as they occurred in the shared workspace visualize the replay of the team’s interactions with documents. DocuDrama Conversation focuses on interaction between people on documents, thus it refines on the idea of the history replay. It rearranges the order of events avoiding a pure chronological order. This approach enables the user to focus on cooperative activities which have taken place on a certain document. It conveys the impression of cooperation although the actions of the respective actors were temporally fragmented. Thus it acknowledges particularities of asynchronous collaboration. To take the example of a team member uploading a document in the team’s workspace and emailing the project team about its existence and location; at a later point in time, other team members will open the document and read, change or annotate it. DocuDrama Conversation allocates all these activities by different team members at a shared location into a single scene. The replay of all events in this scene is performed in chronological order of occurrence. However, parallel activities on other documents, respectively on other locations, will be shown in later scenes. Thus the scenes are thematically arranged and not interrupted by parallel activities on other topics.
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This research investigates the used of Weblog in Cooperative Learning to enhance students’ learning of History. The main issues of this study were the lack of interest and low achievement scores in History learning. The objectives of this study are to explore the incorporation of Weblog in Cooperative Learning within the teaching and learning activities of History. This study also examined the effectiveness of Weblog Cooperative Learning in improving students’ understanding of a subject and creating an atmosphere of achievement. Past researches suggested that by using Weblog in Cooperative Learning improved the learning of History. The study highlights the teaching and learning of History in a blended learning environment by using Wordpress as a learning platform and Cooperative Learning as a teaching and learning method. The samples are 37 students from a Form 3 class who have basic computer competency in a Malaysian public school. The instruments used for this quantitative study are Pre-test, Post- test and survey questionnaire.
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1) The History of VR (Virtual Reality): It is a word or term that is defined when simulation is combined with technology in a particular environment to copy the real world or in other words to make a copy of the real world. Many of the VR events occur to create a different experience to attract more audience. Now a day , VR not only used for entertainment , even it is used in other fields of technology i.e. science , medical, training purpose for military as well as for pilots and astronauts. In beginning of VR , it was used in gaming world into monitors, was a concept only originated from imagination . When we are talking about history of virtual history , we should also consider all the graphics of computer which connected to simulate the real world. Virtual Reality becomes popular during the 1990’s. It was one of the best topic for movies and in games or in education or medical or health field. During the 1950’s, a cinematography named Morton Heilig attempt to stimulate the different ideas senses become idea for what we know , today known as Virtual Reality. This was the same person who use sensors with moving chairs and odor meters along with providing visual treat for the audience
The course is designed to provide undergraduate students with up-to-date knowledge of international marketing issues that MNCs are facing. The course focuses on analyzing the cultural environment of global markets, assessing global market opportunities and developing global marketing strategies. Key topics of study include: the dynamic environment of international trade; the impact of international environment (history and geography, cultural, political, legal and economic) on firm’s global marketing standardization versus local adaptation strategy; developing global marketing strategies, including planning and organizing 4Ps marketing strategies; implementing global marketing strategies, including negotiating with international customers, partners and regulators.
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Face of Bengal’ has studied the agriculture, economy and health of the people as related to riverine activities. The book describes the gift of the Ganges in the region in making the old and new delta in the last three centuries, agricultural decadence and public health in the early twentieth century. Changes in the river courses and formation of ports in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have also been studied. Majumdar (1941) in his book ‘Rivers of Bengal Delta’ has mentioned the decaying nature of the rivers of Bengal, the reasons for which he ascribed to human interferences in the past and lack of initiative in the present. He has also considered that the spill area is essential for maintenance of rivers in deltaic area and established various evidences in support that the Bhagirathi was the original course of the Ganges. Bagchi (1943) in his book ‘Ganges Delta’ has contributed a valuable research on the stages in which the Ganges delta came to be formed and the hydrographic characteristics in the different portions in order to bring out in details the nature of distribution of population in different parts of the deltaic region. Bhattacharya (1959) in his book ‘Bangladesher Nad-Nadi o Parikalpana’ has discussed in detail the general description of the rivers of Bengal, changes in the river course in different decades, description of delta, the rivers of active, mature and moribund delta etc. He also described the farakka barrage project and necessity of flood for maintaining the navigability of the rivers. The study helps to arrange the chronology of past courses in the lower deltaic Bengal in various decades. Bagchi and Mukherjee (1983) in their book ‘Diagnostic Survey of Deltaic Bengal’ has made a comprehensive study of the agricultural land capability and market accessibility of West Bengal on a regional basis. M. Mondal (1998) in his book ‘Brihattara Purbasthalir Itibritta’ has attempted a thorough study of Purbasthali police station. He has studied analytically the old history of Purbasthali, its geographical location, distribution of rivers in past and their relationship with present waterbodies, distribution of settlements, society and culture, festivals and significance of place names etc.
In the family environment, it became evident how much the relationships are amplified from the diagnosis on. Also noteworthy is the fact that in spite of a good family relationship (more broadly), patients elect someone with whom they can count on more closely; however, this closeness was not necessarily physical, but emotional, in the sense of confidence and comfort. Regarding the work environment aspect, it was evidenced that patients perceive the rupture/withdrawal, either temporary or permanent, as a loss, and perhaps the intensity of this feeling is due to the fact that the disease often does not present the patient with a choice, only the need for more specific tending. As a coping mechanism, it can be concluded that subjects resort to faith, denial and pursuit (search for alternatives) in a more expressive way. The evaluation of the results makes it possible to observe that this study’s goals were achieved and, in addition, they may significantly contribute to those who have some relation to cancer, whether they are patients, family members or mainly health professionals, considering the brevity of the history of psycho-oncology and how distant the access to it still is in practice; parallel to that, the scarce but growing number of studies carried out in the area. The number of people afflicted by cancer also justifies further studies within the area, since it is already manifested through the knowledge produced in psychosomatics and psychoneuroimmunology that not only does the biological reflect in the emotional, but also how much the emotional demonstrates its influence in the biological aspects. Psycho- oncology therefore arises as a possibility to the emergency need to respond to the emotional aspects of cancer, either during the time of the discovery of the symptom, of diagnosis confirmation, during treatment, or even when the possibility of cure is no longer possible.
