This chapter discuss about the relevant literature with the title of project. The literature review highlight past studies related to the subject of this project. It contains a literature review about the investigations of ergonomics analysis of handtools and other information about gripping and pinching strength that are related with the title of thesis. There were many studies about ergonomics analysis tools. This present study is to investigate ergonomic hands tool analysis tools during opening bottle activity which involve of pinching and gripping strength. The ergonomic hands tool analysis involves in this research are RULA analysis from CATIA software, ACGIH Hand Activity Level Threshold Limit Value (HALTLV) and Strain Index from Ergoweb software. This study also provides the data of pinching and gripping strength for Malaysian population. The purpose of literature review is to be as guidance in writing thesis with related subject. Source of information were obtained from journals, handbooks, reports and electronics media publications.
Powered handtools such as nut runner, hand drill and rock breakers use electric motors and 2-stroke engine (e.g. chain saw and earth auger) to operate. These motors and engine will certainly produce mechanical vibration. Workers who utilize a continuous forceful gripping to the handles of these vibratory powered handtools can be at risk of experiencing musculoskeletal disorders , vascular disorder and sensori-neural disorder  and hand–arm vibration syndrome or white finger phenomenon. Long term exposure to hand–arm vibration has been shown to result in occupational health issues such as numbness and decreased grip strength , . A continuous usage of vibratory powered handtools can lead to excessive grip force, which may elevate the chance for muscle fatigue and grip strength decrement, as reported by Widia and Dawal . Average grip force increased by 27% (from 25.3 N without vibration to 32.1 N for vibration) at vibration frequency of 40 Hz . Widia and Dawal  measured grip strength before and after using electric and bench drills to drill through wood for 5 minutes and 15 minutes. Results of their study showed that greater decrement in grip strength associated with higher vibration magnitude and longer exposure durations. An onsite assessment found that the percentage of decrement of hand grip strength after operating a vibrating grass cutter is in the range of 5% . Studies on vibratory handtools pointed that grip force errors were highest when vibration exposures in the frequency range from 31.5 to 63 Hz , .
The concept repetitive work refers to similar tasks performed again and again. Repetitive work of the upper extremity implies motor component, which can defined in terms of time and force. Repetitive work of the upper extremity is considered one of several physical work load factor, associated with symptoms and injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Other important factors are static loads, posture, and exertion of external forces. Static load occurs when muscles are kept motionless for a long time and this is undesirable in any work situation, especially while using handtools. The muscles become more vulnerable to fatigue and future injury.
Maker Space’s main room, on a Wednesday evening, offers a pleasant mix of individual concentration, as makers huddle over their projects, and warm interaction. The white workbenches in the main room are in close proximity – the front one, which is at dinner table height, is often abuzz with quadcopter activity. The taller worktables in the rear are more suitable for woodwork, while another station to the side is set up for soldering, however these lines are blurred and it is not unusual to see, at the same bench, a maker poring over delicate circuitry side by side with another who is cutting out cloth or sawing wood. Amidst the enticing boxes of hackable bits and bobs and the boards hung with handtools (each with its own silhouette to remind everyone to put things back in the right place), makers focus on their projects with an enviable level of absorption, punctuated by currents of banter and show-and-tell that permeate the space with a friendly vibe.
present day scenario. Presently, products such as various powered and non-powered handtools, as well as HHIPs used during activities of daily living (ADL) are being designed conventionally with a focus primarily on their functional and aesthetic aspects. Bad design of HHIPs and their usage for a long time may cause early hand fatigue and different hand and arm related musculoskeletal injuries. It has been observed that during the use of HHIPs, the characteristics of the surface in contact with human hand directly affect the comfort and discomfort of the user . From the view point of design, evaluation of the psychological, morphological, physiological and biomechanical behavior of the users during the product use could significantly help in improving the product quality and its usability. Also, ergonomically well-designed hand held industrial products and tools may reduce the risk of occupational injuries significantly.
Human being is exposed to vibrations of one or other sort during the normal day lives such as in buses, train and cars. A large number of people are also exposed to other vibrations during their working day, for example vibrations produced by hand-tools, machinery, or heavy vehicles. Human vibration can be divided into two main vibration which is a whole-body vibration and hand-arm vibration. Both types of human vibration may be either temporary or permanent physical system damage in the case of long term exposure to excessive vibration.
