The recent approach that emerges from the concept of authenticity in the development of ESP is that of Communicative Approach. The first generation of ESP materials that appeared in the mid-1960s took skills as their principal means of selection, arguing that ESP teaching materials. The definition of skill is somewhat broad, establishing little more than the ranking of the four usual language skills of Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking (LSRW). Almost all materials course of collection of specialist texts with accompanying comprehension and language exercises. As R.A. Close (1972) rightly argues that the conception of authenticity is central to the approach taken to develop language skills.
The number of singletons generated by D2_cluster is 7006, while new program generates 6531. The largest cluster defined by D2_cluster has 56 ESTs. However, after the following cluster assembly stage some of the initial EST matches are not confirmed and this cluster is split into smaller sub-clusters defined as producing a single contig. The largest cluster after assembly counts not more then 20 members. Three largest clusters produced by CLU have 66, 69 and 123 members confirmed by alignment resulting in a continuous consensus sequence. Overall CLU produces results with a very similar cluster size distribution (see Fig- ure 8). The difference is mainly on the extreme ends of the distribution because CLU tends to produce more clusters, clusters of bigger size and leaves fewer singletons. A quick comparison of the cluster contents shows that CLU is more sensitive, especially on shorter sequences. The results of such comparison are shown in Table 1. The first 10 clusters are picked by their numbers as they appear in the D2_cluster output. In both cases of disagreement between D2_cluster and CLU results all ESTs are longer than 100 base pairs (default frame length parameter in D2_cluster), but sequences missed by D2_cluster are shorter than the others in the same cluster.
In this study, Epi-sp mutant shows low levels of DNA CG and CHG methylation in the TTR of ESP gene (Fig. 3b), causing ectopic ESP expression (Fig. 2b) and a dense and short panicle architecture in rice (Fig. 1). It is important to point out that, although the mechanism for the spontaneous hypomethylation of ESP TTR remains unknown, the TTR of ESP gene displays the characteristic of CpG island (Additional file 1: Figure S4). Since there is no CHH methylation in the TTR of ESP (Fig. 3b), CG and CHG hypermethylation in this region is likely not established by the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Consequently, hypomethylation of this region in the Epi-sp mutant is probably not due to loss of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Due to the mechanis- tic nature of maintenance methyltransferases, TTR hypomethylation is also likely not established by lack of OsMET1 and OsCMT3 activities in a locus-specific manner. Therefore, we speculate the epiallele is pro- bably induced by some sort of aberrant active DNA demethylation activity.
R´ esum´ e Cette communication a pour but de proposer une g´en´eralisation de la notion de d´eriv´ee tradition- nelle afin d’inclure les d´eriv´ees fractionnaires comme celles de Riemann-Liouville, Gruenwald-Letnikov, Weyl, Riesz, Caputo, Marchaud et d’autres variantes comme cas particuliers. Nous le d´emontrons de mani`ere ex- plicite pour la d´eriv´ee de Marchaud. Afin de d´efinir cette notion il convient d’employer le calcul d’op´erateurs lin´eaires. La notion de d´eriv´ee g´en´eralis´ee est susceptible non seulement de reproduire les d´eriv´ees et int´egrales traditionelles et fractionnaires mais aussi de d´efinir de nouvelles esp`eces de “d´eriv´ees” qui peuvent ˆetre utiles pour traiter certains probl`emes de m´ecanique en milieux sans echelles internes (fractals) .
80 ans, ce qui lui donne de bonnes chances de vivre plus de 5 ans. Vous décidez d’inviter Jacques pour parler plus longuement des bénéfices et préjudices potentiels liés à la poursuite du dépistage par test TFI. Un test de dépistage par recherche de sang occulte dans les selles peut réduire de façon minime le risque de décès par cancer colorectal pour les hommes de son âge (de 18 à 17 décès par 1000 hommes). Il saisit maintenant que l’ampleur des bénéfices possibles liés au dépistage est très minime, et cela avec un délai de 10 ans, ce qui dépasse son espérance de vie estimée.
Furthermore, ESP teachers should not only teach technical vocabulary but should also check if the learners understand it. ESP is seen as an approach rather than a product, by which is meant that ESP does not involve a particular kind of language, teaching material or methodology (Dudley-Evans and St John1998). So ESP teaching procedures mostly depends the learners situations, needs, the language required and the learning context, and thus establishes the primacy of need. Need is defined by the reasons for which the student is learning English. Therefore, ELT teachers who teach ESP courses should be familiar with the vocabulary of the field of study and collaborate with major departments in order to design syllabi that integrate both content of specialization subject and English language.
