Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)

Top PDF Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS):

Effect of Different Carbon Concentration on Yield of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) Produced by Pseudomonas Putida ATCC 11172

Effect of Different Carbon Concentration on Yield of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) Produced by Pseudomonas Putida ATCC 11172

The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 11172 at different carbon concentration, where Luria broth used as medium growth with and without addition of 0.5% w/v (LBG 0.5%) and 1.0% w/v (LBG 1%) glucose. The Bound EPS were extracted by ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) methods and precipitated by cold ethanol 3:1; while free EPS extracted only by precipitate by cold ethanol 3:1. The study shows the clear effect of carbon concentration on the production of EPS. The amount of free EPS found 120.39±2.20, 111.16±1.75 and 100.38±2.0 mg g -1 dry cell for LB, LBG 0.5 and LBG 1 respectively. Where the yield of bound EPS shows fewer amounts from free EPS, the amount of bound EPS was 29.22±1.40, 21.18±0.90 and 17.10±1.10 mg g -1 dry cell for LB, LBG 0.5 and LBG 1 respectively.
Show more

7 Read more

Isolation of bioflocculant-producing bacteria from Penaeus vannamei ponds for the production of extracellular polymeric substances

Isolation of bioflocculant-producing bacteria from Penaeus vannamei ponds for the production of extracellular polymeric substances

Abstract. Bioflocculants are essential polymers with their flocculating activity depending on the characteristics of the secreted flocculants by bioflocculant-producing bacteria. However, the characteristics of bioflocculant produced by microorganisms were not investigated profoundly. In order to better understand these characteristics, determination of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from bioflocculant-producing bacteria were characterized in terms of protein concentrations. A total of 51 bioflocculant-producing bacteria isolates were screened from Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei culture ponds in Setiu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Screening of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were conducted through morphological approaches followed by protein extraction using Lowry assay method. The identified bioflocculant-producing bacteria includes Corynebacterium sp., Klebsiella sp., Lactobacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Vibrio spp., Neisseria sp., Serratia sp. and Yersinia sp., with the highest protein concentration of 829 mg mL -1
Show more

11 Read more

Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in uranium immobilization by anaerobic sludge

Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in uranium immobilization by anaerobic sludge

The specific roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and how factors influenced EPS’s roles during U(VI) immobilization are still unclear. In this study, high content of U with the main form of nanoparticles was detected in EPS, accounting for 10–42% of total U(VI) removal. EPS might be utilized as energy source or even as electron donors when external carbon source was unavailable. The influencing degree of each experimental parameter to uranium (U) removal process was elucidated. The influential priority to U(IV)/U(VI) ratios in sludge was as follows: acetate, U(VI), and nitrate. The influential priority to total EPS contents was as follows: U(VI), nitrate and acetate. The complex interac‑ tion mechanism between U(VI) and EPS in the U immobilization process was proposed, which might involve three ways including biosorption, bioreduction and bioprecipitation. These results indicate important and various roles of EPS in U(VI) immobilization.
Show more

11 Read more

Analysis of aquatic worms in flocculated digested sludge and extraction of extracellular polymeric substances in wastewater treatment plants

Analysis of aquatic worms in flocculated digested sludge and extraction of extracellular polymeric substances in wastewater treatment plants

Second aspect was the extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) by cation exchange resin (CER) method in anaerobic digested sludge and flocculated digested sludge. The emphasis was on improvement of EPS extraction method in flocculated digested sludge to achieve the same amount of EPS in both types of sludge. In this case sonication was applied to reduce the size of flocs in point of more extraction.

27 Read more

Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by marine Micromonospora sp

Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by marine Micromonospora sp

The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted from Micromonospora sp. strains isolated of the Gulf of California. Different spectrophotometric, chromatographic and microscopic techniques were used to determine the composition of the EPS. The extraction methods employed are fast and simple and allowed an efficient extraction with a minimum degree of cell lysis. The Fourier Transformed Infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed coupling attributed to polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) reveals the presence of protons of anomeric carbons and protons of primary amine, aromatic-compounds, halides, aliphatic and sulfide. Mass Spectrometry (MS) we corroborate the composition of polysaccharide hydrolysates in EPS samples. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) revealed the presence of majority sugars as xylose, arabinose, mannose and melibiose, and the presence of oligosaccharides such as nystose. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the morphology of the EPS, the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) showed the presence of elements such as carbon, calcium, potassium, sodium, sulphur and phosphorous.
Show more

10 Read more

Characterization of the protein fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of three anaerobic granular sludges

