Gender role attitudes

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Using Alignment Optimization to Test the Measurement Invariance of Gender Role Attitudes in 59 Countries

Using Alignment Optimization to Test the Measurement Invariance of Gender Role Attitudes in 59 Countries

The current study aimed to contribute to the debate concerning measurement invariance by using data from a large-scale cross-national survey to make applica- tive use of the frequentist alignment method. Data related to gender role attitudes, and the assessment was addressed to identify the most invariant model across the largest subset of groups (ideally, all). Adopting a step-by-step procedure, both the methods initially led to a model modification by reducing the measurement from a 5-item model to a 4-item model. The two procedures converged in detecting the item v54 (“Being a housewife is just as fulfilling as working for pay”) as the least invariant. The option of omitting it found additional support in the critical content analysis of Braun (1998), who pointed out that the understanding of this item can be fairly controversial because of the focus on fulfillment and the benefits from two conditions, rather than on gender roles (Braun, 1998, p. 116).
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Effects of Group Counseling on Stress and Gender-Role Attitudes in Infertile Women: A Clinical Trial

Effects of Group Counseling on Stress and Gender-Role Attitudes in Infertile Women: A Clinical Trial

childless living. In this regard, Rabiepour et al. re- ported that collaborative approaches training had influenced the need for parenthood in infertile women (23). There are results showing that infer- tile women compared to male are less likely to be satisfied and they could not also imagine a child- less lifestyle. Such women also keep away from children and pregnant women and search for more information to treat infertility with a tendency to continue treatments despite low success rates (36). The results of this study revealed the effect of counselling on gender-role attitudes in domain of sexual and reproductive issues. Our results show- ed 92.5% of women had an intermediate gender
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Gender role attitudes, awareness and experiences of non-consensual sex among university students in Shanghai, China

Gender role attitudes, awareness and experiences of non-consensual sex among university students in Shanghai, China

Several limitations of the study are noteworthy. First, only six items were included in our exploratory study to reflect Confucian-based gender norms. Our conclusion for the effect of gender norms are considered tentative and appropriate scale to capture gender-role ideologies perceived by today’ s adolescents should be developed in future research. Second, this study didn’t collect informa- tion regarding respondents as perpetrators for the reason that respondents would have feared punishment or stigma and were less likely to report it. Therefore, the effects of traditional gender-role attitudes on acts of perpetrators couldn’t be explored. Third, data were based on self- reporting. Although computer-assisted self-interviewing method has proved to reveal higher prevalence rates for sensitive and stigmatized behaviors [39], recall bias cannot be ruled out. Fourth, the participants were recruited from four universities in Shanghai. The social norms and envir- onment in these universities may have influenced the knowledge and information available to students as well as their assessment of harassment. Therefore, the results from this study cannot be considered to be representative of Chinese youth. Finally, given that the study was cross- sectional, causal interpretation of relationship cannot be drawn. For these limitations, results from this study should be considered exploratory in nature though they provide important insights on gender-role attitudes, per- ceptions and experience of NCS among university stu- dents in Shanghai.
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AN ASSESSMENT OF GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES TOWARD REPRODUCTIVE
HEALTH DECISION IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGERIA

AN ASSESSMENT OF GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES TOWARD REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH DECISION IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGERIA

Before the current dramatic increase of about 10.2 percentage point in contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR), Kaduna State had recorded low CPR in the preceding two decades; and a preference for large family size, natural family planning methods and an aversion for modern contraceptive methods (NPC & ICF Intl., 2014). Family planning offered by the public sector did not fulfill the demand for contraception, particularly among the urban poor, and rural dwellers. In the private sector, cost was a major constraint, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI, 2010:2015; MLE., 2013). It is therefore important to understand factors influencing the current rise in the CPR and influence of role in reproductive health decision.
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PubMedCentral-PMC4592366.pdf