Methods: The subjects were 375 workers (male, 361; female, 14) who worked for a single shipbuilding company. Questionnaire items covered the working environment, including work environment, working posture, and the weight of objects that the subject dealt with, as well as physical and lifestyle characteristics, namely smoking habits, drinking habits, sleeping hours, medications, exercise habits, and any weight gain of 20 kg or more since the age of 20. Subjects were also asked to indicate if they regularly experienced any of 17 listed difficulties in their daily lives, and to use an illustration of the human body to mark any body parts that were painful or hard to move.
however is well accepted in the IS literature (Drazin et al. 1985; Lee et al. 2004; Pollalis 2003) and has been applied previously to outsourcing (Kern 1997). At its core, according to Miller (1982), is a focus on the whole, describing relationships between a range of elements, to identify unique forms or gestalts rather than looking at simple associations between a restricted set of variables . While avoiding issues of causality (Hrebiniak 1981), a focus on gestalts recognises that it is possible for a variety of organisational forms, or configurations, to emerge and flourish within a particular environment (Hannan et al. 1977; Katz et al. 1966) thus avoiding tendencies towards prescription and the best solution. As compared to the remaining definition of alignment – covariation – Venkatraman (1989) suggested that the two are very similar differing “only in relation to the degree of specification of the functional form” (p436) with gestalts viewed “as products of cluster analysis .. whereas covariation is modeled as factor analysis” (p436). It is proposed here that aspects of the gestalt and covariation approaches can potentially be usefully combined. The principles of covariation can be used to identify relevant attributes for each proposed alignment dimension, with a gestalt approach then being used to determine whether organisations can be grouped based upon variations in those attributes.
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The Gertrude Stein Repertory Theatre (TGSRT, located at: 15 West 26 th Street, New York, New York) was our main collabo- rator in these trials. The theater was founded in 1990 with the intent to expand and revitalize performing arts. The theater has a history of pursuing multicultural and international collabora- tions — from training, education and productions. The theater also has a history of partnering with cultural and educational institutions. In pursuing their mission, TGSRT has developed a strategy aimed at a global infrastructure of relationships as well as technology. TGSRT presented an interesting challenge, to
When, for instance, teaching of business was first introduced to Kazakhstani universities, some professors believed that business should be taught from an empirical perspective, in order to establish the discipline as more “serious” and “scientific” compared to others who wanted to take a more “applied” approach (Abercrombie, 1989 as cited by Rao and Rybina, n.d., p.2). Those professors who labeled themselves as empiricists, felt there was one Truth that we were on a journey to discover, thus their lectures were presented in a very authoritarian manner, with THE truth being told about how business should be done. However, those who labeled themselves phenomenologist, felt that there were many truths, and thus many ways of doing business, and their classes took a more exploratory approach to figure out what method was best used in business under which circumstance, and the way the class was taught was a more relaxed and exploratory environment, with many options to select from in completing assignments or other forms of assessment (Tidwell, 1999). These trends were also reflected in the type of research that was encouraged or discouraged at various Business Departments, some preferring a more empirical approach, while others preferred more phenomenological approach.
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Utopianism is easy enough to criticise of course. Castles in the air seem pretty pointless when compared to real castles, but we’ll come to that in a while. Utopian history is a slightly different matter though, because it must be (in part) judged as history. If you claim knowledge of the 1837 depression, then you need a grasp of the facts that can be known. You need to be able to footnote dusty sources in forgotten corners of libraries, and to claim that you have spent a long time turning pages and bending over desks. So, if you claim knowledge of pirates, your sources matter here. Kuhn’s book has a problem with this, because the sources are a problem. Though we can infer something about pirates from contemporaneous court records, newspaper accounts, travel books, broadsides and popular ballads, the pirates are always being spoken for in such accounts. They almost never speak themselves, with even their gallows speeches being written by moralists of radical or conservative stripe. Demonized by states and merchants, but glamorised by the common people and those who wished to sell stories, pirates are effectively constructed by the interference patterns between these different sources of representation. Their reality largely died with them, sunk in blue Caribbean bays or hanging raven-pecked from gibbets.
Associative human action is not just a recent trend, but a behavior that has accompanied humankind practically since its emergence. In a certain sense, it can be said that associativism arises precisely when the animal becomes human, conscious of its own action, which becomes aimedat the survival of the species. The ability to cooperate was certainly condicio sine qua non for survival. Based on this assumption, the present report analyzes the history of associativism in its institutionalized form, from the Roman and Greek conceptions, to the recent practices, in the present States. The study is structured in five focal points, beginning with the analysis of the origins of associativism, its gestation in the Middle Ages and its modeling with the advent of the Modern State. Afterwards, it analyzes the relation of associativism with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in order to understand its implementation and development in Brazil. Methodologically, the study can be characterized as a documentary and bibliographic study, with qualitative analysis.