Responsible Editor: I. Stavrakakis
This paper presents an eﬃcient and accurate analytical model for the radio interface of the generalpacketradioservice (GPRS) in a GSM network. The model is utilized for investigating how many packet data channels should be allocated for GPRS under a given amount of traﬃc in order to guarantee appropriate quality of service. The presented model constitutes a continuous-time Markov chain. The Markov model represents the sharing of radio channels by circuit switched GSM connections and packet switched GPRS sessions under a dynamic channel allocation scheme. In contrast to previous work, the Markov model explicitly represents the mobility of users by taking into account arrivals of new GSM and GPRS users as well as handovers from neighboring cells. Furthermore, we take into account TCP ﬂow control for the GPRS data packets. To validate the simpliﬁcations necessary for making the Markov model amenable to numerical solution, we provide a comparison of the results of the Markov model with a detailed simulator on the network level.
The IP based data services are the most rapidly growing market in the telecommunication industry at the moment. In order to provide access to those services efficiently, a new mechanism that consumes resources only when data is sent and received is required. In the first phase this is done by utilising the GeneralPacketRadioService (GPRS) in GSM networks. In the network evolution path, the GPRS is seen as a stepping stone towards the third generation UMTS networks.
Kata kunci: GeneralPacketRadioService, Global System for Mobile, Global Positioning System, Monitoring Sepeda Motor, Google Maps API.
egara Republik Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara berkembang di Asia yang mempunyai tingkat kemajuan teknologi yang cukup pesat. Teknologi dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan diciptakan dan dikembangkan untuk mempermudah dan mempercepat suatu pekerjaan dilakukan termasuk teknologi di bidang keamanan. Berbagai sistem keamanan telah dikembangkan, mulai dari sistem keamanan parkir kendaraan, komunikasi, rumah, kantor dan banyak lagi sistem keamanan yang diciptakan untuk kenyamanan masyarakat.
In response to customer demand for wireless Internet access – and as a stepping-stone to 3G networks – many GSM operators are rolling out generalpacketradioservice (GPRS). This technology increases the data rates of existing GSM networks, allowing transport of packet- based data. New GPRS handsets will be able to transfer data at rates much higher than the 9.6 or 14.4 kbps currently available to mobile-phone users. Under ideal circumstances, GPRS could support rates to 171.2 kbps, surpassing ISDN access rates. However, a more realistic data rate for early network deployments is probably around 40 kbps using one uplink and three downlink timeslots.
One of GSM technology that can be used for the transmission of IoT data is GeneralPacketRadioService (GPRS). This technology, nevertheless, still has two weaknesses in its implementation regarding the use of high power and low coverage area. A solution offered is the network of Narrowband-IoT (NB-IoT), a protocol proposed by 3GPP to replace GPRS protocol  . NB-IoT can use a little part of LTE network  and has a gain of 20dB in an indoor environment (such as in a tunnel) in comparison to GPRS. In addition, NB-IoT is more power saving for being designed to the low power devices, off-the-grid / dependent upon the battery and has a network performance resembling GPRS
• Point-To-Point (PTP) and Point-To-Multipoint (PTM) packet services.
1.4 Benefits of GPRS
The data transferred is encapsulated into short packets with a header containing the origin and destination address. The packets are then sent individually over the transmission network. Packets originating from one user may take different routes through the network to the receiver. Packets originating from many users can be interleaved, so that the transmission capacity is shared. No pre-set time-slots are used. Instead, network capacity is allocated when needed and released when not needed. This is called statistical multiplexing, in contrast to static time division multiplexing. In static time division multiplexing, time-slots are reserved for one user for the length of the connection regardless of whether it is used or not, as with PCM lines and GSM voice and circuit switched data. GPRS upgrades GSM data services to be more compatible with LANs, WANs and the Internet. GPRS uses radio resources only when there is data to be sent or received, and so is well adapted to the very bursty nature of data applications. Furthermore, it provides fast connectivity and high throughput. While the current GSM system was originally designed for voice sessions, the main objective of GPRS is to offer access to standard data networks such as TCP/IP. These networks consider GPRS to be normal sub-network.
When the packet is received for a MT, the packet has to be routed to the cell in which the MT is located. In the circuit-switched service, the mobile network system is split up into a number of location areas that consist of a number of cells. In this way the core network can keep a registration of the current location area of each MT, and therefore it will only need to call the mobile within that area. In the packet-switched service of GPRS, the registration area is called as the routing area (RA), and this RA is defined to be smaller than the location area. Because the radio resource is only assigned while packet is transferred, so the frequency of paging per the MT has a tendency to be increasing in comparison with the circuit-switched service.