PubMedCentral-PMC4592366.pdf

developmental changes across adolescence as a result of social experiences across different contexts (Crouter et al. 2007; Orpinas et al. 2013). For example, using longitudinal data that spanned ages 10 to 19 years, Crouter et al. (2007), found that, on average, gender role attitudes tended to become more egalitarian across middle childhood and early adolescence, perhaps reflecting the development of more sophisticated reasoning strategies. In middle and late adolescence attitudes became more traditional among boys (but not girls); this increase in traditional attitudes was attributed to “the peer dynamics surrounding dating, courtship, and other high-school activities” (Crouter et al. 2007, p. 921). Thus, it is plausible that linkages among the constructs that we examined may vary over time and/or be stronger (or weaker) across different developmental periods (Collins and Graham 2002). Research using multiple repeated measures of all constructs is needed to better understand whether and how associations may be conditioned by developmental stage and/or measurement intervals and also to examine reciprocal pathways among constructs. In particular, given the salience of peer relationships during early adolescence, more research is needed to ascertain whether and how peer socialization processes (e.g., modeling and reinforcement) and social status dimensions (e.g., popularity, power) influence the development of traditional gender beliefs and violence norms and their enactment in dating relationships (Houser et al. 2015). Limitations
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Enculturation and Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence and Gender Roles in an Asian Indian Population: Implications for Community‐Based Prevention

Enculturation and Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence and Gender Roles in an Asian Indian Population: Implications for Community‐Based Prevention

Abstract This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone inter- views with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18–64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equa- tion modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community partici- pation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, reli- gious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV- supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were posi- tively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation con- struct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. ‘‘Enculturation-values’’ had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. How- ever, ‘‘enculturation-community participation’’ was nega- tively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting
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Volume 24 - Article 20 | Pages 469–496

Volume 24 - Article 20 | Pages 469–496

To conclude, our findings indicate a tentative U-shaped association between gender attitudes and fertility among Finnish men. Traditional but also egalitarian attitudes raise men’s fertility intentions, especially related to above-average numbers of children. Among Finnish women the impact of gender attitudes is smaller and more ambiguous. Unlike most other previous research, we found that Finnish women with traditional gender attitudes did not wish for more children than did other women. Instead, mothers with egalitarian values showed signs of having higher childbearing ideals and intentions. This can be interpreted as support for the claim that equally sharing couples more often have a second child (Torr and Short 2004). In regression analyses gender attitudes did not affect women’s childbearing intentions. Women’s educational level, income, family, and work orientation were more important for their fertility intentions than were their gender role attitudes. Gender equity may thus affect men’s and women’s fertility aspirations in contradictory ways. We should also remember that egalitarian Finnish fathers of one child were not exceptionally eager to have two or more children. Factors not included in this analysis, such as personality traits and partnership satisfaction, which may interact with gender equality, may also be at play here and would merit inclusion in future studies.
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Gender role attitude of students as indicator of school effectiveness

Gender role attitude of students as indicator of school effectiveness

Employers in today’s world require their workforce to have soft skills that supplement their professional and technical expertise. Among the desirable psycho-social characteristics is gender role attitude. A gender role is a constellation of qualities an individual understands to characterise male and female in his or her culture. These qualities include activities, role relations, social position, personality characteristics, and a host of abilities and behaviours. From the birth of a child, the gender role attitude kicks in, with the boy-child groomed to be more “manly”, which includes attributes like strength, aggressiveness and emotional paucity, and the girl-child groomed to be more “womanly”, with attributes like beauty, docility, compliance and homeliness. Defenders of this discrimination argue that it is a biological fact observed across the animal kingdom, with few exceptions. The sources of gender role attitudes are explained from four interrelated perspectives: gender difference, family life and personal resources, social normative, and paid employment life (Tu, 2000).
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Attitudes among Students towards Gender Beliefs and Moral Values at Higher Learning Institutions in Malaysia

Attitudes among Students towards Gender Beliefs and Moral Values at Higher Learning Institutions in Malaysia

As mentioned elsewhere, the study attempts to measure student’s attitudes of equal beliefs, ability and moral values aspects from traditional and nontraditional perspectives. In general, gender ideology is developed in mul- tiple ways [5]. Gender role attitudes of people are influenced by many aspects of social and cultural stereotypes. It is commonly believed that gender roles can be learned in order to perform the appropriate role towards family, society and community or other social group. Generally, gender ideology appears to be constrained by patriar- chal ideology that gives priority to the masculine over the feminine in almost all environments, including school, household, labour market and community [6]. The concept can reflect these attitudes generally or in a specific domain, such as an economic, familial, and social domain. Most gender ideological constructs from traditional (conservative), or anti-feminist to non-traditional (egalitarian), liberal, or feminist. Traditional gender ideologies emphasize the value of the distinctive roles for women and men.
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Attitudes to Family Formation in Ireland:  findings from the Nationwide Study

