The effects of feeding different mixture levels of garlic and ginger powder as natural feed additives on productive performance, carcass characteristic and economic efficiency were studied. A total of one hundred and sixty one-day old, unsexed (Ross-308) broiler chicks were randomly divided into four experimental groups. Each group was further subdivided into five replicates at the rate of eight chicks per pen in complete randomized design. The birds were fed on two basal diets (starter and finisher diets). The garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) powder were added in different mixture levels to the basal diets resulting in four experimental groups. The first group (A) fed on basal diets without feed additives (control diet). The other groups (B), (C) and (D) were fed on basal diets supplemented with different mixture powder levels of 1% (0.75% garlic + 0.25% ginger), 1.25% (1% garlic + 0.25% ginger) and 1.75% (1.50% garlic + 0.25% ginger) respectively. The experimental diets were fed for 6-weeks duration. Healths of the stock and performance parameters were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the birds were slaughtered, dressed then used for different parameters and economical evaluations were calculated. The results showed that, the diet with 1.75% mixture powder (1.5% garlic + 0.25% ginger) had significantly (P<0.05) heaviest body weight gain, best feed conversion ratio, highest dressing percentage with the highest commercial cuts percentages (breast, drumstick and thigh). The birds fed with the control diet recorded significantly (P<0.05) highest abdominal fat, liver and gizzard percentages. The morality rate was not significantly affected by the inclusion of mixture of garlic and ginger powder in broiler diet. The highest profitability ratio was obtained by the diet with 1.75% mixture powder. It was concluded that using a mixture of garlic and ginger as feed additives at level 1.75% enhanced the overall performance and carcass quality of broiler chicks.
The effect of treatment with 1% ginger powder on broiler feed intake during the second week showed significant difference compared to control. And week sixth of treatment, 0.5% highest intake of ginger powder and ginger powder 1% treatments showed the lowest intake. But the whole, period of treatment with 1% ginger powder showed the lowest feed intake and was not significant. The results obtained in this study corresponded with the results of Zhang et al (2009) using ginger (0.5%) and Dieumou et al (2009) using essential oils of ginger (10,20 and 40 mg per day) on broilers.
content as levels of ginger powder increased up to 10% (Table 2). The moisture content is an indication of quality and stability of products. Higher moisture in ginger powder incorporated biscuits could be due to water holding capacity of powders. Protein, fibre and ash content were found to increase gradually by increasing the level of ginger powder. NFE slightly decreased in all samples when compared to the biscuits prepared only with wheat flour (T 0 ). The
The cause of NAFLD is not fully understood. The accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenicity of the NAFLD is the two-hit hypothesis, which was ﬁ rst expressed by James and Day. This hypothesis states that insulin resis- tance, as the ﬁ rst hit, leads to stimulation of the synthesis of liver fatty acids and accumulation of fat in the liver and steatosis, and the liver is more susceptible to the second hit, which is oxidative stress from different sources. 5 There is currently no de ﬁ nitive treatment for NAFLD, so there is an urgent need to ﬁ nd new therapeutic approaches to replace or help with existing fatty liver treatments. Previous studies have indicated that diets containing antioxidants and anti- in ﬂ ammatory agents in some medicinal plants may be bene- ﬁ cial in the treating of NAFLD. 6–8 Ginger (Zingiber Of ﬁ cinale Roscoe) is widely used worldwide as a spice. In the past, this plant has been used to treat neurological dis- eases, diabetes, rheumatism, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, constipation, maldigestion and nausea and vomiting. Food and Drug Administration has approved ginger as a food supplement. Ginger has various pharmacological effects, such as immune regulator, tumor formation inhibiting, anti- in ﬂ ammatory, anti-apoptotic and antiemetic effects. Most of these medicinal effects of ginger are attributed to the pre- sence of various compounds such as gingerol and shogaols. More than 40 antioxidant compounds have been identi ﬁ ed in ginger. 9
11 Read more
showed necrosis of small pyramidal cells indicated neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia. Neuronal necrosis with neuronophagia were associated with glia cell proliferation was more pronounced in striatum than cerebral cortex in KCr-treated group while in the hippocampus there was a massive reduction in cellular density of all areas which was more pronounced in CA3 area. This suggests that PDC interrupts cerebral cortex functions (memory and muscle movement), also, the hippocampal functions and decrease neurogenesis. In contrast, concurrent treatment of KCr-treated rats with ZME, was found to protect cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum against PDC-induced brain damage as evidenced, though showing scarce changes in striatal neurons in ZME+KCr treated rats as individual neuronal cytopathology, thus eliciting ZME ameliorative role on the brain in regenerating neuronal cells. The possible explanation may be due to differences in the distribution of signal molecules and growth factors that play important roles in cell survival and increasing neurogenesis(Alonso et al., 2004), thus indicating the ameliorating antioxidant, anti- inflammatory effect of ZME dry ginger extract against PDC-induced neurotoxicity.
