According (Worcester 1993, 2000; Burgess et al 1998), environmental concern amongst the public ebbed and flowed and there was increasing recognition of a gap between levels of concern and levels of pro-environmentalbehaviour. Within the existing psychological paradigm, the identification of this value-action gap (Blake 1999) led to new research that attempted to try and close or bridge it (Kollmuss and Agyeman 2002). For example, studies looked towards the provision of more specific information to more tightly defined public groups (de Young et al 1993; Bamberg 2003), and sought better, more motivational, forms of communication (McKenzie-Mohr 2000). Much of the research on drivers of environmental behaviours, particularly in the psychological literature, focuses on the individual as a rational, autonomous and free-acting agent. Explanations for environmental action commonly emphasise the role of personal values, yet people who express high levels of concern for the natural environment often take a relatively low level of action to counter environmental problems (Kollmuss&Agyeman, 2002). By far, the most common response to this 'value-action' gap is to assume that the main barrier between environmental concern and action is lack of appropriate information, and this approach has also been the dominant influence on public and policy research to encourage sustainable living and lifestyle change (Blake, 1999).
this energy was used for heating. The proportion of households heated by a central heating system and by natural gas has been stabilized, the proportion of households heated by solid fuels have positively decreased and the proportion of households which use technologically new methods and sources of energy which are highly eco-friendly has positively increased. Individual transport represents 60% of transport capacities in personal transport. Since 2010, transport capacities of railways in personal transport have increased. The average age of registered personal vehicles is still on the increase and in 2012 reached 13.9 years. However, the proportion of vehicles younger than 2 years increased in 2012 against the previous year by 23.3%. The structure of the vehicle ﬂ eet according to the EURO emission standards has changed signiﬁ cantly. The proportion of personal vehicles that meet EURO IV and V standards tripled in 2007–2011. Time series development of food consumption in the CR demonstrates positive changes in consumption of particular types of food, the contributing factors being consumer prices, oﬀ er and availability of products on the market, promotion and health education. This way, the diet of Czech households has become more varied and healthier. The waste management system is also gradually improving and thanks to technological developments the amount of landﬁ lled waste has been reduced. The amount of separately collected components of communal waste has almost tripled since 2002. Based on the indicators analysed, pro-environmentalbehaviour of households in the Czech Republic shows positive tendencies, which must continue to be developed and supported.
There are several demographic factors that influence environmental performance such as gender (Stern et al., 1993; De Groot et al., 2007; Sengupta, et al., 2010; McCright, 2010; Abdul-Wahab and Abdo, 2010; Hassan et al., 2010), nationality (Aoyagi-Usui et al., 2003; Vicente-Molina et al., 2013), race (Liu et al., 2014), age (De Groot et al., 2007; Abdul-Wahab and Abdo, 2010), State or area (urban or rural) (Hassan et al., 2010; Ambrosius and Gilderbloom, 2015), education level (Abdul-Wahab and Abdo, 2010; Ha§iloglu et al., 2011), and monthly income level (De Groot et al., 2007). However, among all these demographic factors, not many studies have used an environmentalbehaviour environmentalism model and considered living areas, especially urban and rural regions, or covered this as part as a nationwide study among Malaysians as a whole. Previous studies have only focused on the cross-compatibility o f environmentalbehaviour among school students in urban and rural areas (Hassan et al., 2010) or public residents in a specific district (Lin et al., 2010), but a nationwide survey has yet to be conducted.
We carried out science-practitioner research case study to encourage pro-environmentalbehaviour in the workplace, using multiple methods based on psychological theory to implement and evaluate interventions such as? [one example here]. The results suggest that providing clearer information, making behaviour easier and using feedback and social norms can have a beneficial effect on recycling and energy saving in the workplace.
In the era of urbanism, the emerging and ongoing development has been trendy and frequently associated with adverse environmental impacts such as anthropogenic climate change and waste secretion. Poor environmental behaviours among public are accused for the negative impacts towards the environment. Considering that, it is importance to understand the interrelationship of socio-psychological factors to environmentalbehaviour for it will help the stakeholders such as policy makers and social marketers to form better strategies to foster pro- environmentalbehaviour among the public. Previously, researchers had explored socio-psychological factors such as environmental concern, attitude, intention, cognition, awareness and knowledge that affect their environmentalbehaviour. Based on the precedent studies, this paper aims to review the gaps among socio-psychological factors in determining the public environmentalbehaviour among Malaysian. Theories and concepts of environmentalism that are related to environmental behaviours are discussed and reviewed. The paper concludes by introducing importance of socio-psychological factors that are plausible to explain the causes of human environmentalbehaviour for the use of policy and decision making.
