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I redditi lordi dei prodotti agricoli nelle regioni italiane = The gross margins for agricultural products in the Italian regions. Information on agriculture 59, December 1978

I redditi lordi dei prodotti agricoli nelle regioni italiane = The gross margins for agricultural products in the Italian regions. Information on agriculture 59, December 1978

La soluzione corretta del problema La si può avere solo operando in questo modo : a -estendere il sistema del pro-rata alle consociazioni erbacee-arboree, in modo da riportare tutto a co[r]

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Spatial structure of agricultural output in Republic of Ireland

Spatial structure of agricultural output in Republic of Ireland

For each rural district, the numbers o f crop hectares and livestock units were multiplied by the appropriate county standard gross margins to derive gross margin values for individual e[r]

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Statistics in Focus  Farm structure in Malta   2007  2008 73

Statistics in Focus Farm structure in Malta 2007 2008 73

11 020 agricultural holdings were recorded in Malta in the 2007 Farm structure survey (55 less than in 2005). Only 38% of these holdings had an economic size of at least one European Size Unit (ESU), compared to about 74% in 2005. This big difference is due to a change in agricultural prices, which has reduced the total Standard Gross Margins (SGM) over recent years.

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The Potential for Segmentation of the Retail Market for Electricity in Ireland  ESRI WP433  April 2012

The Potential for Segmentation of the Retail Market for Electricity in Ireland ESRI WP433 April 2012

The gross margin also varies slightly by the gender of respondents. During the period analysed the households of the male respondents generate €9 extra for electricity suppliers than their female counterparts; however, the standard deviation around the average is larger for males than it is for females. Customers in different social class categories also generate different gross margins. Customers who are employed in higher managerial, administrative or professional positions generate a margin of €243 whereas the figure is only €189 per year for customers who are either semi-skilled, unskilled, pensioners or unemployed. Those with a social status of higher managerial, administrative or professional are also the highest earners of all social status categories, so, this result is not surprising. As expected, the gross margin increases as the number of people living in a household increases. The smallest margins are made on one person households, generating just 2.1c per half hour. Two person households are more prevalent than any other household size but they generate a margin of just 2.3c per half hour. Ten person households generate the highest gross margin but there is just one such household in our sample. Generally, households with seven or more people generate the highest margins.
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Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems

Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems

Miscanthus and SRCW economic analyses. Crop storage and drying are associated with the greatest uncertainty, and the choice of supply strategy results in variation of these and post-production transport, handling and combustion costs. For SRCW, producing wet wood chip for immediate sale is the most profitable supply strategy, even after prices were adjusted to reflect additional transport costs and reduced LHV compared with dried wood chip. These costs, borne by the consumer, may be mitigated if wood chip is used close to where it is produced, and if process heat can be used for drying (requires coordinated supply chain). Consequently, farmers may not need to reduce the farm-gate prices for wet wood chip supply, enabling higher revenues to be realised. Stick-harvest and outdoor drying may be the most realistic strategy, both from a whole-chain cost and energy-use perspective. For Miscanthus, chopped harvest is the cheaper supply strategy when compared with baling, but it may be associated with higher handling costs beyond the farm gate. Profitability was highly dependent on production costs, and annualised gross margins became negative for some supply strategies when the highest cost estimates were applied. However, profitability was maintained, albeit diminished, when low yields were assumed, owing to the assumed proportionality of many costs to harvestable yield. Variations in the discount rate had a modest, but not critical, impact on discounted gross margins. Gross margins were critically dependent on the farm-gate price of biomass, though remained positive at the low end of the 70, 100 and 130 h t 1 DM range applied to both Miscanthus and SRCW. The mid price of h100 t 1 DM is indicative of current circum-
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2013/14

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2013/14

Gross and net margin data are included for selected organic livestock and crop enterprises. Margins for organic dairy herds are presented on a herd size and top performing herds basis as well as a regional basis, in addition to a two year identical sample. Cattle and sheep gross margins are shown for lowland and LFA farm types. For arable crops, gross and net margins are also shown, and include winter and spring wheat, spring barley, spring oats, and beans for stock feed. Where available, 2012/13 organic and conventional gross margin data are shown alongside the 2013/14 data. The conventional farm data are included from holdings that have been clustered within the whole farm section of this report.
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The Implications for Cattle Producers of Seasonal Price Fluctuations

The Implications for Cattle Producers of Seasonal Price Fluctuations

FIGUR~ 7: GRAPHS SHOWING GROSS MARGINS FROM WINTER FEEDING OF CATTLE ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT COSTS AND SELLING PRICES: Initial weight = 6½ ewt: Silage consumption ---- 4½ tons 7r = Gro[r]

