First, this study shows the importance of foodquality in influencing customer loyalty towards the OFD service. Further, the result of this study suggests that the consequence of the quality of food on online loyalty is partly intermediated by both satisfaction and perceived value. The foodquality influence on online loyalty is through strengthening the customer’s perceived values as well as the customer level of satisfaction. This result validates Chang et al. (2014) study in online group buying which reports that food’s quality affects consumers buying food via online. Further, this study corroborates with past studies in the restaurant setting, that foodquality is an imperative determinant of customer loyalty (Mattila, 2001; Namkung & Jang, 2007; Ryu & Han, 2009). When the food is of high quality, customers tend to repurchase and recommend the food in the future. This is also reflected in their behaviour of continuously consuming the food. This finding implies that foodquality is a fundamental component, not only in a conventional restaurant context but also in the context of OFD services. Therefore, it is important that the casual dining and fast-food restaurants offering OFD service provide high quality foods that not only match with customer needs but are also superior to the competitors’ foods. To outperform competitors, they should concentrate on food presentation, taste, variety, and healthiness.
Abstract: By establishing a dynamic equilibrium model, the paper analyses the equilibrium of the food industry and the equilibrium about the foodquality as well as quantity is achieved. Firstly, the study examines the eﬀ ects of competitions on the price, outputs, proﬁ ts and social welfare. Th e authors argue that competition reduces the foodquality. Secondly, this paper shows that consumers beneﬁ t from the quality regulation while producers undertake a loss. Moreover, social welfare ﬁ rst increases then decreases with the regulation. Th irdly, the optimal quality regulation is presented and a higher quality regulation reduces competition, while the lower quality regulation promotes it. Finally, the eﬀ ects of ﬁ xed costs on the equilibrium number of ﬁ rms in the corresponding industry are captured.
The objective of the 2° Level Master Degree Programme is to provide relevant training in Agri - foodquality taking into account the entire supply chain of agricultural-livestock production. The increase of human population, the progressive reduction of dedicated and available areas for agricultural productions, climate changes and the globalization of agricultural models are all elements that influences agricultural livestock productions and quality. Considering this scenario, the Master Degree Programme aims at training skilled professionals, coming from developing countries end emerging economies, in particular from African Countries.
Organic farming, compared to conventional and industrialised farming shows fundamental differences from agricultural, environmental, social and economic point of view. Organic farming is a well defined production concept (Schmidt & Haccius, 1998) which provides practical solutions to various problems of agricultural production (Rundgren, 2002) and therefore meets best the demand for sustainability as outlined by the Brundtland Commission (1997) which stated that "sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Additionally, organic farming provides 'authentic' food, an aspect that will supposedly gain increasing significance for consumers in future. It is the aim of this contribution to provide a comprehensive overview of what organic farming can deliver in the sectors food security, foodquality, and environment and nature conservation. Here, special attention will be paid to prominent highlights.
Is our future any food from anywhere at anytime? Or is there a possibility that we could, together, build an alternative that is so deeply rooted in our farms and our communities that it becomes the preferred choice? How do these competing visions fit with our current understanding of energy use, of climate change, of rural development, of foodquality and health, of organic certification? This year’s Spring Growth conference takes on these important questions, with the help of some luminaries of the sustainable agriculture and local food movements.
Foodquality is an issue of increasing public interest. The subject targets not only the content of nutritional compounds, health promoting or otherwise beneﬁ cial substances and features, but more and more the way food is produced. System inherent organic products contain no po- tentially harmful food preservatives, pesticides and phytochemicals and thus provide authentic food. Organically produced foodstuffs may even have signiﬁ cantly higher contents of secondary metabolites (Brandt & Mølgaard, 2001).
Boggini (2007) reports on an ongoing research project in organic cereal farming which aims to guarantee a suitable income to farmers whilst responding to consumers’ demand. This project aims to improve the competitiveness on the international cereals' market by innovative high quality varieties and improvement of husbandry techniques maximizing the germoplasm potential. In such a situation a predominant role can be played in Italy by the organic production of cereals with a high technological, nutritional and health quality, in a sector where the demand is also increasing internationally. The overall objective of the project is to increase the technical and scientific knowledge on common and durum organic wheat production and to transfer innovations to organic farmers through: - the identification and/or the development of wheat varieties fitting the specific organic farming requirements, with technological characteristics more closed to the market and consumers’ needs, in order both to improve cereal foodquality and identify the added value of typical and niche production systems; establishment and refinement of cultural techniques with a low environment impact, looking at those with the best impact on the technological and nutritional quality of the grains (manuring and biotic adversity control). Particular attention will be paid to the health aspect, monitoring the presence of toxic substances in the cereals and their products at the critical points of the production chain; definition of effective methodology for traceability and the control of raw materials and their derived products.