Characterization of the protein fraction of the extracellular polymeric substances of three anaerobic granular sludges

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play major roles in the efficacy of biofilms such as anaerobic granules, rang‑ ing from structural stability to more specific functions. The EPS of three granular anaerobic sludges of different origins were studied and compared. Particularly, the peptides from the protein fraction were identified by mass spectrometry. Desulfoglaeba and Treponema bacterial genera and Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium archaeal genera were prom‑ inent in all three sludges. Methanosaeta concilii proteins were the most represented in EPS of all three sludges studied. Principally, four proteins found in the three sludges, the S‑layer protein, the CO‑methylating acetyl‑CoA synthase, an ABC transporter substrate‑binding protein and the methyl‑coenzyme M reductase, were expressed by Methanosaeta concilii. Mainly catabolic enzymes were found from the 45 proteins identified in the protein fraction of EPS. This sug‑ gests that EPS may have a role in allowing extracellular catabolic reactions.
Show more

11 Read more

The impact of microbial extracellular polymeric substances on sediment stability

The impact of microbial extracellular polymeric substances on sediment stability

form pronounced biofilms (de Winder et al. 1999) which can have a large impact on the whole sediment system. The initial step of biofilm formation is normally regarded as the attachment of microbial cells to a surface by the secretion of polymeric substances. In transient biofilms, however, much of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are secreted as a by-product of the locomotive mechanism of diatoms (Consalvey et al. 2004). In recent years it has been shown that benthic biofilms can also act as a protective layer at the sediment surface that can significantly influence erosion and deposition of sediment particles (Underwood and Paterson 2003). Thus investigation into this “biostabilisation” process is very important in terms of the prediction of sediment erosion potential (Perkins et al. 2004). The major mechanism of this microbial biostabilisation is through the production of EPS matrix which is a complex mixture of carbohydrates, proteins and proteoglycans, secreted by biofilms cells. Previous studies on the influence of EPS on sediment stability have been carried out both in the laboratory (Dade et al. 1992, Battin et al. 2003, Droppo et al. 2007) and in the field (Tolhurst et al. 2000, Hirst et al. 2003) using artificially modified sediment (Droppo 2001) and/or natural sediment (Underwood and Smith 1998, Yallop et al. 2000, Perkins et al. 2003, Gerbersdorf et al. 2005). However biological impact is highly variable and difficult to express as one constant factor. Numerous studies have established a positive correlation between sediment stabilization, EPS and microbial biomass. Some studies have attempted to use chlorophyll a/microalgae biomass as an indicator of sediment stability, but the relationships were at best site-specific (e.g. Riethmueller et al. 2000, Defew et al. 2002, Le Hir et al. 2007). However, although biostabilisation has been increasingly studied over the last decade, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge.
Show more

217 Read more

Quantifying biostabilisation effects of biofilm-secreted and extracted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) on sandy substrate

Quantifying biostabilisation effects of biofilm-secreted and extracted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) on sandy substrate

Abstract. Microbial assemblages (“biofilms”) preferentially develop at water–sediment interfaces and are known to have a considerable influence on sediment stability and erodibility. There is potential for significant impacts on sediment transport and morphodynamics, and hence on the longer-term evolution of coastal and fluvial environments. However, the biostabilisation effects remain poorly understood and quantified due to the inherent complexity of biofilms and the large spatial and temporal (i.e. seasonality) variations involved. Here, we use controlled laboratory tests to systematically quantify the effects of natural biofilm colonisation as well as extracted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) on sediment stability. Extracted EPSs may be useful to sim- ulate biofilm-mediated biostabilisation and potentially provide a method of speeding up timescales of physical modelling experiments investigating biostabilisation effects. We find a mean biostabilisation effect due to natural biofilm colonisation and development of almost 4 times that of the uncolonised sand. The presented cumulative probability distribution of measured critical threshold for erosion of colonised sand reflects the large spatial and temporal variations generally seen in natural biostabilised environments. For identical sand, engineered sediment stability from the addition of extracted EPSs compares well across the measured range of the critical threshold for erosion and behaves in a linear and predictable fashion. Yet, the effectiveness of extracted EPSs to stabilise sediment is sensitive to the preparation procedure, time after application and environmental conditions such as salinity, pH and temperature. These findings are expected to improve biophysical experimental models in fluvial and coastal environments and provide much-needed quantification of biostabilisation to improve predictions of sediment dynamics in aquatic ecosystems.
Show more

13 Read more

Measuring the soil-microbial interface: extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from soil biofilms

