Behavior study models are important in evaluating people’s perspectives on health behaviors, and behavioral intention model is one of the best models used in relation to attitudes and behaviors of puberty. According to studies, this model is established based on the theory of reasoned action. According to the assumptions of this theory, people should make their own behavioral decisions based on reasonable available information, and also pay attention to the consequences of their performance before making a decision . According to this model, behavioral intention is the most important determinant of individual’s behavior, and intention to perform a behavior is a combination of attitude toward a behavior and subjective norms. Attitude toward a behavior includes individual’s ideas and evaluation of the outcomes of a behavior and subjective norms include normative beliefs and incentive for obedience . This study used behavioral intention model to predict the performance of health behaviors by adolescent girls and their role in taking care of their health as well as the next generation.
Such beneﬁciary incentive programs have a compelling rationale. These incentives are directed toward lower- income families who may be highly motivated to save money and/or obtain much-needed tangible assistance. In addition, incentives may signal to families the importance of particular health behaviors. Furthermore, short- run incentives may have lasting effects because some target behaviors either confer long-term health beneﬁts or become more habitual.
Students meet the performance indicator of demonstrating a variety of healthy behaviors that will maintain or improve their health by trying new, healthy foods in Lessons #2 and #3 and by creating fitness activity routines in Lesson #5. Students meet the performance indicator of demonstrating a variety of behaviors to avoid or reduce health risks to self and others in Lesson #7 by pledging different ways to prevent weight teasing and bullying, and in Lesson #5 by demonstrating ways to reduce screen time.
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Short message service (SMS) technology represents a promising new strategy for HIV care. SMS has been de- ployed successfully in support of antiretroviral adherence and virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa and is currently being studied in this setting with regard to retention in care [14-16]. In the U.S., studies to date of text messaging in HIV-infected populations have gener- ally focused on sub-groups, such as youth, substance users, and men who have sex with men [17-20]. Few studies to date have examined the impact of SMS on improving retention in care and virologic suppression for broader populations of marginalized persons using safety-net HIV clinics in the U.S. In a feasibility study of 25 patients receiving SMS appointment reminders in a Southeastern U.S. clinic, challenges to receiving SMS included discomfort with cell phone use, patients not opting in to receive messages, and service interruptions . It is currently unknown whether such challenges are surmountable and whether a more comprehensive SMS intervention that supports healthy behaviors, en- courages consistent engagement with health care, and promotes antiretroviral persistence would significantly influence virologic suppression among marginalized pa- tients in the U.S. In addition, examining the cost of such
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and are taking measures to actively encourage these be- haviors at camp. Research on factors that contribute to children’s health outcomes in other settings suggests that the strategies camp professionals reported would be ef- fective in promoting healthy behaviors. For example, availability of fruits and vegetables is one of the stron- gest predictors for children’s fruit and vegetable intakes in both home- and school-based settings [23-25] and re- peated exposure to healthy foods promotes acceptance [26-28]. Additionally, availability of physical activity op- portunities, parents’ logistic support for physical activity, and parent modeling of physically active behaviors are all associated with higher levels of physical activity in chidren [29-32]. Thus, the findings that over 70% of camp professionals reported increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables and over 25% reported increasing camp staff modeling of physical activity and frequency of physic- ally active programing over the past three years suggests that camps are providing children with opportunities to consume healthful foods and participate in physical activ- ity in a supportive and encouraging environment.
In Table 3, we found some lifestyle factors significantly correlated with ratings of self-rated health. Using multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, race and BMI, we discovered that university students with healthy behaviors had significant higher self-rated health status. University students engaging in regular physical activity (OR = 6.1, p < 0.001) and drinking over 1500 mL water per day (OR = 3.9, p < 0.001) showed greater well-being in their self-rated health status. Although unhealthy behaviors in university students were not signif- icantly correlated with self-rated health ratings, the ORs of self-rated good health status were found to be under one, implying poor self-rated health status. While university students often eat late-night snacks, only about half of our university students showed poor self-rated health status (OR = 0.53, p = 0.054). Similarly, the regular eating of fried food (OR = 0.66, p = 0.211) or junk food (OR = 0.68, p = 0.334) as regular food induced poorer self-rated health status.