• NS - Network Service - transports BSSGP PDUs. Based on the Frame Relay
connection between BSS and SGSN and may be multi-hop and traverse a network of Frame Relay switching nodes. (GSM 8.16)
• RLC/MAC - Radio Link Control/Medium Access Control - layer controlling 2 functions: RLC provides a radio solution dependent reliable link. The MAC
Considering single slot operation, all M uplink channels can be modelled as synchronized slotted channels as shown in Fig- ure 2. One request packet is one slot in size. One network layer packet data unit (PDU), including LLC/RLC headers and checksums, occupies several slots. Between the successful trans- mission of a request packet on a PRACH slot and the corre- sponding data transmission on the assigned PDTCH slots, some finite time gets elapsed because of the propagation and process- ing delays involved. This delay is typically of the order of a few slots.
Applications like file transfer, remote login, etc., will require high reliability. But, applications like audio, video, etc., will require low reliability, because they can tolerate errors. Due to these diverse requirements, QoS is inevitable.
Delay refers the time needed to send a packet from source to destination. Jitter refers the delay variation. Delay includes the time needed for the propagation of packets and the processing of packets. Measures must be taken to reduce propagation issue and processing issue. Delay issues are very important in mobile networks. They have to be handled carefully in order to provide QoS. Due to its exponential growth and moving nature, complexities of various parameters are increasing. Some of the delay issues occur with web access, remote login, telephony and video-conference, etc.
The LLC packets ( E\WHV DUH SDVVHG WR WKH 5/&
layer, where they are segmented into smaller RLC blocks. The size of these depends on the applied coding scheme. RLC is always operated in an acknowledged mode with a sliding window flow control mechanism and a selective ARQ mode providing a reliable link between MS and BSS. Additionally, a new medium access control scheme, tailored to the demands of the packet oriented data transmission, is introduced. The RLC/MAC layer will ensure the concurrent access to radio resources in a more flexible way compared to the unmodified TDMA structure. The flexibility is achieved by the introduction of a logical Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) which is multiplexed onto a physical data channel.
This article provides an introduction to GPRS. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basic concepts of cellular networks. A brief overview of the GSM system can be found in . In addition, there exists a variety of books on GSM, e.g., . The structure of the paper is as follows. First we describe the GPRS system architecture and discuss the fundamental functionality. We then describe the offered services and the Quality of Service parameters. Afterward we show how a GPRS mobile station registers with the network, and how the network keeps track of its location. An example of how packets are routed in GPRS is given. Next, the physical layer at the air interface is explained, and we discuss the concept of multiple access, radio resource management, and the logical channels and their mapping onto physical channels. We then consider GPRS channel coding, and follow this with a discussion of the GPRS protocol architecture. Finally, we give an example of a GPRS-Internet interconnection.
With the same network configuration, we can also implement our modified LSR scheme on GPRS. In our modified LSR scheme, the mobile host will not keep its destination mobile host’s LD information. The foreign agent SGSN, which serves the mobile host, caches the LD information. If the SGSN has LD information for the destination mobile host, it will be able to send packets directly back to the mobile node without the service of the GGSN. First, let us introduce three LSR optional messages used for distribution of LD information:
1.2.4 Output RF Spectrum due to switching
Output RF Spectrum (ORFS) due to switching measures the spread in spectral RF energy due to GSM/GPRS burst ramping. The results of this test are likely to be quite different for a multi-uplink GPRS MS compared to a GSM MS. In general, if the transmitter ramps too quickly, unwanted spectral energy spread will occur in the transmission. By spreading into other frequency channels, this effects the quality of service experi- enced by other users in the cell, thus increasing their TX power (reducing battery life) and increasing overall interference. If the MS ramps up too slowly, ORFS problems are avoided but you might see bit errors at the beginning of bursts or the burst will be outside of the specifications for power versus time. Also, if the MS is ramping much too slowly this interferes with users in adjacent timeslots.
tion stored in their buffers during the early phase of the session. As a result, they frequently send non-innovative NC packets to the destinations. If l is large, the relays receive packets from fewer generations during the initial phase but has more packets per generation. For example, when l = 1, W = 25, and the links have very high SNR, the primary relay obtains 5 NC packets from each generation before it gets its first opportunity to transmit. The re- lay then proceeds to make 25 transmissions, 5 from each generation. For each of these 5 transmissions, the network encoder at the relay must operate on only 5 NC packets. On the other hand, when l =100, the primary relay obtains 25 NC packets from the first generation and none from the other generations before it gets its first opportunity to transmit. The relay then makes 25 transmissions, each of which is a random linear combination of 25 packets. Because the network encoder operates on a larger set of NC packets, the fraction of non-innovative packets generated is expected to be smaller in this case. This is true at lower values of SNR as well; however, the problem of correlated packet erasures explained in Appendix E dominates in that region. As a result, the performance of the NR mode of RLNC gives higher throughput for l = 1 than for l = 100 at low and moderate values of SNR. We have found that, regardless of the value of l, the NR mode’s performance does not exceed that of the FR mode with l = 1. Therefore, we use mode FR with l = 1 for all subsequent evaluations of RLNC in this chapter.
Basic concept is packetradio within the disaster area to an RMS packet station outside the disaster area
• Local stations can send each other email (via Winlink) and also
communicate with the outside world via the RMS Packet station outside the disaster area