Besides uncertainty, also expectations influence the state of trust. Trust means that one has positive expectations regarding the other’s actions. In shallow relationships (i.e., external stakeholders), expectations are more biased and less clearly communicated. In contrast, in deep relationships (i.e., internal stakeholders), expectations are more clearly communicated due to the amount of contact and the quality of the conversations. The discounting hypothesis explains that expectations must be met; otherwise, readers will lose their positive expectations; this decline in positive expectation results in less trust (Allen 1991;Lewicki & Wiethoff, 2000; Möllering, 2005; Yaniv & Kleinberger, 2000). For external stakeholders these expectations are more biased and therefore more complicated to meet than for internal stakeholders. Therefore, the following hypothesis is presented:
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In 2002, the Higher Learning Commission, a regional accrediting agency in the US, placed the community college in this study on academic probation for several criteria and many residents of the community believed that closing doors was the best option for addressing these concerns. This study is designed to ascertain data from external stakeholders of the community college regarding their current perceived value of the community college and suggestions about moving from the present to the future. The main question of the study is: What are external stakeholders’ perceptions of the value of the college to the service area? This qualitative approach is used consisting of interviews, focus groups, surveys, and document review to triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Participants included 176 high school seniors from different counties, four counselors, and four focus groups. The findings from the data are presented in this study are planned to be used by community college officials to incorporate into their strategic plans. They showed that the college needs to consider the value that it brings to the service area including economic benefits, specifically community support; accessibility; and cost of tuition.
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According to Krokké (2011), who researched the emergence of resistance after a CVI change among internal stakeholders, other factors are also important. For example the high costs connected to a change. The process of CVI change is a demanding operation in terms of money and effort (Bolhuis, De Jong, & Van den Bosch, 2015). Krokké states that the resistance around the cost of logo change is mainly the results of ignorance about all that has to be done for a CVI change. The costs can cause negative reactions because a CVI change is often the result of an organizational change in which costs should be saved. In such a situation, investing money to create a new CVI can lead to resistance. Nonprofit organizations additionally have the factor taxes waging in (Krokké, 2011). This makes people react extremely critical when it comes to the costs of a logo change.
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Professional medical colleges and associations have an important role to play in defining the line between profes- sional obligation and aspiration. Yet this is increasingly difficult in a rapidly changing environment. Traditionally, their roles have been to "perfect and protect the profes- sion" . However, competing economic, commercial and political agendas complicate this work. Armstrong  suggests that we are now seeing the "rise of an admin- istrative elite, often grouped around the academy and pro- fessional colleges" who are balancing tensions between a wider community of external stakeholders on one hand and the interests of their members on the other. The con- cern of external stakeholders may be in mobilizing the credibility and expertise of the profession in collective activity on public health issues, while members are also concerned with the economic viability and autonomy of their practice.
The starting point of the project initiation phase should be the definition of the problem or opportunity the project is meant to address. Infrastructure projects should be aimed at addressing problems - and these problems will be faced by all society including external stakeholders. When the process of defining and agreeing the problem involves external stakeholders, the project that is initiated to address the problem is likely to be supported by external stakeholders. In practice, stakeholder identification and project initiation do not appear to be harmonised - and this tends to limit project success in infrastructure projects. It is the authors' contention that harmonisation of stakeholder identification and project initiation can be addressed by minimising the time lag between the start of the initiation phase and stakeholder identification process. Therefore, the aim of the work reported in this paper was to explore the timing between external stakeholder identification and project initiation processes during the initiation phase of civil engineering infrastructure projects with a view of proposing future work in this important area.
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If external stakeholders have a negative image and reputation regarding a non-profit organisation, the relationships between the organisation and its external stakeholders will be affected because it is unlikely that the two parties will work collaboratively. Donations, volunteering and partnership opportunities may suffer. This can be evidenced from the decline of student enrolments at Catholic Schools and donations to Faith Groups both in Australia and overseas as a result of allegations of mishandling of sexual abuse cases in the Catholic Church (Feminist Majority Foundation, 2003). Due to their historical notion and external nature, reputation and image are difficult to control. In addition, image can be fashioned quickly and may change frequently through various marketing activities, while it takes more time to build a sound reputation, non-profit organisations must strategically promote their image and protect their reputation simultaneously. Although non-profit organisations can invest resources into public relations activities through various methods such as newspapers, television and other public venues to attract publicity (Wuthnow, 1998), there are also suggestions that non-profit marketing activities such as direct mails and emails are intrusive (Bennett and Barkensjo, 2005). External stakeholders are becoming weary with being deluged with marketing appeals, campaigns and communications (Crosby, 2002). This suggests that relationship management activities need to be strategically formulated and the activities that focus on mainly publicity rather than the promotion of image and reputation are likely less effective in non-profit organisations. In other words, image and reputation must be placed at the centre of all relationship management activities. Image and reputation can assist to build relationships between a non-profit organisation and its stakeholders and that relationships should be long-term rather than short-term. For instance, stakeholders may discontinue relationships with a non-profit organisation with reasons that are sometimes beyond the non-profit organisations’ control (Bussell and Forbes, 2006). However, this does not necessarily mean that the stakeholders are lost to the sector and thus non-profit organisations should search for ways to reactivating the stakeholder relationship at a later stage (Bussell and Forbes, 2006).