To study the correlation between Big Five Inventory of personality dimensions (namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness) and Pro- environmentalbehaviour scores. Hypotheses: The researcher proposed the following hypotheses-
This type of studies should be conducted in other topics and presented to teachers for their use. In addition, the teacher education institution must incorporate socio- constructivism in the training programme for the pre-service and in-service teachers. Other psychological variables like scientific temper, social skills, self esteem, motivation, home environment can be added in research endeavor which may possibly correlate the Responsible EnvironmentalBehaviour. Relevant research results concerning student’s conceptions should be communicated to teachers, and curriculum developers. Further, the present study focused on elementary school pupils. It can be repeated with different levels of education like at Secondary Level, College Level or University Level.
originally US basis of the above? As stated, data generated without an a priori commitment to a specific theoretical framework places fewer limitations on participant responses and more fully allows for results that are outwith the model. Exploratory, inductive research thus has the potential to not only independently test theories of EC but also to reveal if there are alternative EC attitudes. Thirdly, what is the value of an ontological distinction between attitudes and reported behaviours in this context? Fourthly, returning to a long-standing theme in the literature, how do environmental attitudes relate to behaviour in such a dataset? Do environmental attitudes influence reported pro-environmentalbehaviour?
However, as we noted earlier, yet another complication occurs when considering employee pro-environmental behavior in the context of goal hierarchies, and that is goal conflict. There are many competing goals that people may have in relation to pro-environmental behavioral goals, such as leisure goals (which might be accomplished through, for example, watching sports on a big-screen television), safety goals (which might be accomplished through, for example, driving a sports utility vehicle (SUV) to drop the children at school), and so forth. However we propose that goal conflict is particularly relevant for employee pro-environmental behavior as employees are likely to have many other goals that will not be associated with their intervention- related, pro-environmental goal. For example, for many employees spending time and/or resources in accomplishing pro-environmental goals (such as taking public transport to work, taking longer to walk up the office stairs rather than getting the quicker elevator, and so on) may be in conflict with performance efficiency goals such as getting to the meeting on time or spending every last available minute working on the computer. Moreover, for most employees, their performance goals will be much more commonly activated than their intervention-related goals. When individuals perceive goal conflict they can either balance any competing goals
The research findings identify several practical implications. My research reveals that Habit is the most powerful predictor of either actual E5 purchase or intention to buy E5. This implies that if individuals have developed their Habit to buy E5, it is likely that they will intend to keep purchasing this petrol. Vice versa, the majority of individuals that still buy traditional petrol, are unlikely to consider E5, or to buy it. This dominant influence of Habit denotes that the most efficient approach to promote E5 consumption is to override the habit of buying traditional petrol. According to previous habit research, deprogramming habit is very challenging (Verplanken, Aarts, & Van Knippenberg, 1997; Verplanken & Orbell, 2003), and usually consists of three main stages, including (1) breaking old habit, (2) forming new intention which will then turn into new behaviour before (3) being set as a new habit (Dahlstrand & Biel, 1997; Danner, Aarts, & Vries, 2008; Lewin, 1947; Verplanken et al., 1997). Reviewing research on pro-environmental behaviours, Steg and Vlek (2009) categorised interventions to encourage environmentally responsible behaviour into two groups: information strategies and structural strategies. Information strategies aim to change motivations, perceptions and so on regarding the encouraged behaviour, while structural strategies concentrate on changing circumstances in which behavioural decisions are made. As Steg and Vlek (2009) and Abrahamse, Steg, Vlek, and Rothengatter (2005) suggested, while information strategies can be highly helpful in the second and third phase of habit transformation, in which new intention is nurtured and gradually developed into new behaviour and habit, they contribute little to breaking the old strong habit in the first stage, which is often effectively targeted by structural strategies. Since E5 related knowledge did not have a significant effect on E5 purchasing behaviour, it is possible that the majority of petrol purchasers in Vietnam are still in the habit of purchasing conventional petrol without much deliberation. Therefore, structural strategies are probably of more importance than information campaigns in this case.
