on hepatosomatic index and behaviour with respect to control rats. The modulating role of Curcuma aromatica (50 mg/kg body weight) was also studied on arsenic trioxide toxicity. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight, liver weight and hepatosomatic index after arsenic trioxide intoxication and significant increase after Curcuma aromatica treatment while, it has been almost similar to control group in Curcuma aromatica and arsenic trioxide treatment. However, behaviour changes (scratching, excitation, thirst, salivation, tremors, food avoidance and pilling) have been observed at short term and long term exposure of arsenic trioxide, Curcuma aromatica and their combination. The results indicate protective action of Curcuma aromatica on hepatosomatic index and behaviour under stress of arsenic trioxide.
Abstract: Sumithion is widely used in larval rearing aquaculture ponds to control aquatic insects. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of sumithion on hepatosomatic index and liver morphology in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Acute toxicity of sumithion (96 h LC50 value) was first determined and it was 8.05 ppm for common carp. The fish were exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations (0.85 and 1.7ppm) of sumithion for a period of 21 days. A control set was also run for the same time with the same number of fish without sumithion (0 ppm). There was a marked increase in the hepatosomatic index in both concentrations (0.85 and 1.70 ppm) compared to control (0 ppm). Several histological changes of liver, such as necrosis, patchy degeneration, degenerated hepatocytes, vaculation and blood spilling were observed after exposure to sumithion with dose and exposure time dependent manner. The present investigation revealed the toxic potentiality of sumithion on common carp which alters liver morphology that may lead metabolic changes in fish.
Oocytes of this stage attain maximum size of about 650-950 µ. The yolk globules occupy the entire ooplasm. Nucleus is acentrically located. Yolk globules present at the periphery are spherical in shape and those located centrally are oval in shape and small sized. Each oocyte is surrounded by a clear demarcated layer of follicular epithelium. Between the follicular epithelium and the inner ooplasm develops a thin egg membrane. Maximum numbers of oocytes of this stage are present in the months of March-April and August to October. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and Hepatosomatic index (HSI)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin production are suggested to play important, complex roles in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases. Indomethacin generates free radicals and induce oxidative and nitrosative stress with depletion of antioxidants. In this study, we have evaluated the beneficial effects of black tea extract against indomethacin induced liver toxicity. We studied the effect of supplementation of Black tea extract (BTE, 2.5 g tea leaf/dL of water, i.e., 2.5% of aqueous BTE, orally) on indomethacin (5mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced liver oxidative and nitrosative stress in Wister strain male albino rats. Hematological parameters, serum nitric oxide, L-ascorbic acid and serum malondialdehyde concentrations were evaluated. We also evaluated total protein, SGOT, SGPT and histopathology of liver. Indomethacin treated rats showed significantly decreased body weight, hepatosomatic index, hematological parameters, L-ascorbic acid concentrations, nitric oxide, total protein levels and increase in malondialdehyde SGOT and SGPT parameters as compared to their controls. However, simultaneous treatment with indomethacin and black tea extract produced a remarkable improvement of all the above parameters when compared with treatment with indomethacin drug alone. However, simultaneous treatment with indomethacin and black tea extract significantly improve the serum nitric oxide, L-ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde concentrations, as compared to indomethacin treatment alone. Histopathology of the liver revealed swollen hepatocyte, foci of fatty changes and ballooning degeneration in indomethacin treated rats which almost reverse back in BTE supplemented indomethacin group. Results indicate that BTE is beneficial in preventing NSAID induced hepatocellular damages.
The indicators of the growth performance of S. schle- gelii such as daily length gain, daily weight gain, con- dition factor, and hepatosomatic index are demonstrated in Fig. 1. In daily length gain, a notable reduction was observed over 0.5 mg/L at 19 and 24 °C after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks, the daily length gain was sig- nificantly decreased over 0.5 mg/L at 19 °C and over con- trol at 24 °C. In daily weight gain, a considerable decrease was observed over 0.5 mg/L at 19 and 24 °C. After 4 weeks, the daily weight gain was markedly reduced over 0.5 mg/L at 19 °C and over 0.1 mg/L at 24 °C. The condi- tion factor after 2 weeks was substantially decreased in the concentration of 1.0 mg/L at 19 and 24 °C, and a consid- erable decrease after 4 weeks was observed in the concen- tration in 1.0 mg/L at 19 °C and over 0.5 mg/L at 24 °C. In the Hepatosomatic Index, a significant reduction was observed in the concentration of 1.0 mg/L at 19 °C and over 0.5 mg/L at 24 °C. After 4 weeks, the Hepatosomatic Index was notably decreased over 0.5 mg/L at 19 and 24 °C. In the growth performance, the growth indica- tors affected the concentration of ammonia exposure and temperature.
