As previously stated, the 24-hourrecall method is the most often used dietary assessment tool in large clinical studies. This method has often been used with children and adolescents [11-14]. However, its use is time-con- suming and its analysis often requires expertise and spe- cial software. Single 24-hour dietary recalls are advantageous in clinical use for this population because they provide checks and time references (all foods listed and accounted for) for the child in a capacity that they can comprehend . FFQs on the other hand, can be time effi- cient and are readily available. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the daily calcium intake values obtained from the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), an FFQ, for assessing daily calcium intake in child and adolescent males against the values obtained from the 24-hourrecall method.
Adolescents were requested to complete electronic 24-hourrecall diaries on five randomly assigned weekdays and two randomly assigned weekend days during a one-month period (April 2011), excluding holidays. On the assigned day, the adolescents were notified at 4 pm by a text message and an email which included web links to the diary. A reminder was sent the next morning at 8 am if the diary was not completed by that time. The diary could be com- pleted until 9 am on the same day. Participants received a voucher worth 7.50 euro when all seven diaries were completed (in addition to the standard reward points system of the agency for each time they participate in a research).
population, and 2) it generates a potentially lower postna- tal HIV-1 transmission among children born to HIV-1- positive mothers. The first scientific challenge is to better understand how strictly exclusive breastfeeding needs to be in order to produce these beneficial effects. The second challenge is which methodology to use to assess exclusive- ness. A 24-hourrecall alone is potentially harmful as it tends to overestimate the exclusive breastfeeding practice and may give policy makers a feeling of false security so that they are not sufficiently alert to the need to focus on better breastfeeding practices. One advantage, however, is that it might detect absence of proper complementary feeding in the second half of infancy when complemen- tary food items are recommended. The cost of the WHO suggestion of prospective frequent data collection is pro- hibitive for most policy purposes. Recall since birth pro- vides a picture close to reality describing the first Introduction of the different food items for food items given to more than 20% of the infants, cumulative percentage. Median and range given
The second assumption, that the ASA24-Kids as a self-administered method produces no additional bias over an interviewer-administered 24-hourrecall, may be of con- cern. Unlike dietary interviewers, study children are not trained to navigate the software and identify foods that best match their intakes. One study showed that when children between the ages of 9 and 11 years reported their own diet- ary intakes over the past 24 hours, the ASA24-Kids was less accurate than the interviewer-administered AMPM . However, other studies have shown that among computer-literate English-speaking adults, the ASA24 per- formed similarly to the AMPM [7, 8]. In this study, parent or adult proxies were available to assist children aged 9 – 11 years, but were instructed by the FDC to provide assist- ance only if asked by the child. More consistent and active assistance from parents about the foods eaten at home and portion sizes may be needed to improve accuracy. However, the lack of an in-person interviewer in the ASA24-Kids may also confer some advantages such as a possible reduc- tion in social desirability bias. Smith et al. found that, among fourth-grade children, reporting accuracy decreased with social desirability when 24-hour recalls were adminis- tered in person by interviewers .
By means of convenience sampling technique, a premiere college affiliated to the University of Madras was approached to collect data. A sample of 100 girls from the college was selected for the present study. Prior permission was obtained from the principal of the college clarifying the purpose of the study. After permission was obtained, the researcher spoke to the students and oriented them about the purpose and significance of the research. Consent forms were then distributed to the participants and those who were willing to participate in the study were asked to give their written consent and the same was obtained. Collection of data was carried out by perceiving the views and ideas from the girls through filling up of interview schedule, food frequency questionnaire and checklist. Demographic profile, dietary pattern, was elicited using an interview schedule. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was filled by the researcher to study about the food consumption pattern of the participants. Similarly three day 24 hourrecall was done to calculate the nutritive value of diet consumed by the subjects before and after nutrition education. Nutrition education was given to the participants after scrutinizing their knowledge and awareness about junk foods using a checklist. Impact of nutrition education was checked by means of the same check list after a week time. The data’s collected were coded and analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 11. Descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation were obtained for age, body mass index. Students’’ test was done to find the difference before and after nutrition education.
Participants agreed to in-person interviews and signed an informed consent form. Food intake data were col- lected by a trained interviewer during a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of a native Senegalese physician and translator. As is typical in the 24-hourrecall interview, participants were asked to remember and report all food and beverage items consumed in the previous 24 hours. The interviewer probed in detail about each food and beverage item reported. Participants were asked details about the name, place and time of consumption of the meal, method of preparation, amount consumed, condi- ments added, recipes, brand names or name of menu items for restaurants, take-out foods, or other foods eaten outside of the home. During the interview, partici- pants were shown visual aids to assist them in estimat- ing amount consumed. Demographic information such as age, tribal affiliation, education, residence, marital sta- tus, as well as health behaviors, medical history, and family history were also collected.