26 Read more
harvested ginger entails sorting, washing, soaking, splitting or peeling and drying it to a moisture content of 7%-12% (Ebewele and Jimoh, 1981; Onu et al., 2014). Currently, ginger is processed for three principal products: ginger powder, ginger oleoresin, and ginger oil. Processing of these ginger products also involves unit operations such as pulverization, extraction and expression. The bulk of Nigerian ginger is marketed internationally in split-dried form, where the importing countries further process it into industrial products mainly ginger powder, essential oils, oleoresin and ginger ale concentrates. The amount of foreign exchange earned by exporting dry ginger is however very insignificant when compared with the amount spent on importing processed ginger products thereby substantiating the need for industrial processing of the Nigerian ginger within Nigeria (Yiljep et al., 2005).
developed in heat storage system was recorded to be 67.46°C whereas, the average ambient temperature was varied from 28 to 39.9°C. Drying time for drying ginger slices for reducing its moisture content from 79.51% to 9.67% (wb) was found to be 15 h in solar cabinet dryer whereas, 17.25 h was observed in the open sun drying method. The heat storage system containing gravel with iron scrap extended the drying hours by 3 h after sunset also. The colour of solar dried ginger slices was found better as compared to open sun dried ginger slices. The powder of ginger slices dried in dryer was prepared and had good quality, colour, appearance, taste, smell and overall acceptability than open sun dried ginger powder. The fats content of 2.06% and 1.86% was observed in ginger powder prepared from the slices dried in solar cabinet dryer and in open sun drying, respectively.
The storage time of the red-ginger bread was evaluated by observing particularly on the growth of mold (Figure 1). The control bread (contained 0% red ginger powder) was used for comparison (Table 3). The result showed that bread supplemented with fresh red ginger and powdered-red ginger possessed longer storage time, which were 9-11.67 and 6.33- 8.33 days, respectively. The antioxidant agents (phenolic compounds e.g. gingerol, shogaol, etc.) in red ginger are predicted to play a role in inhibiting the mold growth.
Ginger, Zingiber officinalis, is a perennial herbaceous plant that is a part of the Zingiberaceae family. Ginger as a carminative, diuretic, tonic and disinfectant compound contains glucosinolate, sterols and triterpenes (Al- Yahya, 1986). Different researchers have examined the effect of ginger on growth performance in broilers, and variable results were reported. For example, Taylor (2001) showed that the use of ginger and ginger powders significantly increased body weight and improved feed conversion compared to birds fed with control diet. In contrast, Zhang et al. (2009) examined the effect of processed ginger with different size on growth performance and showed that the ginger additive had no significant effect on the feed efficiency, while body weight and daily weight gain of birds fed with ginger supplements were higher than control group. It is also reported that serum cholesterol levels in broilers can be decrease 0.4 or 0.6% ginger powder.
Review: Background: cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of mortality in the world. Ginger is an effective way for treatment of blocking vessels and contain compounds that are useful for heart and blood vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ginger supplementation on clinical outcomes and quality of life for atherosclerosis disease. Materials and Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled triple blind clinical trial involving 72 patients with atherosclerosis for 2 months from October to December 2015. Cholesterol, FBS, VLDL, HDL and Tg was measured at the beginning and end. Ginger powder or a placebo were given 1600 mg per day and exercise test before and after the intervention. Test variables using Paired T-Test, Student T-Test, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney were compared and P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: In the experimental group weight, FBS, Tg, VLDL compared to the control group (placebo) decreased statistically significant (P = 0 <0.05).also in Ginger consumer groups Exercise test duration and the number of METS increased statistically significant (P = 0 <0.05). Total score quality of life as well as heart pain score improved in the intervention group was more effective than placebo (P = 0 <0.05).