Ammonia exposure to fish is a critical environmental limited factor to inhibit growth performance by decreas- ing feed intake and feed utilization (Foss et al., 2003). Many authors reported that high concentrations of am- monia exposure induced growth inhibition of spotted wolfish, Anarhichas minor Olafsen (Foss et al., 2003), turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (Foss et al., 2009), Atlan- tic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Paust et al., 2011). In this study, high concentrations of ammonia induced a significant decrease in growth of sablefish, A. fimbria, which may be due to energy transition from growth and development to detoxification. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) is considered as a critical indicator to evaluate
out the experiment. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of the male C. gariepinus fed diet A (Coppens feed), diet B (SBD) and diet C (COBD) were 0.35 ± 0.03%, 0.41 ± 0.04% and 0.36 ± 0.02% respectively. Female C. gariepinus fed diet A, diet B and diet C had a mean GSI of 1.17 ± 0.26%, 0.88 ± 0.27% and 0.77 ± 0.06% respectively. The male gonad weight and GSI varied significantly between the treatment group fed coppens, shrimp based diet and chicken offal based diet (p<0.05), while female gonad weight and GSI did not vary significantly between treatment groups (p>0.05). The hepatosomatic index (HSI) of the male C. gariepinus fed diet A, diet B and diet C were 1.36 ± 0.07%, 1.18 ± 0.07% and 1.21 ± 0.06% respectively. Female C. gariepinus fed diet A, diet B and diet C had a mean HSI of 1.27 ± 0.09%, 1.20 ± 0.06% and 4.27 ± 0.38% respectively. The male and female HSI varied insignificantly between the treatment group at p>0.05. Fecundity was highest (3200 ± 717.90 eggs) in fish fed diet A, followed by fish fed diet B (2392 ± 749 eggs) and least in fish fed diet C (1973 ± 184 eggs). The mean fecundity varied significantly between the fish fed the 3 experimental diet at p<0.05. Normal arrangement of the oocytes, liver and testis was observed in fish fed COBD and SBD, just as in the case of the group fed coppens. Though coppens feed yielded better fecundity, the use of COBD and SBD is recommended for fish farmers in Nigeria. More researches should be carried out on using varying levels of chicken offals and shrimps in fish feed formulation.
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The hepatosomatic index (HSI) was 1.57% ± 0.11%, (se) which is lower than one reported by Ross  for some species of ducks such as A. clypeata (mean 3.85, max = 4.78, min = 2.81) and A. acuta (mean = 2.89, max = 4.55, min = 1.59). Spearman’s correlations showed no relationship between HSI and Pb concentration (Figure 2) both on dry (CS = 0.01) and wet basis (CS = −0.21). Similar studies on waterfowl indicate that it is possible an increase in liver size when birds are exposed to certain pollutants .
Figure 12: (A) Body weight (B) Hepatosomatic index (C) circulating leptin (D) hepatic lepa mRNA abundance and (E) hepatic lepr mRNA abundance of control tilapia fed to satiation daily and treatment fish subjected to 3 weeks fasting (red bar) followed by 1.5 weeks of refeeding daily to satiation. .................................................................. 71 Figure 13: Effect of hypophysectomy and oGH treatment on hepatic gene expression of
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Seven stages of oogenesis were identified in the rosy barb (Puntius conchonius). Oogonia were present throughout the reproductive cycle. A group-synchronous ovary with a possible asynchronous ovarian development was observed. The most important event observed during the developmental stages of oogenesis was the observation of the crystalline yolk (at the maturation stage). Maturation of females was observed at 112 days post hatch. Mean hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) increased with increasing mean body weights and lengths during gametogenesis in females. The relationship was statistically significant (p 0.05). The sex ratio observed in 300 fish was 210:80 (female:male) and the difference was statististically significant (p0.05).