Attitudes to Family Formation in Ireland: findings from the Nationwide Study

Factor IV, Belief in Traditional Male Support and Protection concerns traditional gender roles. A large majority (73%) agree that “most women need and want the kind of protection and support that men have traditionally given them.” This item has been used in several Irish studies over the last 35 years and has been found to be quite stable. For example in 1986 75.4% agreed with this statement (Fine-Davis, 1988a) and in 2005 a high proportion (69%) did also (Fine-Davis et al., 2005). While other measures of gender role attitudes have changed dramatically over time, this item has remained stable at high levels. This suggests that it may be tapping into a psychological need, rather than into gender roles per se . As noted above, we added for the first time a male counterpart item. It may be seen that an almost identical proportion (79%) agreed that “most men need and want to give the kind of protection and support that they have traditionally given to women.” There is also much agreement (52%) with the item “being a wife and mother are the most fulfilling roles any woman could want.” In a nationwide study in 1978, 77.6% agreed with this statement (Fine-Davis, 1988a). The level of support dropped to 54.5% in 1986 (Ibid.). However, in 2005 the agreement increased to 66% (Fine- Davis et al., 2005). While some of this difference may be attributed to slight differences in the samples, what is notable is that relatively large proportions in all studies agreed with the item over time, whereas other items showed larger changes in a less traditional direction. This suggests that this item, together with the item concerning the need for protection and support, are tapping into basic needs and beliefs which are not changing to any great degree as a result of social changes in gender roles.
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Crossing sexual barriers: The influence of background factors and personal attitudes on sexual guilt and sexual anxiety among Canadian and American Muslim women and men

Crossing sexual barriers: The influence of background factors and personal attitudes on sexual guilt and sexual anxiety among Canadian and American Muslim women and men

guilt and anxiety. For this sample of young, educated, and ethnically diverse Muslims living (and mostly raised) in Canada and the United States (as citizens or permanent residents), religiosity, followed by attitudes regarding sexually permissive behaviours, were determined to be the two most important contributors to experience of sexual guilt and sexual anxiety. The direct relationship of religiosity with sexual guilt and sexual anxiety demonstrated the importance of religion in determining levels of both, while the partial mediating role of sexual attitudes, belief in the sexual double standard, and gender role attitudes aided in understanding the relationship as one affected by the sexual and gender attitudes one holds. Perceived parental sexual attitudes did not demonstrate any predictive value and instead simply co-varied with religiosity. Indeed, levels of sexual guilt and anxiety were not influenced by participants’ perceptions of their parents’ sexual attitudes. Sexual experience, however, did directly and indirectly influence young Muslim adults’ levels of sexual guilt and anxiety while their sexual attitudes had some influence on that relationship. Finally, counter to what the previous literature had suggested about the influence of gender in varying populations, few differences were found between Muslim men and women and as such gender did not predict sexual guilt and anxiety. This study therefore provides new information which could help both young Muslim adults, and those working with them, understand how various factors in their lives have an impact on their sexual guilt and sexual anxiety.
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Stress Coping Attitudes Based on Perceived Religiousness and Received Religious Education

Stress Coping Attitudes Based on Perceived Religiousness and Received Religious Education

It can be concluded that having religious education in family is more beneficial and useful in coping with stress than not receiving it in at home. It should also be considered that another factor or factors other than get- ting religious education in family can be effective in the stress that the people have. For example, it can be thought that some behaviours as parents’ democratic attitudes or whether they are having religious life that they tell and want to have or not might have either positive or negative contribution to the individuals’ stress. Şahin (2006) stated in his study that parents’ religiousness as well as their personality can have influence on their chil- dren’s religion-related stress and its frequency; if parents are oppressive and rigid religious, this oppression can result in stress that children have. Şahin (2006) suggests in his study that the lowest frequency level of religion- related stress belongs to the individuals who see the religiosity level of their families high and those who see the religiosity level of their families as oppositely low. This partially supports our findings of the research.
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Gender in medicine – an issue for women only? A survey of physician teachers' gender attitudes

Gender in medicine – an issue for women only? A survey of physician teachers' gender attitudes