The study is based on literature and data survey on Swedish consumers. About 96% of the data was acquired through online data survey, while the remaining 4% was complemented by retailer-based survey. Online data survey was done in 2016, during March–June. Firstly, retail-gate data collection was planned. Later on, it was understood that online data survey enables us to find more data and a random distribution of customers. The online survey was open for all customers in Sweden, while the retail-gate survey has limitations in covering wider areas. During the survey, consumers were asked to answer 15 questions which were prepared in the Swedish language. Swedish–English language translation was checked by a native Swedish-speaking researcher. The survey was used to gather information on the demographic characteristics of organic food consumers in Sweden. These include gender, age, education status, household income, number of family members, number of children in household, and occupation. Both the online survey and retail-gate survey were open to every interested consumer and did not target only organic food consumers. In general, 107 consumers responded, out of which 100 responses were complete and used in this analysis. The method used is mainly descriptive statistics and qualitative description. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test were used as statistical tools. The Pearson’s Chi-square test was used to test how responses of consumers differ for specific question under consideration. It is used to test the relationship between variables. In addition, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test the linear dependence between two important food characterizing parameters i.e., consumers’ foodquality characterization and their food buying decision.
Figure 2 (a) foodquality standards high market, including Sa curve represents high qualityfood supply curve, Da curve represents the high qualityfood demand curve. Figure 2 (b) it means lower market foodquality standards, including Sb curve represents the low qualityfood supply curve, the Db curve represents the low qualityfood demand curve. In high foodquality standard on the market, the enterprise production cost is higher, so products have to Pa at the higher price sale, buyers and sellers on the market information is symmetrical, the price customers are willing to accept, so the market equilibrium price for Pa, equilibrium quantity for Qa. The same analogy, foodquality standards for its low market equilibrium price for Pb, equilibrium quantity for Qb.The food market in most cases, however, information is asymmetric, low quality of food production enterprises can take advantage of the positive externalities of high qualityfood production enterprise to obtain benefits, consumer is aware of the foodquality and safety standards will reduce the security of the market after more and more low expectations, thus high qualityfood market demand curve, which is shown in figure 2 (a) shows the demand curve for Da1 by Da changes. High qualityfood enterprise itself into a larger, production cost is higher, not willing to adjust their food supply curve, so the equilibrium price Pa1, equilibrium quantity Qa1, apparently Pa1 < Pa, Qa1 < Qa, visible high qualityfood production enterprise profitability. Low qualityfood production enterprise, on the other hand, the market share increases, the demand curve from figure 2 (b) the Db1 to Db, respectively, the equilibrium price and quantity, and low qualityfood market total revenue increased.
There are few empirical studies of foodquality within hospital food service systems. Although it is widely accepted that foodquality is a multi-faceted phenomenon, much attention has been paid to single component explanations in the past. Tlie aim of this study throughout has been two fold - to develop a model suitable for evaluating the quality of food in conventional hospital food service systems; and to evaluate foodquality in selected hospitals in the Trent Regional Health Authority and West Midland Regional Health Authority using the model. A key outcome in this study has been the development of a multi faceted measurement of foodquality to help catering managers deploy resources effectively, in conventional hospital food service systems. This approach was achieved using a variety of qualitative and quantitative information to score six foodquality components and 15 influencing variables. Foodquality was defined as a multi-dimensional measure to include measures of satisfaction of patients and catering'staff, productivity, safety, and nutritional adequacy. Measures of influencing variables were chosen or adapted from those available in food service operations insofar as was possible. Where none was available, methods were developed. The variables were grouped into two major categories: human resources and system resources. A survey of 12 hospital conventional food service systems in the UK was undertaken and detailed information was collected from each, including surveys of 933 patients and 327 catering staff.
Any attempt to answer the question ‘is organic food better for you?’ requires an assessment of the safety, nutritional content and biological value aspects of foodquality. Previous reviews have been unable to reach definitive conclusions after failing to ensure only valid comparisons are considered. When methodologically flawed studies are screened out and a complete assessment of nutritional quality is made, collectively, the available evidence supports the hypothesis that organically produced food is superior in terms of safety, nutritional content and nutritional value to that produced non-organically. More research is needed provide to more data further investigating the trends seen in the existing evidence.
