HARD AND SOFT

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Hard and soft equilibria in Boolean games

Hard and soft equilibria in Boolean games

Following an introduction to the formal framework of Boolean games with costs, we distinguish between hard and soft equilib- ria in our games. A hard equilibrium is one that will remain an equilibrium no matter what costs are being imposed. In contrast, a soft equilibrium is one that can be eliminated from or introduced to a game by the introduction of some cost incentive. Clearly, the presence of hard equilibria with undesirable properties would be bad news, as it would be impossible to incentivise players not to choose this outcome if they want to. However, we show that hard equilibria are in fact rather rare in the sense that the conditions re- quired for their presence are rather strong. In addition, we show that hard equilibria, when present, do in fact have desirable social properties.
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Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

Hard And Soft QCD Physics In ATLAS

Monte-Carlo (MC) generators as well as NLO calculations. While the main interest at hadron col- liders lies in measurements at high momentum transfer, all collider observables are a ff ected by soft QCD processes which form an irreducible background to hard scattering events via the presence of multiple-partonic interactions (MPI). Due to their non-perturbative nature soft QCD processes require phenomenological models that need to be tuned to data. The ATLAS experiment [1] has published a wide range of measurements involving soft and hard QCD physics. These include jet production mea- surements giving insight into pQCD in the new, extended phase space region provided by the LHC as well as recent studies exploiting the use of the internal structure of jets to indentify heavily boosted object decays in searches for new physics. Measurements of observables sensitive to soft QCD pro- cesses have been carried out using ATLAS data allowing to obtain an improved understanding of soft particle production at LHC centre-of-mass energies.
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Hard and soft preparation sets in Boolean games

Hard and soft preparation sets in Boolean games

be present in the game no matter what the cost function of the game is. Hard prep sets are important because they cannot be eliminated from the game through taxation schemes or by other ways of manipulating the cost structure of the game. In contrast, a soft prep set is a prep set that is present in a game for some cost functions, but not all. Given the correspondence between propositional formulas and sets of outcomes, we find it natural to refer to hard formulas and soft formulas, with the obvious interpretations. Clearly, the presence of hard prep sets with un- desirable properties would be bad news: no cost incentives would be able to tempt players away from such prep sets. But, dually, hard prep sets with desirable properties are good news, as their achievement does not depend on the availability of material resources. We will see that when hard formulas are satisfied at only one outcome, what we call hard equi- libria, these outcomes satisfy desirable properties from the point of view of society. The terminology of hard and soft equilibria was introduced by Harrenstein et al. [11]; here we extend and generalise that work. • Third, we turn to the issue of managing these sets of outcomes, using
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European social dialogue between hard and soft law.

European social dialogue between hard and soft law.

If the debates raged around the European Employment Strategy (EES) and more generally on Open Method of Coordination (OMC) and the new modes of governance, less and less attention was paid to social dialogue. An evaluation of the cross-industry and sectoral social dialogue is a difficult task as it is an on-going process with various dimensions, among them the information, consultation, and negotiation between the European trade unions, the European employers and the Commission are often underlined (Transfer, 2006). Social dialogue is based on the treaty (Art. 138 and 139) and is generally considered as being part of a hard law approach (Falkner, 1998). Nevertheless, the last cross-industry agreement dated back to 1999 and only few binding agreements have been signed at sectoral level. Since 2000, the agreements signed were autonomous agreements which look like a hybrid between soft and hard law both by flexibility of the content and the nature of instruments to implement the EU agreement. The paper analyses the latest developments at cross-industry and sectoral level in order to evaluate the nature of the dynamics at play (Leonard et al., 2007)
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RNA folding with hard and soft constraints

RNA folding with hard and soft constraints

Input formats As stated before, different subsets of the hard-, and soft-constraint paradigms outlined here have already been used by RNA structure prediction programs for several years. The programs of the ViennaRNA Package, for instance, have been using a simplified subset of loop-type unaware hard constraints that can be expressed as pseudo-dot-bracket notation consist- ing of the characters < > . | ( ) × (see the Additional file 1 for details of this format). The drawback of this for- mat is that it represents at most one constraint for each sequence position. It is therefore not suitable for more complex hard constraints. Although we provide now a more sophisticated interface, this simple way of express- ing hard constraints will be maintained for convenience and backward compatibility.
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Hollywood Deals: Soft Contracts for Hard Markets