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Financial and economic analyses of rice based production systems in lowlands in South Benin

Financial and economic analyses of rice based production systems in lowlands in South Benin

On average and without distinguishing between subystems, the gross margins are on average higher in Vovokanmey-Agbédranfo than in Houinga (789,779 and 537,689 FCFA/hectare, respectively). These findings can be explained by the development of lowlands in Vovokanmey-Agbédranfo, suggesting that the development of lowlands has a positive effect on the production margins of farmers. However, a close analysis across sites for the rice-based production subsystems that are common across the two production sites shows different patterns. Individual subsystems in Houinga recorded higher gross margin than those in Vovokanmey- Agbédranfo, except the subsystem SS5. The most probable explanation would be practice effects. As we have higher proportion of women exploiting these lowlands, and because the literature sometimes suggests that women left on farms without the benefit of male labor are at a disadvantage compared to other households, these findings suggest that farmers in Vovokanmey- Agbédranfo who are mostly female-farmers, are likely to be technical (financial) inefficient as compared with their peers in Houinga mostly men.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2011/12 (OF0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2011/12 (OF0373)

Defra introduced a new farm typology system for 2010/11, but to allow comparisons with previous years, all farms in this report were classified utilising the previous system: Constituent EC type (1985 EC Typology described in Commission Decision 85/377/EEC) and for the purposes of this report are presented in groups by robust type according to the UK farm classification system (revised 1994) 5 . (See Appendix 4 for more information). The constituent EC types are determined using standard gross margins (SGMs) for conventional farms to estimate European Size Units (ESUs). This classification system may not appropriately reflect the enterprise profile of organic farm systems due to differences in gross margin values, but there is no alternative classification system available. It is considered that within the current classification system errors are likely to be small. The new typology based on standard output has not been assessed for its effect on organic farm systems. For this report cropping farms have been split into cereal and general cropping
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2010/11 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2010/11 (OF 0373)

Gross and net margin data are included for selected organic livestock and crop enterprises. Margins for organic dairy herds are presented on a herd size and top performing herds basis as well as a regional basis, in addition to a two year identical sample. Cattle and sheep gross margins are shown for lowland and LFA farm types. For arable crops, gross and net margins are also shown, and include winter and spring wheat, spring barley, spring oats, and beans for stock feed. Where available, 2009/10 organic and conventional gross margin data are shown alongside the 2010/11 data. The conventional farm data are included from holdings that have been clustered within the whole farm section of this report.
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Farm accountancy data network. Farm incomes in the European Community 1990/91 including selected results for 1986/87 to 1989/90

Farm accountancy data network. Farm incomes in the European Community 1990/91 including selected results for 1986/87 to 1989/90

TOTAL OF STANDARD GROSS MARGINS IN EACH SIZE CLASS 2.1 SHARES OF FARMS REPRESENTED IN EACH DECILE, BY MEMBER STATE SHARES OF EACH MEMBER STATE'S FARMS IN EACH EUR DECILE 21 21 2.2 QUINTI[r]

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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2008/09 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2008/09 (OF 0373)

All farms were classified by constituent EC type (1985 EC Typology described in Commission Decision 85/377/EEC) and for the purposes of this report are presented in groups by robust type according to the UK farm classification system (revised 1994) 5 . (See Appendix 2 for more information). The constituent EC types are determined using standard gross margins (SGMs) for conventional farms to estimate European Size Units (ESUs). This classification system may not appropriately reflect the enterprise profile of organic farms due to differences in gross margin values, but there is currently no alternative classification system available that reflects organic gross margins better and it is considered that the resulting classification errors are likely to be small. The distribution of the businesses by size (ESU) and type is shown in Table 2 (opposite).
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Comparative Economics Of Users and Nonusers Of Dharabi Dam Pakistan

Comparative Economics Of Users and Nonusers Of Dharabi Dam Pakistan

This research identifying the Production possibilities of the communities of two villages i.e. Chak khushi and Kalar kahar located in the Dharabi dam command area. It reflects somehow a true picture of farmer’s economic condition in the form of gross margins at enterprise and at a farm level. The coefficients estimated from the study will be used for analysis of different models constructed for farm level under different resource system.

