The aim of our research was to set up and validate a risk assessment approach for organizations from the perspective of the knowledge life cycle and the knowledge management system. The MARJETKA approach assesses risks related to explicit and tacitknowledge within the organization. Some limitations of the present research should also be noted. First, the case studies were limited to only 10 cases. Second, the selected case studies were concentrated in one country (Slovenia). Third, the initial risk rating is based on the subjective identification of knowledge threats and risks. Whilst these ratings are subjective, they probably represent the boundaries of this type or research. Although the MARJETKA approach was thus far only tried in 10 case studies, we demonstrated with a detailed discussion of two of those cases that it can be applied to, and is useful for, organizations of different sizes and types, whether commercial or in the public sector and therefor not-for-profit.
fication of knowledge as either explicit or tacit is one of two prominent classifications in the knowledge manage- ment literature (Table 1 provides a brief overview of dif- ferent classifications of knowledge creation efforts ). Explicitknowledge is codified and documented, and its transfer can take place in impersonal ways—for in- stance, through written instructions and diagrams. Tacitknowledge is knowledge that is difficult to articulate, especially in terms of cause-effect relationships. It is context-specific, and is transferred mainly through social interactions . Language is an excellent example of tacitknowledge: native speakers of a language are often unable to articulate the grammatical and syntactic rules governing it. Tacitknowledge contributes to the “sticki- ness” of information required for problem-solving, mak- ing it difficult for others to gather, transfer, and utilize. The difficult-to-codify nature of tacitknowledge con- tributes to difficult-to-imitate capabilities that may pro- vide competitive advantage to the organization. Success of process improvement projects depends on the capture of both explicit and tacit types of knowledge [10,11]. 2.3. Knowledge Enabling Software Process
Biggs, 2007, pp. 1-3). However, the potential of collaboration between the arts and sciences in terms of research and knowledge production has been explored repeatedly (cf. Caduff, Siegenthaler, & Wälchli, 2009; Stemmler, 2014; Tröndle & Warmers, 2012). Putting aside the differences and looking at their similarities, one can say that scientific and artistic practices share epistemic potential in that they challenge common assumptions, question installed systems, and criticize fixed patterns of thinking. Against this background, it is not surprising that both fields are interested in discovering each other’s methods and topics in collaborative research projects (see e.g., Holert, 2011; Sheikh, 2006; 2009; Steyerl, 2010, which discuss the potential risk of exploiting the arts for the knowledge society’s economic and aesthetic purposes). Due to their interdisciplinary nature, artistic research projects are inherently reflexive. The integrative use of artistic and scientific practices demands a high level of communication in order to translate between the disciplines, discuss different perspectives, and develop a common vocabulary necessary for joint work (see also Tröndle et al., 2011). One can therefore assume that artists, designers, and scientists involved in such projects are used to explaining their practices and knowledge to lay people. Additionally, the notion of design is increasingly used in artistic research contexts, and design as a discipline has been investigated for its epistemic potential in parallel (cf. Cross, 2006; for a historical overview see Mareis, 2014). Consequently, projects in the field of artistic research provide an excellent environment to conduct ethnographic field research on the interplay of explicit and tacitknowledge in artistic and design processes.
[8, 9] argued that, the knowledge evaluation is the process of ensure the efficiency of explicit and tacitknowledge updating to support the dynamic changes of working environments and businesses strategies. The businesses strategies are changes frequently to provide the competitive advantages of organization services and products over other organizations in same field. Thus, both tacit and explicitknowledge could be developed usefully based on the organization strategies. However, the explicitknowledge is the main source of tacitknowledge developed development. The retrieved knowledge need to be evaluated to satisfy the employees’ tacit levels and the tacit need to be evaluated to retrieve efficient explicitknowledge.