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Abstract: This paper presents the results of the content analysis of 139 Web of Science papers focused on collaborative innovation with external stakeholders of public administration, specifically on co-production and co-creation. The analysis included papers published between 2009 and 2018 and was based on a coding scheme consisting of 12 parameters grouped into four groups: paper descriptors, financial support of the research, methodological framework, and co-creation characteristics. The results reveal a considerable increase in researchers’ interest in co-production and co-creation in the context of public administration in the last few years. This is particularly the case in Northern and Western Europe, where Anglo-Saxon and Nordic administrative traditions dominate. Furthermore, the results show that co-creation is most often placed in the contexts of social policy and welfare, as well as health care. Over the selected period, research seldom addressed companies as a target group in the co-creation of public services—in comparison to citizens and internal users. More than three quarters of the papers observed were empirical and less than 20% were quantitative. In general, a lack of conceptual clarity was often identified through the interchangeable usage of the terms co-creation and co-creation and the low level of international comparison—the majority of the papers focused on case descriptions at a national level, even though collaborative innovation is strongly related to administrative traditions dominating in specific regions.
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The corporate image showed some similarities and discrepancies between the groups. A similarity between the students and the local community is that they perceive Moi University as an institution that is necessary for the survival of the people. According to them the university can provide them with a lot of daily needs. A similarity between all three groups is the fact that they all perceive Moi University as a strong institution that can make people stronger as well. Respondents from the organizations added that Moi University is quiet and does not associate itself so much with others. This relates to the perception of the students and local community members who agreed that the university is a place that is hard to approach and hard to get in to. So the general image about Moi University is that it is an institution necessary for the needs of many people. It is a strong institution that forms strong people. But it is also a quiet place in that in does not associate itself with many people and it is a place that is hard to approach and get in. In general the corporate reputation of Moi University is quite positive. The general view in most areas of the Reputation Quotient is that Moi University is performing quite well. The external stakeholders perceive it as one of the best universities in Kenya, but not yet as the best. Because there is not so much knowledge about Moi University, it will be hard for the university to distinct itself from the other universities in Kenya. But if Moi University wants to become a university of choice, it has to distinct itself and therefore has to expose itself more to its external stakeholders, especially the ones that are situated outside Eldoret and the ones that do not have close ties with the university but are potentially important. The corporate image of Moi University is dominated by the view that it is a strong institution that is potentially beneficial for many people. However, the visibility of Moi University is poor and this also goes for the openness and approachability. Based on these conclusions some recommendations will be discussed in chapter seven.
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Sustainability has been a pertinent concern in the past decades and the pressure of sustainability is mostly concentrated on business because of their activities’ impact on ecosphere, society and people. In response to this pressure businesses are progressively practising sustainability but the financial cost seems to outweigh its benefits.The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between environmental sustainability practice and financial performance of SMEs. This research adopted a survey research design, studying 98 SMEs in manufacturing and industry, business services and wholesale and retail sectors in Sussex, United Kingdom.Electronic, mail, hand-to-hand paper questionnaire were jointly used to gather data. Multiple regression, correlation analysis and descriptive statistics were the main analytical tools used. The analysis results indicates that profit is the best predictor of SMEs financial measurement, pollution prevention and control is positively and significantly related to profit and recycling is negatively and significantly related to profit. Size positively and significantly affects level of profit of sustainable SMEs. Communication to internal and external stakeholders evidently boosts SMEs profitability.Networking, stricter regulations, innovation, TQM, media use and consistency and persistency in sustainability practice can substantially yield concrete financial results for Small business should focus on pollution prevention and control to realise more profit and lobby government to subsidize recycling that takes a chunk of their profit.
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the customers as external stakeholders of a firm. According to the European Commission (2001), socially responsible companies should provide products and services in an efficient, ethical and environmentally friendly manner. Customers as an important external stakeholder group expect good quality products and services. In order to ensure that this has been achieved, there should be a good relationship between the company and customers which facilitates information sharing so that all their complaints, suggestions and proposals are all addressed. Also according to Longo et al. (2005), customers prefer products that are produced in compliance with the socially acceptable and responsible criteria. This means that corporate social responsibility activities influence the attitudes of customers towards the company as well as its products.