Most teleosts are considered to be ammoniotelic, with certain exceptions (see Mommsen and Walsh, 1991; Wood, 1993). Some of the predominantly ammoniotelic teleosts have been shown to produce urea in extreme environmental or physiological situations (see Wood, 1993). The mechanisms for the switch from ammoniotely to ureotely in these animals are still elusive, although several hypotheses have been proposed (Walsh et al. 1994). As plasma cortisol concentration increases with chronic stress in the sea raven (Vijayan and Moon, 1994), the higher plasma urea concentration in the cortisol- Table 1. Final body mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver
Additional behavioral factor that is based on the prospect theory is Sentiment. Prior work suggests a number of proxies for Sentiment to use as time- series conditioning variables. There are no definitive or uncontroversial measures; however I use Baker and Wurgler (2006) Sentiment index which is based on first principal component of six (standardized) Sentiment proxies over 1962–2008 data, where each of the proxies has first been orthogonalized with respect to a set of macroeconomic conditions. Those variables are: PDND a value-weighted dividend premium defined following Baker and Wurgler (2004) (values differ slightly from theirs due to subsequent improvements in the CRSP (Center for Research and Security Prices)/COMPUSTAT merge procedure) ; NIPO an IPO volume from Ibbotson, Sindelar, and Ritter (1994) ; RIPO is the first-day returns on IPOs from Goetzmann & Ibbotson (1994), and Ibbotson ,Sindelar, and Ritter (1994);CEFD a closed-end fund discount , which is the average difference between the NAV of closed- end stock fund shares and their market prices. Prior work suggests that CEFD is inversely related to Sentiment. Zweig (1973) uses it to forecast reversion in Dow Jones stocks, and Lee, Shleifer, and Thaler (1991) argue that Sentiment is behind various features of closed-end fund discounts; SHARE is an equity share in new issues defined following Baker and Wurgler (2000); and finally TURN is the NYSE turnover from NYSE Fact Book . NYSE share turnover is based on the ratio of reported share volume to average shares listed from the NYSE Fact Book. Baker and Stein (2004) suggest that turnover, or more generally liquidity, can serve as a Sentiment index. In a market with short-sales constraints, irrational investors participate, and thus add liquidity, only when they are optimistic; hence, high liquidity is a symptom of overvaluation. Supporting this, Jones (2002) finds that high turnover forecasts low market returns. TURN is calculated as the natural log of the raw turnover ratio, de-trended by the five-year moving average. The Sentiment index provided by Baker and Wurgler (2004) act as an indicator of the market condition , where if the Sentiment index was a negative then market condition was a negative and vice versa. In addition I use the index as the benchmark index to calculate and estimate abnormal returns. I call this analysis the Market Index based analysis.
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The main objective for the present research was to assess the effect of cyclic starvation and L- carnitine supplementation on growth (body final weight, hepatosomatic index (HSI), daily growth rate (DGI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and voluntary feed intake (VFI)), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture), biochemical (plasma total protein, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and liver glycogen) and immunological (lysozyme activity) parameters in grey mullet. To satisfy the foregoing end, a total of 240 fish with an average weight of 1.33±0.26 g were randomly divided into four groups (three replicates, 20 fish per tank). Two groups were fed on a daily basis and the other two ones were kept starved for 7 days once in 2 weeks. Two groups were fed a carnitine free basal diet and the remaining were fed a diet with 800 mg carnitine kg -1 . Cyclic starvation led to significantly decreased body final weight, DGI, FCR, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol. On the contrary, no significant differences were found across all groups for FCR, HSI, glucose, liver glycogen and lysozyme concentrations. At the same time, the combined effects of cyclic starvation and carnitine supplementation were manifested in DGI and VFI parameters. In light of the above results, it can be noted that in both feeding regimes, growth, feed utilization and carcass quality in grey mullet increased upon adding 800 mg carnitine kg -1 diet
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GSI is widely used as an index to examine the spawning periods as it directly relates to gonadal development (Yeldan and Avsar, 2000). Parameswarn et al., (1974); Rheman et al., (2002) reported that GSI indicates the gonadal maturity, which increases with the maturation and development of fishes. An increase in GSI suggests that spawning season is approaching, where the decrease in GSI suggests spawning has occurred. Gradual increase of the GSI in the pre-spawning period, reaching a peak during the spawning period and sudden decrease in the post- spawning period had been observed for P. argenteus (Lone et al., 2008). In both sexes of P. argenteus two peaks of GSI were observed, one in May to June and another one in October which indicates the incidence of spawning. Hakima et al., (1983) reported that spawning of P. argenteus in Kuwait waters took place from March to August in both sexes, with 1 st peak in April and 2 nd peak in
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