Hollywood Deals: Soft Contracts for Hard Markets

b. Reputational Constraints. While soft contracting saves on transaction costs relative to hard contracting, it does not supply a workable governance instrument in the absence of reputational penalties and common knowledge of market norms. Without a clear documentary point of reference enforceable by a court or some other adjudicative agent, participants must share, and usually conform to, a common understanding of the conditions under which it is “reasonable” and “unreasonable” to breach. 116 Otherwise soft- contracting environments are liable to suffer from deviations from the parties’ implicitly agreed-upon set of termination-and-renegotiation options. These deviations can run in both directions. Nonperforming parties may terminate unreasonably, resulting in “overtermination” relative to the set of circumstances in which the parties had implicitly agreed to perform. Or performing parties may litigate against reasonably terminating parties, resulting in “undertermination” relative to the set of circumstances in which the parties had implicitly agreed not to perform. Anticipating those outcomes, parties would rationally revert to hard-contracting instruments in order to implement their agreement, even taking into account the transaction costs required to achieve higher degrees of formalization.
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From hard data to soft decision

From hard data to soft decision

DoctuS © Knowledge-Based System uses logic. The latest version is also capable of data mining. Using a cluster- analyzing algorithm it can transform the relations between hard data into soft information, which will be used for deduction in reasoning. The number of clusters is given by the user. The cluster-analyzing algorithm makes the clusters using learning example. When running the data mining the clusters remains unchanged and the new data will be transformed. The clusters can be handled using logic.

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Power and its forms: hard, soft, smart

Power and its forms: hard, soft, smart

97 receivers (in fact if you decide to wage war against an enemy, the opinion of this latter is not actually so important). Secondly, soft power is also likely to be more important when power is dispersed in another country rather than concentrated. A dictator cannot be totally indifferent to the views of the people in his country, but he can often ignore whether another country is popular or not when he calculates whether it is in his interests to be helpful. In democracies - where public opinion and parliaments matter - political leaders have less freedom to adopt tactics and strike deals than in autocracies. Thus, for instance, it was impossible for the Turkish government to permit the transport of American troops across the country in 2003 because American policies had greatly reduced US popularity in public opinion and in Parliament. Finally, though soft power sometimes has direct effects on specific goals, it is more likely to have an impact on the general goals that a country seeks 136 . According to this theory, soft power may be less relevant than hard power in preventing attack, policing borders and protecting allies. But it is particularly relevant to the realization of “milieu goals”. Other skeptics object to using the term soft power in international relations because - as said before - governments are not in full control of the attraction. It is true that firms, universities, foundations, churches and other non-governmental organizations, develop a soft power of their own that may reinforce or be at odds with official goals. That is all the more reason for governments to make sure that their own actions and policies reinforce rather than undercut their soft power. And this is particularly true since private sources of soft power are likely to becoming increasingly important in the global information age 137 .
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Combined Soft Hard Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

Combined Soft Hard Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

Collaboration between CRs has been proposed to alleviate the adverse impact of channel impairments on the detection performance. However, the attained improvement in detec- tion performance (i.e., cooperation gain) always comes with challenges of increasing the complexity, energy consumption and delay time (i.e., cooperation cost) [32]. Collabora- tion process has two main stages, namely, sensing stage and reporting stage. In the sensing stage, all contributing CRs independently sense the existence of the PU, whilst in the re- porting stage; every single CR forwards its local observation to the FC. The FC extracts the final decision about the existence of the PU by fusing the aggregated CRs’ observations [7]. Two popular schemes can be employed during the reporting stage, either hard decision or soft decision. In case of hard combining, the CRs report their observations as one bit (i.e., 0 or 1) to the FC which employs a hard combining rule such as OR, AND, and k-out-of-N rules to make the cluster decision, while in case of soft combining, all CRs forward their entire test statistics to the FC which employs a soft combing technique such as EGC, SC and MRC to come out with the decision about the PU existence [83].
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Response of Soft Film/Hard Substrate and Hard Film/Soft Substrate Layered Systems Under Small Mass Impact

Response of Soft Film/Hard Substrate and Hard Film/Soft Substrate Layered Systems Under Small Mass Impact