While there is much literature about the various forms of engagement as specified in the literature review that follows, there is no literature that provides a holistic engagement theory or model that examines all parts of the library’s stakeholder engagement strategy. A holistic engagement theory and model is important because it provides an understanding of how library directors, senior library managers, and academic librarians can ensure the library is continuously engaging with stakeholders. Moreover, this paper specifies how the library engages with various stakeholder groups such as academic staff and researchers, university administrators, and external stakeholders such as donors and benefactors. This paper is also unique in providing a visual theoretical model that reminds the library director of the need for a consistent approach to engagement with stakeholders. Another distinctive aspect of this paper is the exploration of the experiences of library directors and the comparisons and contrasts between United States state system universities and four types of publicly funded Australian universities.
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Overall, social network analysis visualizations should make the work of project managers easier, because the external stakeholders better understand their own relative position. However, stakeholders will choose their own strategy to reach their individual goals and serve their interests. Through all these strategies going on, managing the process will become increasingly harder for project managers. The more variety and interdependencies among stakeholders, the more complex and less transparent the social network will be. That makes it harder for the project manager to oversee the network and manage the process (de Bruijn & ten Heuvelhof, 2008). For example, if a social network consists of more stakeholders, it will be harder for project managers to calculate the central stakeholders or find out where the cliques are. Even more, the social network analysis grants project managers neither insight in the strategies of stakeholders, nor in the information stakeholders posses, but decide not to share. The work of the project managers becomes more difficult with increasing complexity of the social network, as it is harder to manage everything that is going on.
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Singapore’s government and industry, equally, have been in the search for productive efficiencies at the shop floor front hoping to harness increased firm-level productivity and innovation, if Singapore manufacturing firms have to face emerging challenges and succeed. SMEs are incentivized through generous government grants and schemes to allow for advancement from incremental innovation, the integration of manufacturing firms in global value chains, business model innovations, collaborative activities with external stakeholders and the timely uptake of new technologies. The policy objective is that this co-creation will deliver value to manufacturing sector in the form of innovative products and services, and help revive its share to national income.
This group defines the uncertainties of project complexities that is being noticed or faced by the contracted parties only after the contract has been signed . The uncertainties of a project normally happen due to the presence of unforeseen circumstances during the project life cycle. However, it can be controlled in the early stages with proper investigations and communications among the construction stakeholders. Unresolved project uncertainties may cause extension of time which directly can affect the cash flow. The sudden eruption of disputes due to miscommunication or relationships problem among the contracted parties are also one type of unexpected uncertainties that may occur during a construction project.
In order to test how the 3C-Tool performs in real-life projects, five different case studies from Indonesia are conducted. Stakeholder management in Indonesian projects are still overlooked since the majority of handling stakeholder conflict is through bribery and other related means. In 1998, a study suggested that 78% of Indonesian polled were certain that bribery was still necessary in dealing with government offices, as cited by Robertson-Snape (1999). The level of fraud in handling stakeholders depends on the complexity of the project (Server, 1996). Baccarini (1996) proposed the definition of project complexity as 'consisting of many varied interrelated parts' and can be operationalized in terms of differentiation (the number of varied elements) and interdependency (the degree of interrelatedness between elements). The complexity of the projects used in this case study is differentiated based on their administrative scale: one national, three regionals, and one local. The influence of stakeholders of each project also differs according to the scale of the project. Industries in which the case study are focussed on are also diverse, to gain a broader view of this research. The selected case studies are shown below in Table 1.