children were already aware and motivated to improve health behaviors at the commencement of the study (the 36% which responded). Perhaps that by just enrolling in an intervention study in combination with receiving recommendations from their physicians; these parents of obese children had already started to improve their health behaviors. According to the transtheoretical model of behavioral change , this group of parents may have been at the contemplation or preparation stage and enrolling in a study helped them move to an action stage to engage in new behaviors. These motivated par- ents of overweight and obese children are most likely being influenced by the increased awareness of obesity in their surroundings. A qualitative study of ninth gra- ders in rural Appalachia found that the students were quite familiar with the problem of childhood obesity. Their awareness about the rising rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, accompanied by personal experiences of affected family members in this region, created a fear about becoming obese . Another qualitative study completed with fourth grade students, teachers and parents in rural Appalachia found similar results in that there was a heightened concern for child- hood obesity and they supported the idea of their schools doing more to improve diet and physical activity. We did find, however, that parents of obese children were less likely to discuss fruit and vegetable consump- tion a lot/sometimes vs. never. Conceivably by being in an action stage phase of behavior change, they engaged in less conversation around fruits and vegetables as their children were already beginning to change their beha- viors and did not need this extra reminder. It is also pos- sible that parents of obese children are misreporting; literature suggests that weight status influences the ac- curacy of dietary reports made by children and their par- ents [19,27]. Parents of these obese children may be over reporting healthy behaviors and underreporting un- healthy behaviors.
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dinner in China. However, few men participated in these activities; they would rather stay at home and watch TV. Overweight participants were more likely to follow healthy diet, as they ate more vegetables, fruits, nuts, and grains per day that improved their diet quality. Symptomatic individuals usually felt discomfort and had to stop smoking to relieve their respiratory symptoms. All these factors were more pronounced in urban areas than in rural areas, which sug- gested that the high-risk population in urban communities had better understanding of the importance of healthy lifestyle and had better convenience to adopt healthy behaviors due to the complete public facilities and the systematic disease prevention programs.
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Demographic factors, diet and lack of exercise are associated with obesity (Mogre et al., 2015). There are many factors which influence the healthy eating and exercise levels of an individual. These could be food avail- ability and dietary patterns, daily routines and workload, marketing, cultural and social factors, family, emotions and knowledge. Exercise plays a significant role in the treatment of obesity (Boudreau & Godin, 2007). Miller & Miller (2010) assert that obese Americans know the importance of exercise for weight management, but they do not exercise. For many people, emotions play a significant role in eating behaviors. The eating that is related to someone’s emotions is defined as emotional eating, and it could lead to obesity problems and is definitely amongst the enemies of healthy eating and exercise (Arnow, 1995). Food marketing and the vast food industry are even claimed to alter perceptions of healthy eating and official regulations on nutrition policies (Nestle, 2013). Furthermore, health behaviors are related to each other. A study by Trudeau, Kristal, Li and Patterson (1998) compared the consumption of fruit and vegetables with healthy behaviors, beliefs, attitudes and intrinsic motivation for healthy eating. They concluded that health-related behaviors were strongly associated with an adequate fruit intake. Finally, demanding jobs have an indirect effect on exercise by lowering perceptions of behavioural control over exercise. However, job strain variables were not related to exercise intentions or beha- viour and did not influence consumption of fruit and vegetables (Payne, Jones, & Harris, 2005).