Data collection for temporal-spatial activity patterns Tier I: Telephone surveys of temporal-spatial activity In the first year, participants were asked to complete two 48-hourrecall surveys reflecting activities during the weekdays and the weekend. Previous recall studies have included only a 24-hour period of recall  but we wanted to determine if reliable information could be obtained for the second 24-hour period. We collected 24-hour recalls only in the second and third years, in the interest of time. The 24-hour interview consisted of guiding the participant through their day beginning at midnight and following through to midnight. The parti- cipant first recorded time spent at each location, then the interviewer reviewed the survey with the participant to ensure that all times and locations were captured cor- rectly. The location categories used were compiled from the NHAPS data  and the California Activity Patterns Surveys  and then adapted for our purposes. The following locations were coded in year 1 (with slight modification in year 2): residential locations including home, garage, or someone else’s home; school/childcare locations; places for work, shopping, and eating i.e. office buildings, stores, restaurants, and service loca- tions; and other locations such as public buildings, reli- gious institutions, and recreational facilities. Additional questions were asked about activities that occurred less frequently (barbeque, pumping gas, going to a bar/night club, etc.). Various modes of transportation were also included when eliciting time spent in transit. The focus was on locations and therefore only minimal informa- tion on activity was obtained, e.g., sleeping, working, and awake not working. Some of the specified activities
The clinical evidence supporting the drug combination utilized in this study was first derived through care of the lead author’s patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A number of chronic GI disorders, including IBS and reflux, are frequently comorbid with FM. IBS patients were initially treated with famciclovir, yet those also placed on celecoxib for arthritis were the patients who demonstrated a dramatic improvement. A number of these patients expressed gratitude that their fibromyalgia symptoms were also reduced with this combination therapy. This clinical experience led to the hypothesis that recurrent reactivation of a tissue-resident herpesvirus in genetically susceptible individuals could contribute to the symptoms of fibromyalgia. At the end of this 16-week trial, famciclovir + celecoxib IMC-1 treatment provided a significant improvement in FM pain as compared to placebo and as measured by the FIQ-R 7-day recall pain item and 24-hourrecall pain score. The PGIC has been shown in previous FM studies to be a sensitive measure of clinical benefit. At all study visits, a statistically greater number of the IMC-1-treated patients reported meaningful improvement on the PGIC when compared to placebo-treated patients. The FIQ-R was included in the study as a key secondary endpoint as a measure of disease-specific activity of the therapy. At all follow-up visits, IMC-1-treated patients reported higher rates of improvement in the total score of the FIQ-R with the contrast at weeks 6 and 16 meeting statistical significance. Analysis of the domains that comprises the FIQ total score showed that all three individual domains were statistically
Methods Nine participants were enrolled and given a presentation on dietary assessment methods, including weighing, 24-hourrecall, and instant photography. The participants took pictures of their foods from three angles before and after eating for constant seven days, foods weighing was completed by others. Then, the participants recalled the foods’ weights after 24 hours. Two trained observers estimated food weight from the digital images (n = 285) gathered at the end of the study with the aid of Chinese food atlas reference.
household utensils (e.g. bowls, cups and spoons) may be useful to help parents (or caregivers) estimate quantities consumed (Bingham, 1987; Dwyer, 1994; Hankin, 1992; Pao & Cypel, 1996; Patterson & Berdanier, 2002; Yanek et al., 2000). A structured interview process assists in retrieving as much information as possible from participant and eliminates errors in data collection (Gibson, 2005). A standardised interview process has been developed and is recommended to be followed when conducting a 24-hourrecall. It includes a three phase approach firstly collating a list of all foods and beverages consumed, then gathering further detailed descriptions including brands, cooking methods and portion size consumed and finally a review to ensure all foods and beverages are recorded (Gibson, 2005).
24 hourrecall of the participant was recorded. The participants were asked to recall all the foods and drinks consumed by them on the previous day. In this the quantity of food consumed by the respondents in terms of standardized household measures (cup, spoons, ladles, serving spoons, katories, plates etc.) was recorded. The specific details like the time of consumption of meals, number of meals, method of reparation, portion sizes etc were included in the dietary record by which nutrient values were calculated by using CS Dietary System software. The food intakes were converted into grams to compute nutrient intakes. Nutrient intakes were calculated based on the Nutritive value of Indian Foods given by the NIN. Wherever values for nutrients were not available, the FAO or USDA database was use
As Piwoz says ‘ the child can go in and out of feeding categories ’ , so it is possible that those who give other foods than breast milk infrequently appear as someone who practice EBF in the 24-hourrecall. The question is also whether the 24-hourrecall over-reports EBF because other feeds than breast milk is under- reported. For example, answering fatigue might cause this, e.g. when mothers are asked from long lists of food items they might rapidly answer ‘no’ to everything to avoid probing for frequency, etc. From the design of the study under-reporting cannot be assessed. Almroth and Latham did a number of studies in warm climates addressing the feeding needs for children. They used the retrospective recalls to a high degree, but explained the technique more as ‘nutritional in depth interviews’ than feeding recalls . With this technique they presented results similar to those of this paper. Maybe the infant feeding assessment discussion should circle more around how to reduce bias and under-reporting during interviews just as much as around the instruments themselves? We observed a study fatigue with the pro- spective assessment and women said they were bored with the questionnaires. This should be discussed and taken into account before designing huge comprehen- sive follow-up studies. It could be better for the partici- pants to do interviews seldom and of high quality than often and repetitive.