lack of motivation is considered as another important barriers against CKM . This is due to the fact that knowledge management is a human based activity, so individual motivation plays an important role in sharing explicit and tacitknowledge between customers and employees and between employees. Motivation includes the identification of incentives and customer rights. From the company`s point of view, firms must develop the capacities to identify, absorb, share and deploy valuable customer knowledge. Peng, et al.  argue that lack of motivation in the service employees is one of the barriers of absorbing customer knowledge. Lorenzo-Romero, et al.  mentioned four benefits that motivate individual for customer knowledge creation and sharing. The first benefit called learning benefits are related to the acquisition of knowledge and gaining an understanding of the environment. The second advantage known as social integrative benefits are related to intensifying consumer ties with relevant others. The third benefit referred as personal integrative benefits are associated with strengthening the customers’ own status and self- confidence, and finally the fourth benefit called
information systems that support KM activities . To understand the concept of KM, the definition of knowledge is necessary. Although there is no fixed definition of Knowledge, the general definition is a combination of experience; values and expert insight that assist evaluate and incorporate new experience and information .Generally knowledge is divided into two types: explicit and tacitknowledge. Explicitknowledge is experience and skills, which are easy to be captured, retrieved, shared and used because it can be expressed in words and numbers that can be managed more easily. Tacitknowledge is defined as knowledge that resides in the people’s mind that includes experience, thinking, competence, commitment and deed  .Tacitknowledge is the most valuable knowledge since it combines information with experiences, skills and understanding of people, which can help people to find best solutions and reduce opportunities of repeating mistakes . It is important to distinguish these types of knowledge because the goal of KM is to convert tacitknowledge to explicitknowledge . (KM) is considered as one of the most important parts of any organization and a complement to the organization activities. Previous studies have identified various KM processes. For example,  identified key processes of KM such as finding existing knowledge, creating new knowledge, packaging knowledge created, and externally using existing knowledge.  Identified KM processes as acquisition, identification, dissemination, and application. Thus, information systems designed for support and augmentation of KM need to complement and enhance the KM activities in organisations. Many industries with KM initiatives rely on IT as an important enabler. Companies like Hewlett Packard, Dell, and Siemens use IT in various ways to aid their KM activities. For example, they use IT for finding an expert or a recorded source of knowledge using online directories and searching databases, access to information pass projects. Although IT has been demonstrated to aid KM activities in business industries, there is a lack of empirical study on how IT supports KM activities in higher learning institution.  Conducted a study on the role of IT to support KM in higher education without providing empirical data. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the role of IT to support KM processes in higher education by conducting an empirical study on one higher education in Malaysia. We investigated the current situations of KM processes and the real status of IT system that support these processes.
Process analysis on the process of the planning approval reveals some important issues that restrain the operation and planning in terms of cost and time of the projects. Conventional methods of transferring information and resolving problems among existing parties have resulted in poor communication. While some explicit and tacitknowledge are left without being fully utilised within the individuals in the projects. The existing process does not truly encourage the sharing of knowledge among the parties or reusing it for future projects. Instead, it produces considerably static information that not only lacks flexibility in providing useful information for monitoring the planning approval procedures but also does not generate vital analysis for future reference.
Explicit and tacitknowledge measurement is important to share accurate explicitknowledge according to levels of tacitknowledge within the context of organizations activities. Sharing the right knowledge to the right employee can increase the performance of the working tasks; eventually this will increase the overall performance of the organization. There are different methods that are proposed to measure the explicitknowledge accuracy and tacitknowledge levels. This paper proposed a novel approach to measure the tacit and explicitknowledge in order to improve sharing the knowledge adaptively. A knowledge retrieving and designing method is developed in order to retrieve more focused and valuable explicitknowledge to support the tacitknowledge based on internal contents evaluation rather than general knowledge evaluation. The proposed knowledge aggregation method focuses on retrieving the exact knowledge by managing, designing, and retrieving the explicitknowledge based on knowledge contents level.
'Knowledge creation is a spiraling process of interactions between explicit and tacitknowledge.' The interactions between these kinds of knowledge lead to the creation of new knowledge. The SECI model serves only as an outline for 'knowledge creation and the idea of elf- transcendence is quite abstrct.
With regards to HEIs, this phase includes acquiring knowledge from various explicitknowledge mediums such as books, journals, and knowledge based materials. Subsequently, the acquired knowledge is adopted and adapted to fit into the practices and actions in the university working environment. For instance, feedback from students at the end of semesters are taken into consideration as a form of evaluation in order to scrutinize a lecturer’s performance. Consequently, this method of evaluation will contribute to an increase in productivity which enriches their current tacitknowledge level and effectiveness of the teacher’s teaching performance in the following semesters. On the other hand, the administrator’s staff will be exposed to experiential learning which can be cultivated through hands-on experiences. For instance, training programmes provide relevant and in-depth exposure which can assist administrators in aligning their preparations to support university policies, required services and strategies.
 introduced four modes of knowledge creation called SECI model consisting of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization that involved interaction and transaction of tacitknowledge and explicitknowledge. Socialization is the process of transferring experience or tacitknowledge through social interactions such as informal meeting, conversation, and living together. Socialization is a process of sharing experiences and thereby creating tacitknowledge such as shared mental models and technical skills . Externalization means the process of articulating tacitknowledge into written form or explicitknowledge so that it can be shared by others and become the basis of new knowledge. Combination refers to the process of converting explicitknowledge that is inconsistent into a more complex and systematic sets of explicitknowledge. During internalization process, the experiences from previous stages will be converted into valuable knowledge for individual and organization. The spiral indicates the spread of knowledge among individuals or community. The knowledge will be enriching by others and the new knowledge generation will begin dynamically.  mentioned, a self-generating loop of knowledge dynamics needs continuous flows of knowledge among the individuals.