Measuring the soil-microbial interface: extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from soil biofilms

compared by Puget et al. (1999) are likely to result in less intra- cellular contamination because they exclude the autoclaving step. The principle behind EPS extraction with CER, is that a combi- nation of shear forces and resin-Na þ cause ion exchange with multivalent cations that link the EPS (primarily Ca 2 þ and Mg 2 þ ) resulting in dissolution of the EPS macrostructure (Wilén et al., 2003; Sheng et al., 2010). This approach appears to be very effec- tive at extracting extracellular proteins from the EPS matrix (D ’ Abzac et al., 2010). Our results concur with Liu and Fang (2002) and Simon et al. (2009) that CER extracts relatively large poly- saccharide, protein and uronic acid fractions in comparison to in- dicators of cell lysis. However, it should be noted that the method proposed here should be expected to provide an underestimate of total soil EPS. For example, EPS bound by trivalent iron and aluminium may be less well represented by CER extraction in soil since the trivalent forms exchange less readily than divalent Mg 2þ and Ca 2 þ (Wilén et al., 2003). Such bias was later observed in activated sludges (Park and Novak, 2007). More work is required to assess the inclusivity of CER extraction in soil.
Show more

10 Read more

Effect of extracellular polymeric substances on the mechanical properties of Rhodococcus

Effect of extracellular polymeric substances on the mechanical properties of Rhodococcus

The mechanical properties of Rhodococcus RC291 were measured using force spectroscopy equipped with a bac- terial cell probe. Rhodococcal cells in the late growth stage of development were found to have greater adhesion to a silicon oxide surface than those in the early growth stage. This is because there are more extracellular poly- meric substances (EPS) that contain nonspecific binding sites available on the cells of late growth stage. It is found that EPS in the late exponential phase are less densely bound but consist of chains able to extend further into their local environment, while the denser EPS at the late stationary phase act more to sheath the cell. Contraction and extension of the EPS could change the density of the binding sites, and therefore affect the magnitude of the ad- hesion force between the EPS and the silicon oxide surface. By treating rhodococcal EPS as a surface-grafted poly- electrolyte layer and using scaling theory, the interaction between EPS and a solid substrate was modelled for the cell approaching the surface which revealed that EPS possess a large capacity to store charge. Changing the pH of the surrounding medium acts to change the conformation of EPS chains.
Show more

9 Read more

Effect of extracellular polymeric substances on the mechanical properties of Rhodococcus

Effect of extracellular polymeric substances on the mechanical properties of Rhodococcus

The mechanical properties of Rhodococcus RC291 were measured using force spectroscopy equipped with a bac- terial cell probe. Rhodococcal cells in the late growth stage of development were found to have greater adhesion to a silicon oxide surface than those in the early growth stage. This is because there are more extracellular poly- meric substances (EPS) that contain nonspecific binding sites available on the cells of late growth stage. It is found that EPS in the late exponential phase are less densely bound but consist of chains able to extend further into their local environment, while the denser EPS at the late stationary phase act more to sheath the cell. Contraction and extension of the EPS could change the density of the binding sites, and therefore affect the magnitude of the ad- hesion force between the EPS and the silicon oxide surface. By treating rhodococcal EPS as a surface-grafted poly- electrolyte layer and using scaling theory, the interaction between EPS and a solid substrate was modelled for the cell approaching the surface which revealed that EPS possess a large capacity to store charge. Changing the pH of the surrounding medium acts to change the conformation of EPS chains.
Show more

9 Read more

The role of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm architecture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New

The role of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm architecture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

For a long time in the history of microbiology, microorganisms were considered as freely suspended cells in nutritionally rich media and were characterized on the basis of their growth characteristics in the media provided. Heukelekian and Heller showed for the first time that the presence of a surface for attachment substantially enhanced the bacterial growth (1). A subsequent study demonstrated that the number of bacteria on the surface were more as compared to their surrounding environment. These indirect evidences provided clues that bacteria can grow as a community after attaching to the surface (2). This community of surface-attached bacteria is now known as biofilm. However, a detailed study of biofilm was made possible only after the use of electron microscopy. Jones et al. (3) used electron microscopy to show that biofilm formed in seawater on a trickling filter was composed of many different kinds of organisms. With the help of polysaccharide-specific stains, these workers also provided evidence for the presence of polysaccharides in extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms. In subsequent years it was shown that microbial biofilms in industrial waste water were not only very persistent but also highly resistant to disinfectants such as chlorine (4). Later, a theory was proposed which elucidated the mechanism through which microorganisms attach to a surface and the advantages amassed by the microorganisms from this ecologic niche (5). In the last two decades, the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and molecular biology techniques to study gene regulation have helped to increase our understanding of architecture and functioning of biofilms.
Show more