Interesting within my study results is the focus on the Specialist High Skills Major – the Environment, particularly as it relates to supportive funding for the program. There is a paucity of research related to the ways in which environmental educational policy impacts curricular initiatives. One study tracked the efforts of educators at nine different research sites within the United States, funded by a grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), to develop and implement innovative interdisciplinary curriculum on the relationship of the environment and human health (Martina, Hursh, & Markowitz, 2009). The NIEHS concluded that the interdisciplinary nature of learning about environmental health would improve students' learning across several subject areas. However, these goals were undermined by state polices linking standardized tests with student promotion and graduation, and the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) resulting in school funding reductions, resonant with the impacts of the aforementioned deprioritization of environmental-oriented curriculum in Canada during this same era.
The original model of the TPB (Ajzen, 1991) as illustrated in the section above includes personal attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control in order to predict intentions towards behaviour. Former research (Yuhni & Heesup, 2010) has shown that the TPB can be an affective theoretical framework to use when addressing environmental issues. This research focused on customers’ intention to pay conventional hotel prices for a green hotel. The essence of these green hotels was based on the environmental benefits that could be achieved by reusing towels or using recycled toilet paper. Results of this study show that an extensive model of the TPB can be used to predict consumers’ behaviour sufficiently. A psychological construct that the researchers have added to the classical TPB was benefit awareness. This construct proved to be an important factor in customers’ decision making. Over the years more (sub-)constructs were added (eg. financial attitudes, personal norms, perceived health risks) to the classic theoretical framework (Ajzen, 2011; Visschers et al., 2016).
Third, the present study added to the literature by exploring the moderating effects of self- identity. Specifically, the current findings showed that, in line with Charng and colleagues’ research (1988), past behaviour became significantly stronger predictors of intention and behaviours as self- identity became stronger. This result supports the assumptions of identity theory, suggesting that the self-concept drives intentions and behaviour for repeated behaviours. Moreover, similar to the findings of Terry et al. (1999), the present work found that the predictive role of PBC on intentions was reduced as self-identity increased. This outcome is contrary to the Cheng and Chiu (2014) findings, which showed that higher self-identity was associated with stronger intentions (to enrol in business ethics courses) when PBC was stronger. It might be that the perception of personal control in engaging pro-environmentalbehaviour was more relevant for Italian householders who did not define themselves as strongly pro-environmentalist; and vice-versa, those who affirmed their pro- environmental identity with appropriate behaviour, accorded less importance to the eventual factors that might facilitate or impede planned pro-environmental behaviours. Similar to Gardner et al. (2012), we found no evidence that self-identity moderated the intention-behaviour relationship.
Hoyer and Mac Innis (2004) stated in his study that consumers’ value and belief need to be given importance, while examining and analyzing the influences on consumer’s purchase decisions. (Reser and Bentrupperbaumer, 2005; Stern, 2000) further asserted that, environmental values play an important role in pro-environmentalbehaviour. Values of a person affect his or her belief, which in return influences personal norms of customers that further lead to preference for green product of pro-environmentalbehaviour. However, an individual who is conscious and concerned about the environment does not necessarily, behave in a green way when it comes to purchase of products. This causes value and action gap. (Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2002) explored different internal and internal factors that encourage or lead to pro-environmentalbehaviour and found some competing and conflicting factors, directly related to consumers’ daily purchase decisions. (Ohtomo and Hirose, 2007) found that people, who are environmentally conscious and aware, do not necessarily behave in a pro environmental way.
The external EMS factor, ‘regulatory/legal demands/pressures’ (83%) also exerts influence on Nigerian organisations. This result is in line with previous studies [8, 33, 34], which conclude that government-backed regulation is a strong driver of pro-environmentalbehaviour, and will continue to promote the adoption of EMS certification standards. Regulatory drivers are an influential driver for pro-environmentalbehaviour in developing countries like Nigeria, particularly because a failure to achieve regulatory compliance ultimately leads to unwanted outcomes like legal sanctions, fines, penalties and loss of operating licenses and permits. Organisations wishing to implement environmental initiatives become immediately aware of the existence of legal requirements, and their responsibility to operate within them.