In today’s challenging economy and cut-throat competitive environment, creating and maintaining a culture of knowledge management system by HR is really very essential for competitive advantage. Successful organization’s really focus on education, learning, intellectual growth of their employee’s and to prepare them to contribute to the society and to their organizations. As knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, capturing, retrieving, sharing, and evaluating an enterprise’s information assets. HR as a knowledge facilitator mainly emphasizes on efficient and effective utilization of all the available organizational resources to attain positive and desirable outcomes and act as a rapid deployment specialist. While writing and presenting this paper I will be mainly covering the various aspects of HR as a knowledge facilitator mainly explicitknowledge , tacitknowledge , the purpose of HR as a knowledge facilitator and creating a culture of knowledge management system in an organization; Knowledge Management as a change and renewal mechanism; Knowledge Management and Information technology; Effective knowledge management and increased job satisfaction and productivity; Knowledge management and creative talent retention strategies; Knowledge management as one of the best practices to avoid lay-offs; knowledge management and talent retention, curb health related costs and boost financial literacy; Knowledge Management and Leadership development.
It’s relatively easier to put technology and processes in place, but a herculean task when comes to people. The human asset of an organisation has tremendous implicit tacitknowledge which needs to be converted into explicitknowledge in order to create a win - win situation. Both knowledge sharing as well as reuse needs to be encouraged and recognized. This article emphasizes the need for knowledge management in higher educational institutions and highlights the benefits reaped by implementing knowledge management. The researcher has proposed a conceptual framework for creation, acquisition, refinement, memory, sharing, utilization, performance and reviewing of the knowledge in an educational institution.
Furthermore, practitioners in public healthcare services work in a complex environment, where formal research lit- erature cannot be accessed. In these environments, tacitknowledge can help in the understanding of explicitknowledge (12) and can complement technical skills for health care delivery (13). Research results have also con- firmed that health practitioners lay more emphasis on tacitknowledge while tackling health problems (14, 15). Studies have also reported the crucial role of tacitknowledge in team-based practice (12, 16, 17) and collective decision- making (16). The importance of strengthening teamwork interactions and discussions for collective decision- making is inevitable for organizations in developing countries, where organizational members may be reluctant to collab- orate or share information with others to maintain their dominant position or to be acknowledged by their superi- ors. This spirit is damaging to group cohesiveness (18). Thus, providing a framework for sharing tacitknowledge and improving the knowledge creation cycle is highly im- portant for tacit and explicitknowledge conversion pro- cesses and for promoting collective decision- making. To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the methods of utilizing tacitknowledge in health organiza- tions in these countries. Therefore, this study explored the solutions to share and utilize tacitknowledge in health or- ganizations.
Knowledge acquisition. Since the problem studied in this paper is the know- ledge acquisition in the context of Chinese government, the measurement of knowledge acquisition is adjusted in this study. We draw on previous scholars’ research (Norman, 2004), the measurement items of explicitknowledge acquisi- tion include: (1) The organization obtains relevant information about the system of organization and archives of the department; (2) The organization obtains information about the work steps and the process from the members of the de- partment; (3) The organization can get specific measures from the members of the department; (4) The organization can get specific content of organization for organization service from members of the department. The measurement items of tacitknowledge acquisition include: (1) The organization can get new skills about development and use of new service from members of the department; (2) The organization can get new skills about management from members of the department; (3) The organization internalize the organizational culture from members of the department; (4) The organization department can obtain service problem skills from members of the department.
Scharmer (2000 )argues that there are three types of knowledge, explicit, tacit and self- transcending knowledge. Gore and Gore (1999) divided knowledge into three types, truly tacitknowledge, technical tacitknowledge and cognitive tacitknowledge. For Spender (1994) knowledge can be classify into four types, individual tacitknowledge, individual explicitknowledge, explicit collective knowledge and collective tacitknowledge. Architectural and component knowledge are two types of knowledge, according to Henderson and Clark (1990). Stewart (1997) views knowledge to be cognitive knowledge, advance skills and self- motivated creativity. Nickols in Gourlay (2001 ) divided knowledge into implicit knowledge, declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Goal-setting/Idealistic knowledge, pragmatic knowledge, systematic knowledge and automatic knowledge are the categories of knowledge by Wiig (1993). Edvinsson and Malone(1997) have product knowledge, process knowledge and routine knowledge. Lundvall and Johnson(2002) have four categories of knowledge, know-what, know-how, know-why and know-who. Baumard (1999) have implicit and tacitknowledge.