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Due to this stigmatization, obesity in youth has been shown to be a risk factor for psychopathology, that may manifest itself through body dissatisfaction, shape and weight concerns, and dieting and disorder eating behaviors such as binge eating and purging [4,5]. Research has also shown that obesity in youth is associated with sneaking and hoarding food, eating when not hungry and feelings of self-consciousness or embarrassment when eating in front of others [6,7]. Although disordered eating behaviors and eating disorders both encompass a broad array of dimensional maladaptive cognitions and behaviors relating to eating and weight, they differ in their diagnosis. The term eating disorder refers to a psychiatric disorder and include the following four categories: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED) . Those individuals who do not meet the specific diagnostic criteria of eating disorder may fall into the category of weight-related disorder, which includes disordered eating behaviors. Thus, research exists to support the assessment of obesity-related problems should include disordered eating as disordered eating behaviors and obesity have similar risk factors, such as body dissatisfaction and weight control behaviors [4,10]. In addition, research also suggests that individuals may crossover from one condition to another . Indeed, overweight adolescents have odds up to 5 times higher of developing eating disorders than normal weight youth [11,12].
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This study includes the results of the survey on healthy lifestyle behaviors of 512 students who attend to Batman University. The healthy lifestyle habits of the students was found average. The effects of gender, age, weight, height, family income, place of stay and smoking variables on HLSB have been surveyed. It is determined that gender, weight, height and family income conditions have no effect on HLSB. Nevertheless, it is found that age, place of stay and smoking status have had an effect. Especially, it can be said that the healthy lifestyle behavioral awareness have increased in parallel to the age rise. The individual can be educated in the childhood to gain the healthy lifestyle behavior awareness in the early ages. In the light of the findings gathered, the healthy lifestyle knowledge should be resolved as a behavior among the youth by giving an intense education on how not to gain bad habits or to quit them. By determining the environmental and personal problems of the students who stay in private or state dormitories, it can be suggested to better the living conditions to a healthier state.
Our ﬁnding that mothers differed sig- niﬁcantly from women without chil- dren in intake of total energy, percent saturated fat, vegetables, and sugar- sweetened beverages but not in fruit, dairy, whole grains, calcium, or ﬁber intake may suggest that mothers have conﬂicting factors that inﬂuence their dietary intake outcomes. These factors may include wanting to be good role models of healthy dietary intake (eg, eating fruits, dairy) but, at the same time, having less available time to eat healthy. For example, mothers may ﬁnd it easier and less time- consuming to cook more palatable, yet high-fat, food for children (eg, macaroni and cheese, chicken nug- gets) and to eat more snack foods with children. Another potential ex- planation for the higher energy in- take and BMI for mothers is that they may modify their milk consumption habits, including drinking the higher fat milk that their children drink (eg, whole milk).
RESULTS. Parents who correctly classified their children as overweight were no more likely than parents who did not correctly classify their children as overweight to engage in the following potentially helpful behaviors: having more fruits/vegetables and fewer soft drinks, salty snacks, candy, and fast food available at home; having more family meals; watching less television during dinner; and encouraging children to make healthful food choices and be more physically active. However, parents who recognized that their children were overweight were more likely to encourage them to diet. Parental encouragement to diet predicted poorer adolescent weight outcomes 5 years later, particularly for girls. Parental classification of their children’s weight status did not predict child weight status 5 years later.
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Results from the food diaries showed a statistically significant increase in healthy food consumption, thereby meeting the main objective of the investigation. Interest- ingly, participants did not think their behavior had changed significantly when asked about this during the interviews. One aspect that emerged from the interviews was that participants generally saw themselves as willing to eat healthily. This increased during the trials as did participants’ interest in trying out new foods. This is somewhat in line with previous findings that parental practices and foods available at home were strongly influential in the dietary decisions of children . However, perceived bar- riers (such as time constraints) prevented participants from eating as much healthy food as they would have liked. Despite this, participants ensured that their children ate as many portions of fruit and vegetables as possible, confirming the suggestion that mothers perceived their child’s health to be more important than their own .