According to Ferguson (1997), the lack of substantive knowledge should not affect the motivation and self-esteem of the teacher. He states that the ESP teacher should primarily act as an “expert in the field of language, not in the subject area”. Researchers also point out a disproportionately large number of roles required from ESP practitioners in the teaching process. One of the most known ESP theorists Dudley-Evans & St John (1998) introduces the term "ESP practitioner" (a specialist combining five roles):1) teacher, 2) employee, 3) course and educational materials developer, 4) researcher, 5) specialist evaluating acquired knowledge. The ESP teacher not only directly conducts a foreign language course for special purposes, he or she is involved in the development of course design, selection and adaptation of methodological content, is engaged in the design of educational materials, evaluation of the acquired knowledge, cooperation with teachers leading the subject courses. Under these circumstances, the task of any ESP practitioner becomes extremely difficult.
En un sistema con ASLR activo el valor del registro ESP var´ıa a cada ejecuci´on, lo que quiere decir que la pila ocupa posiciones distintas de memoria a cada ejecuci´on. Podemos comprobarlo mediante el siguiente c´ odigo en C que imprime por la salida est´andar el valor del registro ESP y que he sacado del documento Introducci´ on a la explotaci´ on de software en sistemas Linux, por NewLog.
The SNOW-17 model is used operationally within the NWS- RFS and is the snow model used in operational ESP fore- casts. SNOW-17 is a temperature index model that estimates simplified vertical snow processes (Anderson, 1973). The main processes simulated by SNOW-17 include: form of pre- cipitation (snow or rain), accumulation of snow cover, en- ergy exchange at the snow-air interface, internal states of snow cover (temperature, liquid/frozen water content, den- sity, etc.), transmission of liquid water through the snowpack, and heat transfer at the soil-air interface. With six-hourly in- puts of precipitation and air temperature, the model predicts the amount of snow accumulation and melt that occur. In order to account for spatial and elevation heterogeneities of snow, the model is run for two or three separate elevation bands for each sub-basin. Historical forcing data and model parameters for each basin elevation band were provided by the Colorado River Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). In the data assimilation portion of this study, the precipita- tion is assumed to have a log-normal error standard deviation equal to 25 % of the precipitation value and the temperature
soils in Iran. Thus, soil SAR can be used to approximate or estimate soil ESP. For this reason, many attempts have been made to predict soil ESP from soil SAR. The specific objective of this study was to determine a linear regression model of soil exchangeable sodium percentage and soil sodium adsorption in some salt- affected soils of Marvdasht plain, Iran.
The data of the study were collected through two different ways: a questionnaire, and class observation. The questionnaire was designed to obtain preliminary data on teachers’ reactions towards locally administered ESP tests, their perceptions and understanding of the examination and what they would like to do to prepare their students for the examination. The first part of the questionnaire was designed in such a way that teachers first responded to particular questions related to their language proficiency, their teaching experience, and their major. The second part of the questionnaire was designed on a five-point Likert scale which invited teachers to comment on their present teaching situation such as teachers’ teaching arrangements, the choice of textbooks and the teaching methods they employ in their schools, their perception of ESP tests, and their teaching activities to prepare the students for the entrance ESP examination to master and doctoral education. The third part of the instrument consists of two open ended questions eliciting the teachers' perceptions of negative and positive washback effects of the intended tests. The construct validity of this questionnaire was estimated through running factor analysis using SPSS software version 13. Factor analysis yielded seven factors. The internal consistency for six different variables and the whole questionnaire was also calculated. The reliability indices for different variables and the whole instrument were acceptable.
least disturbance in the band 1 frequency range, whereas the rightmost bar shows the effect size for the 10% of trials with the most pulsation activity in this band. Figure 2 reveals a striking pattern: virtually all of the ESP effect is attributable to trials conducted during the top half of band 1 power. This pattern is also present to a lesser degree for band 2, but note that these patterns are not independent, because the power within each band is correlated with that of neighboring bands (see Table 4). Spearman’s rank order correlation between ESP effect size and band 1 power is 0.28 (p ¼ 0.0059, 2-tailed). However, as I will present an effect size bar chart for each of the five bands, in order to accurately gauge the true significance it is necessary to correct for these multiple analyses. To this end, I performed a Monte Carlo simulation, wherein for each of 10,000 runs, the ESP trial results were randomly redistributed and the correlation between ESP effect size and power in bands 1–5 recalculated. 250 runs resulted in a positive or negative rank order correlation for one or more of the bands that was more unlikely (assuming the null hypothesis) than the actual band 1 finding, thereby yielding a significance estimate of p ¼ 0.025.