Primary processing of ginger rhizomes involves operations such as washing, slicing/splitting/peeling and drying . Peeling of ginger is an important unit operation where fully matured rhizomes are scraped with bamboo-splits having pointed ends, to remove the outer skin before drying to accelerate the drying process . Although ginger cultivation in Nigeria started in 1927 , peeling which is one of the unit operations in its local processing is still being done predominantly by traditional method (manual scraping with knife) which is labour intensive, full of drudgery and it also exposes the hand to injury. Deep scraping with knife needs to be avoided to prevent damage to oil-bearing cells present just beneath the outer skin. Excessive peeling results in reduction of essential oil content in dried product.
scattered trees around the farmers‟ houses. Before the end of the twentieth century, farmers were not known to practice intercropping on ginger farms with any other crop. This is understandable because not many crops perform well under tree shades together with the growing ginger, hence it will be an economic waste if the intercropped species is not shade tolerant. Now, that cultivation is expanding, it has been reported that the crop is being intercropped with other crops. The major intercrops used in large ginger growing countries like India are ginger + maize, maize + finger millet, maize + cassava, maize +buckwheat, and vegetables (Lachungpa, 2004). This practice appears more advantageous as it enables farmers to grow the normal crop (ginger) in addition to receiving bonus of another from the same field as reported by (Mkamilo, 2004). The magnitude of the agro-economic advantages depends upon the type of intercrop (Rao, 1991). Intercropping being a unique practice of tropical and sub-tropical areas is becoming more popular among small scale farmers as it offers the yield advantage relative to sole cropping through yield stability and improved yield (Bhatti et al., 2006). However, there is a paucity of information on the intercropping of ginger with other crops in Nigeria. This is because ginger as old as its cultivation has been in Nigeria, has not got the research attention that was given to other cash crops such as cocoa, cotton, groundnuts, oil palm, rubber, etc. Since maize is one of the major growing crops in Kaduna State. The study was carried out to determine the most suitable maize population that would give an appropriate advantageous shade to ginger without significantly affecting its yield or the yield of maize adversely. The result of the experiment will provide the farmers useful information as to the maize plant population to adopt for maximizing the use of environmental resources without losing out in the final yield of ginger, which is their major crop.
functions with inhibition of COX and prevention of PGE2 and TXA2 . In another study conducted by Franciscoa et al., ginger is full of phenolic antioxidants (flavonols) and hydroxycinnamic acid. These ingredients have direct and profound antioxidant effects and remove the released radicals effectively. Further, they can explain various genes involved in encoding metabolic enzymes which are effective in decreasing some diseases and disorders . In general, ginger rhizome can be used as a medicinal herb to prevent cancer patients from cisplatin-induced oxidative hepatic damages. Furthermore, it can be used as a supplement and food additive due to its antioxidant properties or with cisplatin simultaneously. However, the present study did not focus on whether the extract of this herb can decrease the medical effects of cisplatin. In addition, neoplasia effects were not compared in the present study. Finally, it is recommended to study the effects of various doses of extract, molecular and cellular mechanisms in its pharmacological functions in further research.
The results showed that the washing time, the slicing thickness, drying method and drying temperature affect the water content and active compounds of ginger and red ginger simplicia products. These effects include an increase in washing time material which increases the water content of simplicia products with lower levels of active compounds, while the increased of slice thickness increase the water content as well as an active compound of simplicia products. Meanwhile, the optimization result shows that drying method using sunlight with a black fabric as intermediary produced ginger and red ginger simplicia with the highest water content. Lower water levels produced from the drying process with direct sunlight and the lowest water content obtained from products which have dried in the oven. Furthermore, the increase in drying temperatures has produced simplicia with lower water content and reaches the maximum when used drying temperature of 115 ° C.
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disease that affects the joints and consequently leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone lesions. Traditionally, ginger has been consumed in treatment of osteoarthritis, joint and muscle pain, neurological diseases, and inflammation of gums, tooth pain, asthma, stroke, diabetes, and constipation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ginger on some immunological and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: In this study, which was performed during 2013-2016, 66 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who referred to the rheumatology clinic at Shariati hospital were en-rolled. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: one group consumed 1.5 gr ginger per day, and the other group took roasted wheat flour (placebo), respectively. To determine the effect of confounding factors on the findings of the study, questionnaires for nutrient intake, physical activity, and medication were filled, and BMI was measured. For each participant, at the beginning and end of the study, Serum hs-CRP and mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-2 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA and Quantitative Real Time PCR, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Significance level was set at p<0.05.