The result of this is the appearance of a clear gap between the amount of data that is being produced and the capacity of traditional systems to store, analyze and make the best use of this data .There are also security issues involved in choosing the tool. Open source promotes development and innovation and supports developers. As organizations continue to collect more data at this scale, formalizing the process of big data analysis will become paramount. This paper describes different tools associated with managing big data, used to handle such large data sets.
As powerful and promising a tool as visual analysis is, difficulties with pre-processing data needed for visual analysis are proving to be major barriers to its adoption and effectiveness. This phase can take up to 80 per cent of the total development cost on an analytics project for example, investigated the day-to-day practices of enterprise analysts from sectors including healthcare, retail, finance and social networking. Data discovery and wrangling, often is the most tedious and time-consuming aspects of an analysis, are not addressed in existing visualisation and analysis tools. Some of challenges to VA include; Unavailability of data, Fragmentation of data, Data quality (missing values eg date field, data format, need for standardisation), Data shaping (for technical compatibility, for better analysis), disconnect between creation/management and use, record keeping (general expression of need for record keeping, Version control) among others. Access to (structured) data sometimes proves to be a barrier to effective visual analysis. Also access may be problematic; identifying that, in some cases, the administrator responsible for granting access to data had already left the company by the time access was requested. With no assigned organisational responsibility for long-term management of the data, the data were essentially lost, Victoria et. al. (2014).
Big data is mainly collection of data sets so large and complex that it is very difficult to handle them using on-hand database management tools. The main challenges with Big databases include creation, curation, storage, sharing, search, analysis and visualization. So to manage these databases we need, “highly parallel software’s”. First of all, data is acquired from different sources such as social media, traditional enterprise data or sensor data etc. Flume can be used to acquire data from social media such as twitter. Then, this data can be organized using distributed file systems such as Google File System or Hadoop File System. These file systems are very efficient when number of reads are very high as compared to writes. At last, data is analyzed using mapreducer so that queries can be run on this data easily and efficiently.
These observations reveal that each disciplinary culture could be guided by conventions which could be based on contrasting epistemological orientations. The high incidences of ARGUE verbs suggests that in the humanities and social sciences, writers advance overt criticism of existing research as part of establishing and arguing a case. The significant frequency of FIND and SHOW verbs in the Science dissertations, on the other hand could be helping to convey the experimental explanatory schema typical of the sciences. This is where knowledge is more likely to be represented as proceeding from laboratory activities than the interpretive operations or verbal arguments of researchers that is characteristic of the humanities and social sciences [3,21].
Newcastle upon Tyne’s Maker Space is an independent, community-owned and operated workshop with 52 members 2 but is part of a maker phenomenon that has seen the growth of many such spaces globally. Worldwide, there are approximately 1,400 active makerspaces with around 500 located respectively in Europe and North America (Lou and Peek, 2016). A makerspace can be broadly defined as ‘a collaborative work space inside a school, library or separate public/private facility for making, learning, exploring and sharing that uses high tech to no tech tools’ (Makerspaces.com). Within this very broad container there is some debate about whether a distinction should be drawn between terms such as ‘makerspace’ and ‘hackerspace’ (Cavalcanti, 2013), however, the terms are often interchangeable – we therefore use the term ‘makerspace’ here to denote both. Organisationally, such spaces are diverse, including for-profit makerspaces such as the ‘Techshop’ chain, therefore the terms do not necessarily denote a collectivist or non-profit ethos. Alongside this heterogeneity, best-selling publications such as Makers (Anderson, 2013), as well as the popular Maker Faire events, promote the idea of a broadly unified worldwide maker movement oriented to reviving the art of tinkering as a hands-on, sociable way of transforming the world for the better (Dougherty, 2012). Notably, these somewhat evangelical claims have been tempered by recent critical analysis that situates making as primarily a leisure activity or personal lifestyle choice rather than one that is centrally oriented to social or political transformation (Davies, 2017).