In medicine gender has often been wrongly used as synon- ymous with biological sex [18]. Gender is a wider concept than sex (table 1) [19,20]. Gender implies looking at women and men, and their health, from a social, psycho- logical and cultural perspective. However, when research concerns women and men in social contexts and their health and diseases it is seldom possible to distinguish to what degree a condition or phenomenon is social or bio- logical in origin. Consequently, in medicine it is appropri- ate to include biology in the concept of gender and in gender perspective. Life circumstances, positions in soci- ety, and societal expectations about "femininity" and "masculinity" are to be considered along with biology. When introducing new perspectives into medical curric- ula teachers and tutors are key persons. They impart not only knowledge and skills to their students but also confer attitudes, which influence behaviour [17]. This means that the teachers' attitudes, ideas and preconceptions about, for example, gender are weighty messengers not to be ignored when planning interventions and changes in medical education. In line with this, a survey was con- ducted among physicians involved in medical education and clinical tutoring.
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Representing women voters: the role of the Gender Gap and the response of political parties

Representing women voters: the role of the Gender Gap and the response of political parties

The Soccer Mom reappeared, although to a lesser extent, in the 2000 presidential election campaign and she was followed by the Security Mom in 2004 (Carroll 2006; Carroll 2008: 77). The Security Mom had much in common with the Soccer Mom: she was perceived to be white, married with young children, but in the wake of the 2001 terrorist attacks she was extremely anxious to protect her family (Carroll 2006: 93). And, much like the Soccer Mom, “empirical data collected from voters offer little support for the characterization of security moms as portrayed in media accounts” (Carroll 2008: 76). Kerry and Bush both addressed the Security Mom by stressing that they would be tough on terrorism, but Kerry also focused on healthcare and the gender pay gap in an attempt to gain support among poorer women who were over-represented in the undecided category. Both candidates made symbolic attempts to appeal to women voters by making public appearances with prominent women and in addition Kerry made some targeted issue based appeals. Sue Carroll concludes that the Security Mom frame benefited the Bush campaign because it allowed him to appear to address women’s concerns without making any tangible policy commitments (Carroll 2008: 87). Again the Security Mom frame deflected attention away from other sub-groups of women, from the women’s movement and from a feminist reading of the gender gap (Carroll 2006). Although the use of the frames meant that women voters received some attention during the campaign it would seem that neither the Soccer Mom nor the Security Mom were likely to encourage the parties to attempt to represent liberally feminist women.
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Adolescent gender attitudes : structure and media influence

Adolescent gender attitudes : structure and media influence

these two disparate perspectives. Both functionalism and social constructionism have been associated with the notion of gendered “scripts”. For example, Fox and Murry (2000) state that, within a functionalist framework, “gender is enacted or played out according to scripts that are carefully taught and repeatedly rehearsed until behavior governed by one’s gender role script becomes so natural as the be seen as an integral part of oneself” (p. 1163). At the same time, in an essay detailing the evolution of their thinking surrounding the concept of the sexual script, Simon and Gagnon (2003) attribute this concept to a social constructionist perspective that rejected purely biological sexual drives and included the possibility of social influences. Most closely related to the gender role script used by Fox and Murry (2000) above is Simon and Gagnon’s idea of cultural scenarios, the most abstract level of scripting that refers to institutionalized role requirements and practices. On a more concrete level, interpersonal scripting takes place when abstract role scripts are applied by individual actors to specific situations that arise (Simon and Gagnon 1984). As such, the notion of scripting appears to bridge these very different perspectives 2 . A simple compromise between the two would allow that gendered scripts exist (as stereotypical modes of behavior or clusters of attitudes), but that individuals are variable in their adherence to such scripts. A scripting perspective carries with it implications for the measurement of gender constructs.
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The Role of Gender on Perceptions of Stalking and Harassment Behaviour within Same and Cross-Sex Relationships: Evidence from University and Law Enforcement Samples

The Role of Gender on Perceptions of Stalking and Harassment Behaviour within Same and Cross-Sex Relationships: Evidence from University and Law Enforcement Samples