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Organization (WHO) on HTA and its key role in the promotion of evidence based policy- making, many countries such as Iran, which follow the health reforming program, pay a particular attention to HTA, the selection and application of appropriate technology within the framework of mana- gerial and political strategies and attempt to develop HTA through government support. In addition, the accurate identification of the current challenges and obstacles as well as their prioritization may lead to the ad- vancement of the health system reforms. Thus, studying the challenges of HTA not only helps planning the needed reforms, it can also bring about an efficient allocation of health technologies despite resource dis- tribution. For this purpose, such factors as health system management, stewardship, stakeholders, infrastructures, external pres- sures, lack of coordination at policy- mak- ing level, lack of a comprehensive system for decision- making in the health system, lack of legal support for HTA in the legal documentation of the national health sys- tem, insufficient resource allocation and lack of planning for academic training of the experts involved in the program were identified as the main obstacles and have been considered in the priorities of the pro- grams of the Department of Health Tech- nology Assessment. Although the men- tioned challenges were classified into two groups, stewardship and management, we attempted to study the challenges separate- ly regardless of their classification. In sup- porting the challenges investigated in this study, Palesh (2010) introduced lack of need assessment in the process of technolo-
directed water quality monitoring of Falls Lake. The agency used the collected data to develop watershed and lake models to determine the nutrient reduction needed in order to lower the chlorophyll a levels. NC DWQ staff completed watershed/lake modeling with input and review from the Technical Advisory Committee in November 2008 and February 2009. NC DWQ held a series of stakeholder and subcommittee meetings from 2008 to 2010 in order to develop the Falls Lake nutrient strategy. The stated purpose for including Falls Lake stakeholders in this process was to represent “a wide range of interests in developing a nutrient management strategy for the Falls Lake Watershed” (Falls Lake Stakeholder Project Online Wiki, 2010). NC DWQ is required by law to hold public hearings and solicit public comment after such rules are developed in draft form; there is no legal or departmental requirement to conduct a stakeholder process. NC DWQ partnered with TJCOG and the Upper Neuse River Basin Association (UNRBA) to design and conduct this process. TJCOG is one of 17 regional planning councils within North Carolina that the General Assembly established in 1972 to help local governments. TJCOG’s region includes Chatham, Durham, Johnston, Lee, Moore, Orange, and Wake Counties. UNRBA was formed in 1996 to provide “an ongoing forum for cooperation on water quality protection and water resource planning and management” for seven municipalities and six counties within the Neuse watershed (Upper Neuse River Basin Association, n.d.).
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When discussing these issues amongst ourselves, we—the authors—realised that, for us, this meant it was imperative that we learn to quickly become aware of the different priorities of our stakeholders. We need to take these differing priorities into account when we engage, establish collaborations, or prepare activities with any people or communities who might become our research stakeholders. If we fail to do this, our projects might be jeopardised from the start because practitioners are often unable to pursue sustainability goals when those goals are at odds with their everyday practice. As such, adapting to our stakeholders’ specific priorities and requirements will sometimes mean that sustainability has to take the backseat. And we need to get to a point where we are comfortable with that. Setting clear goals that are suitable for a project’s unique stakeholders can tremendously increase the acceptance and success rate of that project. What we can do as ICT4S researchers is add sustainability into the process such that the project’s primary and stakeholder-specific goals are reached in tandem with addressing issues of sustainability. This can be especially critical for stakeholders who do not share the same enthusiasm for sustainability—some of whom might prefer that we avoid using the word sustainability as much as possible over the course of the project.
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The CU offers a mixture of different methods of delivering its learning and development. These methods must include learning-by-doing, classroom learning, a skills laboratory and it should use e-learning to support and facilitate learning. It is important that e- learning is not used for all programs, but it has to be evaluated whether it is effective to use it. The methodologies that the CU offers are dependent on the cooperation it has with universities, colleges and other external businesses. Some programs, the CU offers, should be given by specialists, which means that the CU has to decide which training can be provided in-house and which training is best be given from outside the hospital. The methodology that is used needs to be tailored to the curriculum the CU offers. The learning and development programs must at least consist of organization- and sector specific knowledge, provide technological skills (hard skills), soft skills and quality and service skills. The curriculum must then be tailored to the target audience. The target audience must consist of all employees of the hospital and it must include customers and suppliers as well. The learning and development that the target audience receives must be evaluated through a measureable analysis. A CU must evaluate its activities through a SWOT analysis, a benchmark analysis, or a balance scorecard. The results of the evaluation have to be communicated to the management of the CU in order to adjust processes through developing new strategies.
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2.6.I.v Foucauldian Theory and Reflection on the Marketing Mix Theory Essentially, Foucault summarised that not all things can be referenced at the same time (van Dijk, 1998, 2014). This selection process of what is most relevant to the organization, allows more room for discussion of how change is managed over time. Simultaneously, stakeholders will be making decisions about the organization. Van Dijk speaks of the social discourse, which potentially analyses information available, with the objective of elucidating the expansive content under consideration. This then helps stakeholders to make these decisions; importantly, it involves more than one participant. In the context of this thesis where there are high stakes involved at the corporate level with premium stakeholders, Lacanian theory as later explored in relation to these corporate parties, therefore becomes relevant. So it will be clear that both Foucauldian and Lacanian theories are underscored by tenets of marketing mix theory: marketing is a subset of corporate communication and not the sum total of it. However, the marketing mix theory acknowledges, as discussed in Chapter 1, that marketing can reflect where brand message emphases will be. Marketing refers to degrees of pervasiveness and features of some outcomes of the branding message, that corporate communication is likely to achieve. Not limited to the mass market, these are applicable to the premium stakeholders as intimated in the next section.
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