We previously reported that the prevalence of oral thrush among Maasai women of reproductive age in Ngorongoro Conservation Area was abnormally high (32%) in the absence of immune-com- promising diseases such as HIV. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that Maasai women of reproductive age are prone to oral thrush because they are deficient in micronutrients such as Vitamins A, C, D, and B12, as well as iron and folate which are known to have immune modulating functions. Method: The study recruited 210 participants out of which 180 agreed to donate blood for serum separation and analyses. A total of 107 participants (including 28 with oral thrush and 79 without oral thrush) were assessed for dietary intake of iron, folate, Vitamins A, C, and B12 using a 24 hours dietary recall method. Further, 40 serum samples randomly selected from the 180 serum samples were tested for concentrations of Vitamins A and C using commer- cially available HPLC kit while the concentration of Vitamin D was tested using the commercially available 25-OH Vitamin D ELISA Assay kit. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Sta- tistics 20™, where descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to demographic, socioeco- nomic and biochemical variables. Student’s t-test was used to test for significant differences among variables at 95% confidence level. The proportion of women with deficiency was calculated for single and multiple micronutrients. Results: Results from the 24-hour dietary recall method revealed that with the exception of folate (p = 0.000), there were no significant differences in iron, Vitamins A, C, and B12 intake between participants with and without oral thrush. Of note, the in- take of these four micronutrients was below the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). A similar trend was observed for serum vitamin concentrations as established by HPLC and ELISA testing. While there was no significant difference in serum concentration of Vitamins A, C, and D between participants with and without oral thrush (p > 0.05), the serum levels were all below normal sig-
hardship has a strong effect on adult health status. Once recall error is accounted for in a generalised latent variable model, the effect reduced by an order of magnitude though remain statistically significant. Applying the endogeneous treatment model of recall bias suggests that childhood hard- ship is systematically misreported by respondents. Once this bias is purged, the effect of childhood deprivation on adult health increased markedly. Such an increase is consistent with multiple direct and indirect pathways linking childhood hardship and adult health. Conclusion Problems of recall error and recall bias are common in life course retrospective studies. Applied to data from 23 European countries, the proposed solutions recover the effect of childhood hardship on adult health outcome.
Methods: This study was part of the cross-sectional study, Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING). One 24-h dietary recall was completed for a total of 1409 children (infants 6 – 11 months, younger toddlers 12 – 23 months, and older toddlers 24 – 36 months) via face-to-face interviews with the primary caregivers. All food, beverage and dietary supplements that the child consumed on the previous day were recorded and processed with a database including data from Chinese Food Composition tables. All reported foods and supplements were assigned to one of 83 food groups developed for the study. Percent contribution of each food group to nutrient intakes was calculated.
All potential predictors in the models were collected at the time of NHANES interview to mimic a hypothetical scenario where a medical provider may want to conduct an in- clinic 24- hour dietary recall to improve predic- tion of CVD mortality. Demographic variables included age, sex and race (black race, Hispanic ethnicity), and currently employed CVD risk factors of total cholesterol (mg/dL), high- density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (mg/dL), systolic blood pressure (mm Hg), blood pres- sure treatment status (yes/no), diabetes status (yes/no) and current smoking status (yes/no). 5 Nutrition variables
“Yes, you are!” she replied. “Can’t you see that his life- force is spent? He’ll be dead within the hour and it’s all my fault!” Wiping her tears on the back of her sleeve, Phae ran from the Halls. Her father called out and was about to run after her when all of a sudden he stopped in his tracks. The weight of two dozen pairs of eyes fixed on him, waiting for his instruction. They had seen everything. They knew what had caused the fire in the Halls. They knew who was responsible. He surveyed the scene before him. The Halls of Meditation were lost. The walls were nearly all burnt to the ground, and only the husk of the building’s skeleton remained, its charred, blackened frame a sharp reminder of the vastly dangerous, uncontrollable power his daughter wielded.
It was carried out between October 2011 and May 2012. Informed consent was obtained from each participant or from the participant’s parent/guardian. The Ethics Com- mittee of the Mexican National Institute of Public Health reviewed and approved the survey protocol. Data on dietary intake were collected via 24-h diet recall in a random subsample (~11%) of Ensanut 2012 respondents. We included non-pregnant, non-lactating females and all males ≥1 y old, and excluded 125 participants with extreme energy intake (outside ±3 standard deviation of the log of the energy intake/energy requirements ratio). Our analytical sample was 10 096 subjects [2 113