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Cancer is an adult disease for which early lifestyle behaviors influence adult disease incidence. This is partic- ularly true for obesity-associated cancers (e.g. breast, colorectal, bladder, and endometrial) . Overweight/ob- ese children are at greater risk of demonstrating excess body weight/body mass index in adulthood and thus have greater potential for experiencing a cancer diagnosis in adulthood . Further, it is well established that obesity and obesity-related disease are increasing at a staggering rate among US children -, including Arizona where the increase in obesity incidence led all states between 2003 and 2007 . Importantly, the proportion of obese children in Arizona is 10% to 16% higher among Hispanics and Native Americans -. The most compelling of modifiable risk factors for cancer is diet and physical activity . Earlier adoption of healthy be- haviors has been suggested to influence decision making related to health behaviors later in life  making young children a prime target for early intervention and education to reduce adult cancer risk.
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This study on an intervention program was designed to induce behavior changes that will lead to a healthier lifestyle produced an interaction between time and group membership on HLBs. The control group showed no differences in HLBs scores between baseline and posttest, or at one- month follow- up. Furthermore, these results concur with the results of the study conducted by Heinrich, Schaper, and Vries ( 2010) in concluding that the best way to promote HLBs is by self-management. Possible reasons for the increase in HLBs might be that the program activities in this research focused on patient-tailored self-management (Jolly et al, 2016). It also focused on appreciating and addressing the individual needs of each participant, which was considered more appropriate than just lecturing the elderly to educate them. Instead, the experimental group were supported and encouraged to change their behaviors to be able to achieve self-management of their health for long-lasting HLBs.
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Table 5 shows whether health behaviors are routinely practiced, the details of such health behaviors, and their relationship to SOC. In both men and women, about 50% of respondents reported practicing health behaviors. No differences in SOC were observed in the practice of health behaviors, but differences in the details of the health behavior were observed. A significantly higher percentage of women with a high SOC reported “light exercise, such as walking and gymnastics”, “eating nutri- tionally balanced meals”, and “getting adequate sleep”. A significantly higher percentage of men with low SOC re- ported that they “Be moderate in eating”. No charac- teristic health behavior was observed in men with a high SOC.
These categories have evolved to a sophisticated and useful level, however are more effective at describing indoor behaviors which can be evaluated up close and in a contained environment. It is much more difficult to utilize these categories for outdoor pathway behaviors, which present three main obstacles. First, it is more difficult to observe behaviors well enough to determine exact categories. Dramatic play, for instance, may require the observer to listen to a conversation. Second, the diversity of behaviors occurring along a pathway can be more varied. Children engage in many behaviors that do not fit in to the defined categories, for instance, observing wildlife. Finally, it is not as likely that children will be engaged with peers in the pathway environment. The school or daycare setting would be a familiar setting and less likely to involve adults. For these reasons, all though it is important to understand these play categories, they are not appropriate for this research.
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The goal of all schools is to increase student success through a positive school climate, effective leadership skills, and instructional best practices (Fullan, 2006; Leithwood et al., 2004; Spillane, 2006). The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent of teachers‟ perceptions of principals‟ leadership behaviors connected to a healthy school climate, and how those behaviors were related to Green‟s (2010) 13 core competencies (i.e., assessment, collaboration, curriculum and instruction, diversity, inquiry, instructional leadership, learning community, organizational management, professional development, professionalism, reflection, unity of purpose, and visionary leadership). Research has acknowledged that leadership serves as a catalyst for school improvement shaped by historical and current conditions in schools. Principals who sought to improve the entire structure of schools attempted to build trusting relationships and shared leadership practices, exhibit effective research-based leadership, and focus on the collective evidence of student learning (Hallinger & Heck, 2010).
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While many of the participants from each focus group were aware of the consequences of consuming traditional soul food and the chronic illnesses associated with consuming foods high in calories, fats, and sugars, participants appeared to associate their chronic illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity as unrelated to eating traditional soul food. All participants felt that they were healthy and did not realize that a body mass index 30 was overweight or obese. While most AA females during the 1950s were large, their appearance was viewed as positive, indicating that AA women who were obese cooked good soul food dishes (Chen, Williams, Hendrickson, & Chen, 2012). According to Chen et al., obese AA women think that people with excess weight are healthy and small people are unhealthy. They also posited that obese AA women know that consuming high- calorie soul food is detrimental to their health, but if done in moderation, it is acceptable and not considered unhealthy.
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