In recent times, there has been a buzz about Big Data. Many researchers and research organizations have come up with several definitions, ideology and theories concerning big data. Software developing companies have also begun looking into developing tools to analyze and extract relevant information from Big Data. In the developed continents like the North America and the Europe’s Big Data is being utilized everywhere ---- from the healthcare to policy making and many more. The 1 McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) defines Big Data as large pools of data that can be captured, communicated, aggregated, stored, and analyzed. 2 ISACA also defines Big Data as a trend in technology that is leading the way to a new approach in understanding the world and making business decisions. Another definition of Big Data is that by 3 Edd Dumbill, which is data, that exceeds the processing capacity of conventional database systems.
Abstract: The analysis of volumetric datasets is the main concern in many areas ranging from geophysics to biomedical sciences. The direct visualization of these data plays an important role in this scenario, and in spite of developments in volume visualization techniques, interacting with large datasets still demands research efforts due to perceptual and performance issues. There is a need of interactive sculpting tools which can provide an intuitive way to examine and explore inner parts of the datasets, as well as to fill missing data for specific purposes. In this paper we report the development of interactive, intuitive and easy-to-use sculpting tools, which specify regions within the volume to be discarded from rendering, thus allowing inspection of the volume interior, and to be filled with material to build virtual structures in the volume. Interactive rates for these sculpting tools were obtained by running special fragment programs on the graphics hardware. The tools were implemented using two interaction metaphors (virtual pointer and virtual hand) and following different approaches in terms of devices and single versus two-handed interaction. We report the evaluation of these approaches in detail and concluded that the use of two different devices together presents a better performance and are preferred by users. Moreover, the use of virtual hand interaction provided better results than using the virtual pointer during the tests.
also showed that the techniques and layup times used by the two participants were not remarkably different to the professionals. The third participant was had previously used unidirectional plies to layup parts of a bicycle frame (this cannot be referenced due to anonymity issues), but had not done any doubly curved layup with woven prepreg. Tasks were completed ﬁ rst with three regular plies and then with three plies which had been presheared using the methods described in the section on ‘ Applying preshear ’ . All tests were conducted at standard clean room conditions using MTM49-3B 2 £ 2 Twill Carbon prepreg manufactured by ACG. 17 This material was chosen because it represented a typical material used to make composite components of this nature, and had previously been used in Refs. 8 and 11 for layup tests. It provides a good compromise between the stability of plain weave, and the formability of 5 harness material. No additional tools or dibbers were allowed during the test. All lamination attempts were ﬁ lmed using a camera mounted 0.5 m above the tool allowing the process to be revisited and analyzed in detail.
Gender and hormonal factors:Female gender is strongly associated with hand OA according to previous studies. Above the age of 55 years, hand OA is more common in women, usually involving several joints, mostly the interphalangeals and the first metacarpal. Like severe knee OA symmetrical OA in distal interphalangeal joints has also been suggested to be a women’s disease(Haara 2006).Female sex are well established risk factor for OA,and was strong independent predictor for symptomatic knee, hand, and hip OA. The underlying mechanism for this remains unclear, but it could be related to hormonal changes that may occur in, for example, chondrocytes, joint, ligaments, and shock absorbers or protectors, with aging in both sexes.(A. Andrianakos, et al.2006). Females are found to have more severe OA, more number of joints are involved, and have more symptoms and increased hand and knee OA. These observations and others reporting a painful form of hand osteoarthritis after the menopause suggest that loss of estrogen at the time of menopause increases a woman’s risk of getting osteoarthritis (A Mahajan et al.2005). A case control study showed that in women with OA in hand, knee or hip joints, the rate of hysterectomy was twice as high as that of age-matched women with rheumatoid arthritis or with no joint disease (Spector et al. 1988). On the other hand, in the Chingford Study, there was a significant protective effect of HRT use for knee OA (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.93). The effect was similar, but weaker for DIP OA. The protective effect of oestrogen is therefore unclear, but has important implications for the etiopathogenesis of OA, and indicates a possible therapeutic role for oestrogen in OA (Haara 2006).
It is found from the analysis that the results obtained from graphical method well match with forward kinematic results. It is also observed from the analysis that the hand can grasp spheres of 40 mm to 164 mm, but it could not grasp 165 mm object because joint 3 will be perpendicular in that case. The cube of (25 × 36) mm to (25 × 59) mm can be grasped and it could not grasp (25 × 60) mm object because height of the object is more than the finger height. Minimum 38 mm to maximum 62 mm Polygon shape object can be grasped. It could not grasp more than 62 mm object because height of the object is more than the finger height.