The impact response of soft film/hard substrate and hard film/soft substrate layered systems subjected to small mass impact is investigated using an effective finite element approach in conjunction with Sun's higher-order beam theory and Kurapati’s generalized power law. In this work, the responses such as the time histories for contact force, deflection of target, displacement of impactor, energy, strain and stress of Al/Si and Si/Al layered systems during impact event are obtained and compared with each other between Al/Si as soft film/hard substrate and Si/Al as hard film/soft substrate layered systems. From the present numerical results, it can be seen that a generalized power law applied would be very helpful for estimating the impact responses of layered systems. Impact responses such as contact force, energy, wave propagation, strain and stress in Si/Al (hard film/soft substrate) layered systems are more sensitive than those of Al/Si (soft film/hard substrate) layered systems in the same film/substrate thickness. That is, this means that soft film/hard substrate layered systems may eventually be protected from impact damage and is more impact resistant than hard film/soft substrate layered systems. In addition, in case of soft film/hard substrate, the interface between film and substrate unlike occurring right at underneath of the indenter in static analysis is prone to more failure risk than the other layer,
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Behaviour change tools: soft versus hard options

Behaviour change tools: soft versus hard options

The need for individual and population-based behaviour change is evident across a range of sectors. We examine behaviour change strategies, contrasting aspects of health and lifestyle factors with climate change and sustainability issues and note that different policy makers favour specific behaviour change tools; some favour ‘hard’ options i.e. legislation and others ‘soft’ options such as persuasion. Different strategies will be more effective for specific issues and population segments - and combinations of strategies should not be ruled out.

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Informal Procedure, Hard and Soft, in International Administration

Informal Procedure, Hard and Soft, in International Administration

In this section, I divide the accomplishments of IOSCO and the Basle Committee into three categories: hard achievements creating standardization among sophisticated r[r]

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Hard and Soft Gelatin Capsules.pptx

Hard and Soft Gelatin Capsules.pptx

disintegration is defined as the breakdown of solid dosage form into small particles after it is ingested ... DISSOLUTION TEST. ▪ Dissolution test is an official method to[r]

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Responses of a Stenohaline Freshwater Teleost (Catostomus Commersoni) to Hypersaline Exposure: I  The Dependence of Plasma pH and Bicarbonate Concentration on Electrolyte Regulation

Responses of a Stenohaline Freshwater Teleost (Catostomus Commersoni) to Hypersaline Exposure: I The Dependence of Plasma pH and Bicarbonate Concentration on Electrolyte Regulation

The slopes p of whole blood buffer curves constructed from blood of fish exposed to hard and soft control conditions, to 96 h hard and soft saline water, and to 3 weeks hard saline condi[r]

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Wavelet Based Denoising of MRI Images using Thresholding Techniques

Wavelet Based Denoising of MRI Images using Thresholding Techniques

Here also observed the graph fig 10. in Hard and Soft thresholding using different wavelet families. In this graph red color is taken the graph of db1 and green color is taken the graph of db4 and blue color is taken the graph of symlet4 and black color is taken the graph of coif4. It is seen that PSNR of all wavelet families is decrease or almost same so graph are overlaping. So Salt & pepper noise hard and soft thresholding using all wavelet families have not better performance.

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MODELIZATION OF HRM AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE CAMEROON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.

MODELIZATION OF HRM AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE CAMEROON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.

The Guest model was propounded by David Guest in 1987. This model is said to be a fusion of aspects that resemble both a hard and a soft approach of HRM. Guest proposes 4 crucial components that underpin organizational effectiveness. These 4 crucial components are: First, Strategic Integration which is the harder side of the Guest Model. This is precisely because human resources are treated in a similar manner like any other resource with the prime goal of achieving business objectives. Second, Flexibility which is basically concerned with the ability of the organization and its people to adapt to the changing business and work environment and to the capacity to manage innovation. It carries both connotations of hard and soft HRM. Third, High Commitment, this is concerned with the need to have both behavioral commitment, which is the ability to go an extra mile, and attitudinal commitment, which is reflected through a strong identification with the organization and finally Quality which is based on the assumption that provision of high quality goods and services results from a quality way of managing people.
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Synthesis and thermal properties of polyurethanes from Cardanolfurfural resin