182 Read more

THE EFFICIENCY OF EXTRACELLULAR POLYMERIC SUBSTANCE EXTRACTED FROM PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS IN ACTIVATION IMMUNE RESPONSE

THE EFFICIENCY OF EXTRACELLULAR POLYMERIC SUBSTANCE EXTRACTED FROM PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS IN ACTIVATION IMMUNE RESPONSE

Nielsen and Jahn, [33] Explained EPS components should be extracted using an suitable extraction methods. For Free (soluble) EPS, utilized simpler method, centrifugation is always utilized, whereas for bound EPS numerous diverse extraction methods have been more developed. Protein concentration higher from carbohydrate concentration, In this regard, the results is connected to that ofWang, [34] who illustrate that biofilm extracted from Nitrobacter vulgaris, beta proteobacterium and Pseudoxanthomona smexicana give higher protein concentration from other components and match to the results obtained by Kimani, [35] they examined the chemical composition of the biofilm matrix for B.amyloliquefaciensand they founded that the proteins formed the major component of the resulting extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).
Show more

20 Read more

Organic matter controls of iron incorporation in growing sea ice

Organic matter controls of iron incorporation in growing sea ice

FIGURE 1 | Schematic of the cold-finger experiment for the Ice texture Experiment (Ice texture Exp.), the Extracellular polymeric substances, POC, PON, and macro-nutrients experiment (EPS, POC, PON, and macro-nut Exp.) and the iron experiment (Iron Exp.). The entire set-up was placed in a custom-made clean plastic bubble (Ice texture Exp. and EPS, POC, PON, and macro-nut. Exp.), or under a laminar flow hood (Iron Exp.). The cold-finger was connected to a circulating water bath with ethanol (not shown). Experiments were run in triplicate. For each experiment the volume at T 0 was 1,350 mL. The ice was formed at −10, −15, and −20 ◦ C for 24, 8, and 6.45 h respectively for the Ice texture Exp., and −15 ◦ C for 8 h for the EPS, POC, PON, and marco-nut. Exp. and the Iron Exp. Once formed, the ice was removed from the cold-finger, and processed for ice texture (Ice texture Exp.), or allowed to melt in the dark at room temperature before further processing (EPS, POC, PON, and macro-nut. Exp. and Iron Exp.). Both remaining seawater (Rem. SW) and ice were processed for parameters described in the method section.
Show more

14 Read more

The role of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm architecture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New

The role of extracellular polymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm architecture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

in the cystic fibrosis patients. These infections become highly resistant to antibacterial treatments. Bacteria develop this resistance because they become protected inside biofilms. Biofilms are microbial communities enmeshed in a partially self-produced and partially recruited, impregnable extracellular matrix. The matrix is composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, lipids and exopolysaccharides. The exopolysaccharides play an imperative role in architecture of the biofilm matrix. P. aeruginosa produces three distinct exopolysaccharides; Psl, Pel and alginate. In this study, non-mucoid strain PAO1 and mucoid (producing excessive alginate) strain PDO300 of P. aeruginosa were used to generate mutants deficient in one or more exopolysaccharides. Role of these three exopolysaccharides in biofilm formation was investigated. Results showed that the absence of alginate altered the architecture of biofilms in PDO300 as well as in PAO1, when compared to biofilms formed by the respective parent strains. Psl was found indispensable for mushroom-like shape of the biofilms in both strains. Pel was required for the compactness of the biofilms, but PAO1 formed mushroom-like structures even in the absence of Pel. However, Pel-deficient PDO300 did not form mature biofilm, suggesting differential role of Pel in the two strains. Psl-only as well as Pel-only, producing mutants were able to formed multilayer biofilm. Production of one type of exopolysaccharide appeared to influence production of the other types of exopolysaccharide. Psl-deficient mutants increased the production of Pel, while Pel- deficient mutants showed a ten-fold increase in the production of alginate. Furthermore, absence of negatively charged alginate in the biofilm was compensated by eDNA. Regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis operons showed a high expression of psl operon in PAO1, whereas its expression in PDO300 was surprisingly low and confined to a few cells near the base. A high and uniform expression of the algD operon in PDO300 was observed at all times during biofilm development. A low expression of algD operon was also detected in PAO1. Expression of the pel operon was confined to
Show more