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Modelling farmer participation to a revenue insurance scheme by the means of the Positive Mathematical Programming

  Modelling farmer participation to a revenue insurance scheme by the means of the Positive Mathematical Programming

This paper develops this kind of model in order to assess its potential use to evaluate the potential role of the revenue insurance schemes. The model considers the possibility to participate in a revenue insurance scheme for a single crop (i.e. durum wheat in the empirical application). When participating in the program, the farmer pays an insurance premium and, if the unitary revenue of that crop falls below the expected level, he/she receives an indemnity calculated on the basis of the difference between the expected and the actual revenue level. in this case, the expected gross margin vector and the covariance matrix of gross margins are recalculated and differ from the case without the insurance scheme.
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The impact of resource reallocation and credit availability on farm incomes in the Rupandehi district of Nepal : a linear programming approach

The impact of resource reallocation and credit availability on farm incomes in the Rupandehi district of Nepal : a linear programming approach

The bullock labour at the time of sowing includes the cost of a man behind the plough, but the human labour used is additional human labour only. In other operations, such as the threshing of paddy, or wheat, a pair of bullocks is not necessarily accompanied by a man, but it is not possible to assess the number of men associated with the bullocks in these operations. In this study the assumption is made that a man is always working with a pair of bullocks and costs are deducted accordingly. For some operations this overestimates the true costs. In crops such as paddy, wheat and mustard this assumption contributes towards slightly lower gross margins.
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Conversion to Organic Field Vegetable Production (Phase 2)

Conversion to Organic Field Vegetable Production (Phase 2)

An analysis of variable costs of organic vegetables shows an average of £6230/ha for the five main vegetables at Hunts Mill (HM) and £4069/ha on the reference farms (RF). Casual labour (used for planting, moving fleece, weeding, harvesting, grading and packaging) accounted for the bulk of the variable costs: 56% (HM), 52% (RF), of this the largest element was for hand harvesting. Packing material and transport costs were 21% (HM) and 12% (RF), seed and transplants 18% (HM) and 22% (RF) of total variable costs. Crop protection costs, which include costs for fleecing, were relatively low (5%), indicating a minor direct influence on profitability. However, in some cases there were specific pest and disease problems resulting in very low marketable yields and negative gross margins; any expenses in crop protection can therefore also be seen as an insurance premium to ensure stable yields. A risk analysis shows that both hand weeding casual labour costs and crop protection costs had the highest variation and therefore introduced the highest risk into the system. Other costs like packing and transport, or seeds and transplants were more stable. In comparison with conventional growing costs, organic seed costs were found to be up to double and casual labour costs also higher. From analysis of data from this study and from OFMH it was found that overall costs per hectare of growing vegetables organic crops is often very similar to conventional crops (Appendix K). However, when the costs of organic growing are considered on a per unit basis (tonne or kg) the costs can be up to double that of conventional.
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Studies in the genus  Riccia (Marchantiales) from southern Africa. 2.  A new species of the section  Pilifer :  R. sarcosa

Studies in the genus Riccia (Marchantiales) from southern Africa. 2. A new species of the section Pilifer : R. sarcosa

Riccia sarcosa Volk & Perold, a new species endemic to southern Africa is described. This species belongs to the section Pilifer Volk (1983), which now comprises 8 species characterized by the dorsal epithelium consisting of loose cell pillars. R. sarcosa is recognized by the distinct white margins of the thallus, by inconspicuous hyaline scales that do not extend above the thallus margins and by the spore ornamentation consisting of round, deep-set areolae or foveae.

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Studies in the genus  Riccia (Marchantiales) from southern Africa. 9. R. nigrella and the status of R. capensis

Studies in the genus Riccia (Marchantiales) from southern Africa. 9. R. nigrella and the status of R. capensis

Amell (1952) noted that his specimens with their black scales looked like R. limbata B isch., but were much smaller and had quite differently ornamented spores (see below under The status o f R. capensis Steph.); he seems to have ignored Stephani’s thallus di­ mensions of 2,5 mm wide, which are definitely those of a wider plant. Furthermore, he incorrectly (and m islea­ dingly) described the scale margins of his plants as ‘qua- drangularly serrate’ (1952) and as ‘irregularly dentate’ (1963), which indicates that he did not notice the hyaline cells in between the dark cells at the ± smooth margins. Serrate or dentate scale margins rarely occur in the genus Riccia. The striking colouration of the scales and their margins in R. nigrella has not been commented on by
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Among the six caprine species, the cuticular scale characteristics show no variations among the species and were observed as the scale position - ‘transversal’, scale patterns - ‘regular wave’, structure of scale margins - ‘smooth’ (‘rippled’ in N. goral) and the distance between scale margins - ‘near’. The measurement values of cuticular scales of hair show great variations between the species, average scale count per millimetre length of hair were observed as maximum in N. hylocrius

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Ventriculitis in the neonate: recognition by sonography

Ventriculitis in the neonate: recognition by sonography

Findings included ventricular dilatation with irregularity of the ventricular margins and increased periventricular echogenicity.. The choroid plexus margins also appeared poorly defined[r]

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