Policy makers assume, without evidence, that ‘spillover effects’ will occur, i.e., people can be “ushered onto a virtuous escalator” (Thøgersen and Crompton, 2009: 143) whereby behaviours performed in one setting will automatically lead to changes in another setting (Barr et al., 2011) and that small behaviour changes will lead to larger change and catalysts for other changes, but there is evidence that this does not automatically occur (Corner and Randall, 2011). Doing one pro-environmentalbehaviour may be seen as compensating for other environmentally detrimental behaviours, i.e., spillover effects may be negative rather than positive (Mazar and Zhong, 2010). Thus communication that focuses on single behaviours, e.g. recycling, is unlikely to impact on other potentially sustainability actions.
preparation ahead of the actual travel). The guiding hypothesis of the study, that this higher order factor (sustainability-values) is a predictor of pro-sustainable travel behaviour is largely confirmed. All constructs within the respective models demonstrate high reliability, convergent and discriminant properties. In a partial mediation model, using SEM modelling, our study determined that sustainability values (SV) of potential travellers determines the choice for CSHF directly, and through their effect on shaping EvB indirectly and can be used to segment the potential travel market. Sustainability values had a positive relationship with CSHF; EnvironmentalBehaviour (EvB) is related to CSHF positively. As respondents’ sustainability, values increase the probability of choosing a sustainable business increases. Hence, these values could be used in a cluster analysis, which could potentially identify homogenous groups of people who prefer to stay in sustainable hotels and eat in sustainable restaurants. We found that recycling behaviour is a significant predictor for sustainable hospitality choice. Hospitality companies should emphasize this in their internal (i.e. posters in the lobby or elevator) and external communication strategy when targeting environmentally concerned segments. Indeed, this may even be used to identify potential target markets and media to reach them. Moreover, our data indicated that almost half of the market values sustainability; one of the implications of this finding is that leadership in this area would open up new opportunities and markets for the hospitality industry. Comparison of the model with different nationals and subcultures might be a fruitful research area.
One of the more vexing problems associated with environmental attitude research, however, continues to be the relationship between environmental attitude and actual behaviour (Ewert & Galloway 2004). In this case, much less consistency has been found between environmental concern and environmentalbehaviour (Kraus 1995). That is, individuals expressing high levels of environmental concern and pro-environment attitudes often display behaviours and actions that have low levels of congruency with their expressed views. Moreover, many of the variables that show some consistency with respect to environmental attitudes, display weak or inconsistent relationships to environmental behaviours (Olli, Grendstad & Wollebaek 2001; Diekmann & Preisendorfer 1998).
For the purpose of reflecting the performance of environmental awareness and behaviour to the current localized environmental issues in Malaysia, literature regarding the causes, consequences and remedy on the four (4) categories, namely water pollution, air pollution, waste management and climate change were reviewed. Subsequently, the research instrument which is the self-administered 5-point Likert Scale questionnaire was developed according to the reviewed literature. For environmental awareness questions, the scaling ranged from strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree and strongly agree. Meanwhile, the scaling categories for environmentalbehaviour questions were never, rarely, sometimes, often and very often. However, ‘not applicable’ was provided for those who might not consider conducting that particular behaviour.
Should governments be concerned about immigrants on environmen- tal grounds? On the one hand, immigrants are typically considered as a burden in most aspects by the host country. On the other hand, the New Environmental Paradigm hypothesis claims that environmental atti- tudes are a worldwide phenomenon. Hence, individuals across the world would display similar environmentalbehaviour and such concern should not prevail. This chapter analyzes a sample of the World Values Survey dataset to show that, despite there are substantial behavioural dierences between immigrants and native-born regarding pro-environmental action, the perception of immigrants as an environmental burden is misplaced. In particular, while neither native-born nor immigrants are more willing to sacrice money to save the environment, immigrants actually engage more on activities like choosing products that are better for the envi- ronment, recycling, and reducing water consumption. The engagement in pro-environmentalbehaviour of immigrants is region-specic and depends on their source region. Moreover, such relatively higher actual engage- ment in environmentally friendly behaviours can be explained by their high socio-economic status and their high education level, i.e. selective immigration. When the behaviour of immigrants by their length of resi- dence in the host country is analyzed, no dierences in pro-environmental attitudes or pro-environmentalbehaviour are found, a result which sug- gests they do not develop a sense of belongingness to the host country. Finally, in line with the standard nding in the literature of acculturation in environmentalbehaviour, this chapter nds that immigrants conform through time to some of the pro-environmental actions of native-born.