9 Read more

Modelling biofilm formation in a dairy wastewater irrigation system : a thesis presented in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Process Engineering at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

Modelling biofilm formation in a dairy wastewater irrigation system : a thesis presented in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Process Engineering at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

The treatment of dairy wastewater varies depending on the location of the manufacturing plant, as is partly mandated by local legislation, the local receiving environment, and any discharge limits placed upon the particular factory. Biological treatment systems such as aerated lagoons, anaerobic biofilm reactors or activated sludge are common. A widely used treatment system is a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) tank, to remove suspended solids such as fats and protein (Koivunen & Heinonen‐Tanski, 2008) followed by irrigation onto pasture. Bacteria present in this system will grow leading to biofilm formation on any surface within the wastewater system. If this biofilm formation becomes extensive, blockage of the wastewater system could occur, which would prevent the release of wastewater and increase cost in terms of both cleaning and reduced processing capacity. Biofilm formation in a drip irrigation system using secondary treated and tertiary treated wastewater was shown to reduce discharge by 50% when the biofilm covered up to 80% of the flow channel (Qian et al., 2017). Yan et al. (2009) showed that in drip irrigation systems the flow path (emitter heads) influenced the biofilm community structure and diversity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed both particles present in the biofilm and the Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) structure caused blockages in the emitter heads with phospholipid fatty acids exhibiting the best correlation coefficient between the amount of biomass and discharge reduction.
Show more

202 Read more

Effect of Varying Hydrodynamic Shear and Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Aerobic Granulation.

Effect of Varying Hydrodynamic Shear and Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Aerobic Granulation.

In biological reactors, hydrodynamic shear force can come from gas or liquid flow and particle-particle collision and is an important operational parameter for the effective formation [r]

120 Read more

Application of Spectroscopic Techniques for analysis of interaction between Thermophiles and metal ions

Application of Spectroscopic Techniques for analysis of interaction between Thermophiles and metal ions

The thermophiles are adapted to the environment containing sulfate and other heavy metals, its potential use in bioremediation will be significant. There are various compounds or substances that are responsible for bioremediation. Depending upon the microorganisms, the bioremediation processes can be due to proteins and enzymes that are responsible for carrying out this process or other factors like extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Quantitative and qualitative determination of biomolecules and microbial assisted phenomena by spectroscopy is a pioneer approach. This research presents the features of protein and EPS from thermophiles with a view to establish their role as central elements in bioremediation of heavy metals. A coordinated physicochemical analysis of water and molecular survey of microbes was conducted for Vajreshwari and Ganeshpuri hot springs. The results of this study expands the current understanding of the microbiology in Vajreshwari and Ganeshpuri hot springs and provide a basis for comparison with other geothermal systems around the world. The study will aid in engineering the extracellular polymeric substances with enhanced characteristics of metal sorption for effective bioremediation of heavy metals of environmental concern.
Show more

7 Read more

Iron Electrocoagulation Process for Disinfecting Water – A Review

Iron Electrocoagulation Process for Disinfecting Water – A Review

groups, it is not awaited to prevent microorganisms' elimination via Fe-EC hugely, harmonious with Delaire et al. former discovery in synthetic Bengal groundwater [1]. In addition, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), in which environmental bacteria are typically embedded, are not anticipated to influence the adhesion of EC precipitates importantly, since EPS carry phosphate functional groups that may constitute bonds with Fe (III) oxides [39], identical to bacterial cell membranes [40].

5 Read more

What could the entire cornstover contribute to the enhancement of waste activated sludge acidification? Performance assessment and microbial community analysis

What could the entire cornstover contribute to the enhancement of waste activated sludge acidification? Performance assessment and microbial community analysis

BNR: biological nutrients removal; CCA: canonical correspondence analysis; C/N: carbon-to-nitrogen; CS: corn stover; ECS: extra carbon sources; EPSs: extracellular polymeric substances; FID: flame ionization detector; GC: gas chromatography; H: hydrolysate; HAc: acetic acids; HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography; HPr: propionic acids; HS: hydrolysate + straw; iso-HBu: iso-butyric acids; iso-HVa: iso-valeric acids; mts: metric tones; n-HBu: n-butyric acids; n-HVa: n-valeric acids; OUT: operational taxonomic unit; PCR: poly- merase chain reaction; S: pretreated straw; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; TCD: thermal conductivity detector; TCOD: total chemical oxygen demand; TSS: total suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; WAS: waste activated sludge; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.
Show more

14 Read more

Show all 5902 documents...