The pharmacokinetic profiles of the chemical constituents of red ginger have never been investigated. However, a pharmacokinetic study of similar compounds, namely 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, has been conducted. The tests were carried out using both 14 C-labeled 6- shogaol and unlabeled 6-shogaol. The study showed that the blood concentration of these compounds (AUC) is dose-dependent. When administered orally at a dose of 10mg/kg, 20% of 6-shogaol (labeled) is excreted via urine, 64% in feces, and 12.9% through the respiratory tract. Meanwhile, orally-administered 6-shogaol (unlabeled) had a low plasma concentration and excretion. This suggests that 6-shogaol is largely metabolized in the body and is excreted in the form of metabolites . Furthermore, 6-gingerol has an elimination half-life of 7.23 minutes with CrCl 16.8 ml/min/kg and 92.4% protein binding. Also, gut flora and liver enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of 6-gingerol .
Phylogenetic tree of zingiberous lectin sequences was constructed along with amino acid sequences of other monocot families using MEGA7.Maximum Likelihood statistical method was used to draw a tree with bootstrap test and they have shown as tradition style respectively to visualize their relatedness easily (Figure -7). Zingiberous sequences get clustered with Allium sativam and Annona squmosa than other family lectins. This is correlating with BlastP iteration where our lectins are having similarity with A. sativam (96%), A. ampeloprosum (89%), other allium species (71- 85%), A.squmosa (96%). Other family lectins are seemed to be distantly related. Dioscorea polystachya, Ananas comosus, Epipactis helleborine, Galanthus nivalis, Amaryllia minuta, Amorphophallus konjac and Typhonium divaricatumare clustered in one group with the similarity of 52-65%. Tulipa hybrid cultivar and Crocus vernus is the other group with similarity 49%.By above functional characterization Alpinia, mango ginger, cardamom and ginger protein sequences were found to have many characters commonly possessed by mannose binding lectins. Phylogenetic analysis of lectins reveals they belong to the extended superfamily.
17 Read more
For all four lectins the modeled structures were selected based on the C-score which is calculated based on the significance of threading template alignments and the convergence parameter rs of the structure assembly simulations. C-score is typically in the range of [-5, 2], where a C-score of a higher value signifies a model with a higher confidence and vice-versa. The selected models were satisfied this condition, all models were resided in between the C-score range notably Alpinia galanga lectin (- 2.02), Curcuma amada lectin (-2.90), Eleterria cardamom (-2.80) and Zingiber officinale lectin (-2.80). TM-score and RMSD are estimated based on C-score and protein length following the correlation observed between these qualities. The following figures -9 (A,a); (B,b); (C,c) and (D,d) showing the predicted 3D structures along with their ligand binding site of Alpinia, mango ginger, cardamom, and ginger respectively. Resulted models were validated for their quality and their sterio-chemical properties. The structures were submitted to PMDB database. Three-dimensional co-ordinates the lectins were selected from the PDB database based on the RMSD and TM score. The structures of the proteins Alpinia, mango ginger cardamom, ginger and were obtained from the PDB with the following PDB ids 1MSA, 3DZW, 1NPL and 1BWU respectively.
17 Read more
first phase is evaporation of juice until supersaturation reaches. At this phase, the seed crystal or nucleus is obtained. Second phase is the growth of the crystal. As water is evaporated, the dissolved sugar concentration increases, resulting in crystal growth. The third phaseconsists of tightening which is principally controlled by evaporationcapacity. In instant ginger drink production, cooking of the juice (the mixture of ginger extract and cane sugar) is aimed for water evaporation. Cooking is also done with continuous stirring. Agitation of the juice is very important to accelerate mass and energy transfer during crystallization. After nucleus formation, mass transfer of sugar from solution into crystal seed is very important. Transfer of sugar mass into crystal seed needs energy that is facilitated by agitation. Nucleation occurs when supersaturation is reached due to water evaporation. Supersaturation is also as a critical sugar crystallization parameter 13 .
A crude methanol extract of ginger root has a powerful, dose-dependent, positive inotropic effect on the isolated left atria of experimental animals. It would therefore aid circulation by increasing the force of muscular contractions in the atria. Gingerols were determined to be the active constituents.