Culture and cultural ethnocentrism, which involve the translation of cultural and ethnic identity feelings into purchasing behaviour that favours national over foreign products, explains the distribution of quality labels in the Mediterranean countries (Resano et al., 2007; Shimp and Sharma, 1987). For Mediterranean cuisine, foodquality and traditional gastronomy play an important role (Verbeke et al. 2012). In addition, North and South are divided by different policy approaches towards enhancing foodquality. Whereas in Mediterranean countries the terroir concept is well-established and used extensively by agricultural producers, Northern European countries have instead focused on other foodquality assurance schemes (FQASs) and organic production. Similar reasoning is put forward by Parrott et al. (2002) and Teuber (2011). They argue that the apparent differences between “Northern” and “Southern” European countries in terms of PDO/PGI-use result from notable differences in their food culture and agricultural systems. They characterize the “Northern” culture as functional and commodity-driven, whereas the “Southern” one is based on locality and artisanal production. This is also supported by our research findings. The number of registered product names in each country influences consumer intere st in the origin of foods and in support for the local economy in food production (Lusk et al., 2006). Consumers might prefer products from certain regions or countries since they are believed to be simply better (more tasty, safer, healthier, more sustainable) (Dekhili et al., 2011), or products from their own region or country, because of loyalty and/or animosity towards others, or because of a related preference to support the local economy rather than remote or foreign economies. Foodquality labels tak e advantage of consumer beliefs that the quality label signals better or superior quality, and the belief that the quality label signals a distinct product character (Verbeke et al., 2012). Establishing associations with the region of origin may be useful for the promotion and communication of typical products in the domestic market as well as in the export market. Moreover, cross-product communication campaigns can be a way to effectively manage regional images as a valuable resource. This requires that se veral foodquality labels share the same values of their region of origin and that these values are symbolized by the same specific landmark. Tradition
Consumer demand for natural, sustainable and carefully processed food with a high quality is rising. Most of the consumed food is nowadays processed food. The impact of this intensive processing might threat the product quality unnecessary. Next to food safety and health aspects also the demand of an excellent sensory quality is rising in the organic food sector. The organic sector with the principles of limited use of additives as well minimal processing activated the discussion of quality. QACCP as a method for the systematic evaluation of the quality influencing production step was elaborated and basically tested with baby food. In a next step there is a big need to establish this concept in the industry broadly. A further development of the concept for the special need of the different product groups (milk, meat, fruit and vegetables, bakery products) is bases for a successful implementation. For performing a QACCP the whole food chain has to be evaluated in addition to processing also the farm level has to be included. On farm level the identification of critical points and/or critical control points and the quality improvement at these points are important. Variety and how the farming processes are managed within the organic EC- Regulations seem to be important.
Wheat accounts for more than 20% of the total food calories consumed throughout the world and the greatest single source of protein in human diet. In Republic of Macedonia wheat production is based on domestic and some foreign cultivars. The natural and climatic conditions in Macedonia are favourable for the development of organic agriculture, especially in the mountain and semi- mountain regions. It is therefore possible to study a range of varieties which were recently developed through Macedonian breeding programmes for their suitability in organic, “low input” and conventional crop management systems. Production of organic seed is based on: resistant varieties, biological and agricultural techniques, some classical pesticides, plant and mineral oils, crop rotation, self regulation, etc.
Fresh samples were poured into the small cups for each partic- ipant. These were placed on a tray, along with the large cup of water, and carried to a participant’s ofﬁce where the test, lasting from10–15 min, was carried out. In the initial snifﬁng test partici- pants were ﬁrst asked to sniff a solution, report what food or drink ‘ﬁrst comes to mind’, and then rate this food or drink on a 11-point scale for: (a) Sweetness, 0 (Anchor: ‘Not at all sweet’) to 10 (An- chor: ‘As sweet as anything can be’); and for (b) Sourness 0 (An- chor: ‘Not at all sour’) to 10 (Anchor: ‘As sour as anything can be’). They were then asked to sniff the same solution a second time and report any food or drink that now came to mind that was dif- ferent from the ﬁrst one. Afterwards they rated this second food/ drink for sweetness and sourness.
The purpose of this matchmaking event is to create a meeting point for technology co- operation. It will offer companies and research organisations a forum to effectively meet and discuss with the parties, which are of interest in the area of food and feed diagnostics. The event will be tailor made with a programme consisting of one-to-one meetings with pre-matched partners.
Safety food is defined as consumable quality system implementation according to the government regulation and policies standard in ensuring the foodstuff are free of chemicals .biology and microorganism risk also determined as halal as per the religion. Some effort implemented by the government involved foodstuff storage, providing food kinds, ensuring food nutrition includes sanitation and food stuff advertisement. Chemicals role development in agriculture cause potential toxicated contamination towards human being because of the residue of pesticides applied to the food production process. Safety foodquality system is created and aimed to ensure and monitor the foodstuff are delivered as per the advance science and international standard since the first food production process, distribution and consumed by the human beings. Safety food and quality abusive should be prevented and vanished for example unauthorized food amenities usage, contain risky pollutant pesticides ,heavy metal and farming chemical which are unacceptable and un consumable in foodstuff production. So the implementation of national security and quality system aimed to identified the strength, weekness, opportunities and risk of food production. National policy of the food security guarantee had been arranged in sectoral mobility involving all related department in coaching and monitoring national foodstuff quality to maintain and protect the consumer gain and consume the safe and qualified foodstuff.