Phillips et al., 2004; Spitzberg et al., 2010; Yanowitz, 2006), which may help explain why gender effects were not found. Second, previous research has tended to describe behaviour that meets the legal definition of stalking (i.e., includes a statement of fear). It may be that fear mediates the relation between gender and perception (e.g., Sheridan & Lydon, 2012), which is consistent with the finding that participants who read a scenario without a statement of fear showed no effect for actor sex on perceived seriousness, but those same participants perceived a scenario that met the legal definition as less serious when it described W-M compared to M-W pursuit behaviour (Rorai, Finnegan, & Fritz, 2013). Finally, the results may reflect evolving attitudes about gender as it relates to experiences of harassment and other forms of IPV, and may challenge claims that victimization of men is not taken seriously. Nevertheless, the results of the current research indicate that when presented with hypothetical harassment scenarios, gender does not influence ratings of perceived seriousness or concern for the target.
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Teacher Gender and Attitude of Primary School Pupils to Schooling in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Teacher Gender and Attitude of Primary School Pupils to Schooling in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

It is generally believed that a person’s attitude towards a person or thing has a direct bearing on the person’s reaction to the person or thing. One would infer from this that an individual’s attitude affects his behaviour or performance. In fact, findings from a number of studies [1] indicate that attitude is one of the determinants of academic performance. But findings from a study like that of Kinniard [12] indicated no clear relationship between a student having a positive attitude towards his/her academic setting and achieving academic success in the classroom. Manoah, Indoshi and Othuon [18] pointed out that there was research evidence showing that students’ high performance in mathematics was not necessarily positively associated with their attitudes about mathematics and mathematics learning. They cited results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) that had been presented by Mullis [19] as revealing that while Japanese students over-performed students from many other countries in mathematics, their attitudes towards mathematics were relatively negative. In
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ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

The extreme form of devaluation of women had been the practice of female infanticide. Nearly 10 million female foetuses have been aborted in the country over the past two decades. Arnold et al.(2001) used NSS data and reported the use of amniocentesis for sex selection of children in Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. They reported that there are 1.30 million induced abortions in India every year of which over one lakh are sex selective abortions following an ultrasound/amniocentesis test. In Haryana, sex ratio of lowest of all the states (Census of India, 2011). For the solution of this problem of gender discrimination ,the idea to appoint Gender Champions is relevant.It will be fruitful if implemented systematically in an effective manner.
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Deindustrialization, Class, and Adolescents: Changing Gender Attitudes in Middletown

Deindustrialization, Class, and Adolescents: Changing Gender Attitudes in Middletown

The purpose of this investigation is to assess how adolescents negotiate their futures in terms of educational goals and gen- dered roles in a community that was experiencing marked deindustrialization. In this analysis, we examine data collected from high school students in the city of Muncie, a small com- munity in east-central Indiana that experienced marked dein- dustrialization during the 1970s and 1980s. Muncie is charac- terized as having a strong manufacturing history, but in recent decades has altered its economic base in the face of job loss in the industrial sector. Like so many other manufacturing cities in the United States, Muncie experienced a plethora of factory closings during the 1970 s essentially wiping out jobs in the electronic, steel, glass, and automotive industries that had once been the backbone of its economy. As the manufacturing in- dustries were phased out, the economy shifted to being primar- ily service-oriented, and the community saw an increase in sales, office work, and other service occupations. Using survey data collected from Muncie high school students in 1977, 1989, and 1999, we are able to examine the way local students’ ex- pectations regarding school, work, and gender roles were al- tered in response to the community’s economic transformation.
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Economic (In)Security and Gender Differences in Trade Policy Attitudes

Economic (In)Security and Gender Differences in Trade Policy Attitudes

By using an original analytical approach that focuses not just on general attitudes toward free or international trade, but for the first time on a significant scale, on attitudes toward the issues and components of free/international trade and its effects, this research generates some valuable theoretical insight into and empirical illustrations of how gender may be affecting preferences toward trade policies. The evidence suggests that a mobile factors/economic security approach helps us to understand better how gender is affecting trade policy attitudes. Women who perceive that they are more economically secure or perhaps observe better economic prospects – at least in the face of trade policy change – tend to be more sanguine about trade liberalization, including college-educated women in the U.S., and to some extent, less educated women in developing countries. In contrast, women who find themselves in more vulnerable economic positions – less educated women in the U.S. and better educated women in developing countries – are more skeptical about policies of freer trade. Considering that the preponderance of research on trade attitudes includes only developed countries and finds a consistently negative gender effect, this very robust finding for the U.S. is enormously important. Moreover, these findings are robust to trade’s broader economic effects – similar patterns clearly emerge across multiple facets of trade. While scholars must do more work to test these relationships, empirical evidence supporting broader mobile factors of trade attitudes explanations may be partly driven by gender.
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