Synthesis and thermal properties of polyurethanes from Cardanolfurfural resin

DTA/TGA thermograms of cured hard and soft polyurethanes are presented in Fig. 4a, 4b, 4c and Fig.5a, 5b, 5c respectively. The hard segment polyurethanes show three exotherms, a very weak one around 325 ° C and two strong exotherms around 468 ° C and 553 ° C .The weak exotherm is due to the cleavage of meta substituted alkyl side chain of the phenyl ring. The soft segment polyurethanes show three or four weak exotherms between 300 ° C and 465 ° C and a strong one around 560 ° C .The soft segment polyurethanes thermally degraded successively after the cleavage of meta-substituted alkyl side chain due to the presence of the commercial polyol, polypropylene glycol-1200 in the temperature range 300 ° C -465 ° C. The hard segment polyurethanes show lesser number of exotherms in comparison with that of the soft segment polyurethanes, due to higher crosslink density.
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Prediction of changes due to mandibular autorotation following miniplate-anchored intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth in open bite cases

Prediction of changes due to mandibular autorotation following miniplate-anchored intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth in open bite cases

tissue measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients between examiners were greater than 0.87 and 0.79 for hard and soft tissue measurement, respectively. Ratios be- tween pairs of measurements were calculated. The data were verified for normality of the measurements using his- tograms and Shapiro-Wilk tests. Scatter plots were used to confirm linearity and homoscedasticity. Paired t tests were used to compare pre-intrusion and post-intrusion variables. Pearson product moment correlation tests were performed to calculate regression coefficients and derive regression equations. The statistical analysis was done using the Statis- tical Package for the Social Science (SPSS, Version 20). Significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05 for paired t compari- sons. Bonferroni correction was used to avoid type I error with multiple correlation testing; hence, significance level was set at P ≤ 0.01.
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A strong offence is the best defence? Russia's strategy towards countering terrorism in the North Caucasus

A strong offence is the best defence? Russia's strategy towards countering terrorism in the North Caucasus

Balbi and Jacques, 2015:5). Civil society can play a critical role within the counterterrorism domain (Rosand, 2008:5). It gives marginalized and vulnerable people a voice and provides an outlet for grievances. Although Nye’s discussion is conducted in the context of United States foreign policy, the analytical distinction of soft and hard power is equally applicable to other countries and in different domains (Nye, 2011:13; Aly, Balbi and Jacques, 2015:5). In the domain of (counter-) terrorism different measures can be categorized under the soft power umbrella (Aly, Balbi and Jacques, 2015:5). Soft counterterrorism is proactive and pertains to preventive measures that attempt to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism (root causes and support for terrorism) (Eijkman and Schuurman, 2011:2). Countering violent extremism has been – more recently – incorporated into soft power approach, which encompasses measures as varied as de-radicalisation programmes, educational programmes, community empowerment and the development of counter-narratives (Aly, Balbi and Jacques, 2015:5). Further examples of the soft power approach can be diplomacy, negotiation, and social reform (Omelicheva, 2007). These kind of measures either directly or indirectly improve relations between actors or bring about desired social change. Hence, these measures can take the form of different kind of programs carried out by government institutions and/or civil society that aim to address the spread of violent extremism by – for example – counter narratives, aim to promote cultural and educational exchange through communication, are aimed at relationship-building efforts between agent and target, and aim to bring about desired social change by addressing the needs and desires of those susceptible to violent extremism. The distinction between hard and soft power is illustrated by Nye (2004:21) by using a power- spectrum, which goes from tangible power of coercion at one end to the intangible power of attraction on the other end:
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A CASE STUDY ON THE STUDENTS AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE USE OF ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION AND TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES AT SMP NEGERI 1 DENPASAR

A CASE STUDY ON THE STUDENTS AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE USE OF ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION AND TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES AT SMP NEGERI 1 DENPASAR

In RSBI, primarily, the demand of using English must be fulfilled by the “hard science” teachers. Hard science is colloquial terms often used when comparing fields of academic research or scholarship, with "hard" meaning perceived as being more scientific, rigorous, or accurate. For example, fields of the natural sciences or physical sciences are often described as hard in contrast to soft social sciences (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard and soft science). The hard sciences are characterized as relying on experimental, empirical, quantifiable data or the scientific method, and focusing on accuracy and objectivity. They are expected to master English as the medium of instruction since the government regulation affirms that in RSBI the hard science instruction, in this case including mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology must be bilingual.
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