68 referred to when it was still an unpublished MSc. dissertation (Hattam, 2002); none of these papers was evaluated, because they were all retrieved after the study’s publication date. The authors identified 152 papers that met their search inclusion and exclusion criteria. These criteria were identical to the McPherson et al. (2006) review; in other words, there had to be an example of role enhancement, role substitution, or another form of extended-scope physiotherapy practice; moreover, the studies had to include a measure of the impact of ESPs on patients, health-care professionals, and services. Papers not meeting these criteria were still included for descriptive purposes but only those meeting the criteria proceeded to quality screening, which was performed using recognized guidelines (CRD, 2007; SPH, 2011); seven studies passed these quality checks. Not surprisingly, these were the same seven studies identified in the earlier review by McPherson et al. (2006). They also arranged all 152 papers into six categories, using a system that seemed to have been determined by the authors themselves. The categories ranged from A (evidence was present, even if it was limited, supporting the ESP role) to F (largely descriptive in nature, with authors expressing concerns about ESP role). No papers included data which did not support ESPs (category C), and no papers fell into category F. The majority of studies (89%) originated in the UK (n=135) and 66% of studies (n=100) concerned MSK ESP roles. The authors concluded that there was a preponderance of support for extended-scope physiotherapy in the literature but that very little of it came from robust research evidence. They highlighted the apparent void in training and education for ESPs, and proposed that they should undertake formalized training. They also cited the image-reporting course for reporting radiographers as an exemplary training model, and a course taken by paramedics to enable them to perform thrombolysis (Pedley et al., 2003). In short, this 2007 systematic review added little new information about ESP practice.
An instance of this are ESP courses designed for Higher Education Programs, such as Business English, Law English, English for Tourism and Hospitality and many other specific study disciplines should be designed based on specific objectives for homogenous groups of students. Based on this issue Robinson (1991) made an important distinction between students of ESP Courses. “Some are newcomers to their field of work or study who need instruction in the concepts and practices of that field and others are already expert and experienced, but require operational ESP materials and skills, where the instruction and training are taken for granted, and where it is the ability to function in English which is being imparted.” Whereas, in Kosovo, faculties of BA (Bachelor) study program, have students that their level of English differs from beginners to advance. Hence, there are newcomers and also experienced students of General English. Facing this fact, designing an ESP course for these students need to be specific having in mind clear objectives as well as learning expectations.
It should become the primary responsibility of the translators of EST to correctly convey the information of the source text and set faithfulness as the highest principle of sci-tech transla- tion In EST translation, the translator often locks some special language structures, reserves the language characteristics of the source text and follows the fixed expression. Although some- times this kind of expression sounds awkward with strong for- eign flavor, it is a kind of inevitable foreignization, which is just a reflection of thinking of the reception of the author. The language structures needing to be locked by the translator in his translation mainly are some technical terms which have fixed translation. The translator cannot translate them at his will but look up relative technical dictionary and follow suit.
Abstract. We formally define the primitive of encryption switching protocol (ESP), allowing to switch between two encryption schemes. Intuitively, this two-party protocol converts given ciphertexts from one scheme into ciphertexts of the same messages under the other scheme, for any polynomial number of switches, in any direction. Although ESP is a special kind of two-party computation protocol, it turns out that ESP implies general two-party computation (2-PC) under natural conditions. In particular, our new paradigm is tailored to the evaluation of functions over rings. Indeed, assuming the compatibility of two additively and multiplicatively homomorphic encryption schemes, switching ciphertexts makes it possible to efficiently reconcile the two internal laws. Since no such pair of public-key encryption schemes appeared in the literature, except for the non-interactive case of fully homomorphic encryption which still remains prohibitive in practice, we build the first multiplicatively homomorphic ElGamal-like encryption scheme over ( Z n , ×) as a complement to the Paillier encryption scheme over ( Z n , +), where n is a strong