KB sessions could be formal or informal depending on the type of knowledge that needs to be transferred. There are two types of knowledge: Explicitknowledge and Tacitknowledge. Explicitknowledge emphasizes on creating, recording and reusing documented knowledge. Several technologies are used to facilitate such knowledge, such as, Content management systems, lessons learnt databases, Wikis, etc. Tacitknowledge on the other hand, emphasizes on knowledge sharing using interpersonal interaction and face-to-face contacts. Social events such as, group meeting, communities of practice, events, seminars, asking experts, peer’s assist, etc., facilitate sharing such knowledge. Informal meetings are usually used to transfer tacitknowledge while formal meetings usually transfer explicit type of knowledge.
Based on this understanding of organisations and dynamic environment, Grant (1996) proposed a knowledge-based theory of strategy. As Grant (1996) asserts, the source of competitive advantage in dynamic environments is not knowledge that is proprietary to the organisation, because the value of such knowledge erodes quickly due to obsolescence and imitation. Rather, sustained competitive advantage is determined by non-proprietary knowledge in the form of tacit individual knowledge. Tacitknowledge can form the basis of competitive advantage because it is both unique and relatively immobile. The distinction between tacit and explicitknowledge has proven to be particularly important in this dominant view, which identifies tacitknowledge as the most significant strategic resource of firms. Yet, because that knowledge is possessed by individuals and not the organisation, a critical element of sustained competitive advantage is the ability to integrate the specialised and tacitknowledge of individuals. In addition, Grant (1996) makes the point, also emphasised by other scholars (Kogut and Zander 1996; Kogut 2000), that tacitknowledge can also be integrated externally through relational networks that span organisational boundaries, especially in high-velocity environments, where the speed and scope of knowledge integration are paramount for sustaining competitive advantage. Overall, Grant’s approach extends the dynamic capabilities view of strategy (Teece et al 1997) and can be considered an outgrowth of resource based thinking. As such, this highlights the importance of tacitknowledge towards organisational performance when integrated and managed properly. The following section further outlines the significance of tacitknowledge by highlighting the reasons for its strategic nature.
hierarchy and when one moves from domain knowledge to project knowledge the concentration on knowledge too moves from explicit to tacit nature, which further highlights the knowledge worker concept in construction. Stahle’s suggestion indicates both the management and the production of the knowledge. In a similar sense Moodley et. al (2001) contends that the tacitknowledge is developed through the individual or project teams, while the explicitknowledge is created through process, procedures and other routines that can be codified. What ever the classification, tacitknowledge of the workers has been clearly highlighted in many research carried out in the construction industry. A research carried out within structural design firms (Al-Ghassani, 2003) showed that about 80% of knowledge used during concept design stage is tacit compared to about 20% of explicitknowledge. As such, managing tacitknowledge more effectively offers construction organisations a possible mechanism for improving their performance in times of greater competition. This stresses the importance of tacitknowledge in construction and succeeding section explores the possible relationship to performance when tacitknowledge is managed effectively.
practice at the occupational level (Lave & Wenger (1991), Brown & Duguid (1998)). Individual employees learn and gain experiences while on the job or from job related trainings imparted to them to acquire new skills and expertise. The knowledge comes in two forms; tacit and explicit. One form of knowledge widely discussed in the literature of OL is tacitknowledge. The concept of tacitknowledge was conceived by Polanyi (1966) who also laid the theoretical foundation of this notion (Taylor, 2007). According to Polanyi, this form of knowledge pertains to our internalization of experiences which builds intrinsic conception of the task that we perform, as Polanyi held the view that; “we can know more than we can tell.” In other words, consider an example of learning mathematics, which is cognitively demanding task. We all learn mathematics, but very few of us really excel. Also, consider the complex skills of a car driver where one may be able to distinguish between the “knowledge that a driver uses (common) and the knowledge that she has developed over the years (specific skills)”. She can explain or teach new learners how to drive a car but she perhaps cannot explicitly “transfer” her complete knowledge about her experiences of how to “excel” in driving which she has gained over the years as a driver. This learned formed of tacitknowledge acquired over the years also helps to develop intuition — an abstract perception of dealing with unfamiliar contexts. Some skill sets are developed just by watching others perform, while some other skill sets are acquired by continued practice and experience. Hence, this form of knowledge is important, and KM specifically attempts to codify “learned autonomic experiences” into coded information (explicit form) so that it can be transferred and reused by others. This explicit form of knowledge as often referred by Spender (1996) as Conscious knowledge is storable and retrievable from personal records or memory (Riege, 2005). A review of the term tacitknowledge in the literature of KM points to several important works by Nonaka (1994), and Taylor (2007). Tacitknowledge is defined as that knowledge which is highly situated, difficult to extract and codify into its counterpart — explicitknowledge, which is direct, comprehensible, and easily codified to enable its internalization. The role of KM is to codify (externalize) tacitknowledge into its more explicit form.