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Knowledge transfer towards SMEs in China

Knowledge transfer towards SMEs in China

A third transition is in the social proximity. The amount of contact is changing for regional representations of the NIP in cases where knowledge transfer was primarily based on explicit mediums. In these cases, reports, charts and other written materials will be exchanged for face-to-face meetings. Increasing the amount of meetings results in an increase of human interaction where friendships and kinships could start. This results in a higher social proximity. For the regional representations that used personal meetings as a means to transmit knowledge, the amount of social interaction is not changing. Only the place is changing from meetings within the regional office to the SMEs establishment. Thus, the amount of social interaction is stable and the social proximity is not influenced by the new approach for these relations. Overall, the tendency of the social proximity will increase. As the social proximity could not be established precisely in the case of an RIP, it is also difficult for this new situation. However, it can be tentatively argued, that the social proximity should increase from the establishment of the NIP. Fourth, the institutions that govern the knowledge transfer will be altered by the introduction of the NIP. The underlying laws and regulations remain applicable to both the regional representation and the SME as both are still situated in the same province. If the regulations change within a province, it changes both for the regional representation of the NIP and for the SMEs situated in that province. However, the codes of conduct within a regional representation of the NIP are likely to change if these become part of a larger organisation. These will resemble less the codes of conduct of an SME. Therefore, the institutional proximity is decreasing.
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Knowledge transfer partnerships at the university of the West of England

Knowledge transfer partnerships at the university of the West of England

KTP income is a contributor to the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), one may also consider how knowledge transfer between university and industry may be further recognized and developed for future Research Excellence Framework (REF) assessments. Ultimately KTPs and other knowledge transfer mechanisms are drivers for collaboration that is seen as a necessary dimension of both regional and national economic and intellectual success for the future (Abd Razak and Saad, 2007; Cooke, 2002; Morgan, 1997).

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Knowledge transfer

Knowledge transfer

Universities across Europe are under a growing pressure to engage in the knowledge transfer activities in order to increase the competitiveness of European economy. In some countries, schemes to facilitate knowledge transfer function of universities and other research institutions have been developed and serve the society, a vast majority of the EU member states, however, is yet to address this challenge and find the appropriate set of tools to initiate the process. Most studies dealing with the issue of knowledge transfer reveal that the knowledge transfer for commercial benefit represents only a sub-set of the broader con- cept of knowledge transfer which is directed towards enhancing material, human, social and environmental wellbeing. This by its nature multi-purpose function of the universities is difficult to implement. The implementation support scheme should include not only financial incentives (which tend to be naturally the most discussed issue) but also a combination of measures ranging from training knowledge transfer personnel, setting appropriate metrics to assess the performance of knowledge transfer processes, quality assurance schemes as well as barriers-removing poli- cies to enhance mobility of staff and free exchange of knowledge.
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Being perceived as a knowledge sender or knowledge receiver: A multistudy investigation of the effect of age on knowledge transfer

Being perceived as a knowledge sender or knowledge receiver: A multistudy investigation of the effect of age on knowledge transfer

With this research, we aim to make four main contributions. First, by examining the effects of age on knowledge transfer as a relevant organizational outcome, we contribute to the growing body of research that examines how organizations can respond to the challenges and opportunities created by demographic changes (Henry, Zacher, & Desmette, 2015; Hertel & Zacher, 2015). Second, we aim to contribute to the research on the organizational theory of age effects by developing perceived ability and motivation as two relevant mediators that explain why age elicits its effects on knowledge transfer behaviour at work. From a practical perspective, such findings are relevant because organizations cannot change employees’ age but they may be able to influence employees’ perceived ability and motivation to share and receive knowledge. Third, our analysis regarding the role of trustworthiness as a buffer enables a more differentiated analysis of age effects. As individual differences are larger within rather than between age groups (Staudinger, 2015; Zacher, 2015), the analysis of individual characteristics is necessary to understand differential effects among workers of the same age. Fourth, we disentangle knowledge transfer into its constituting parts: knowledge sharing and knowledge receiving (e.g., Reinholt et al., 2011). This established distinction (Davenport & Prusak, 1998) is rarely applied in empirical studies (Wilkesmann, Wilkesmann, & Virgillito, 2009), but it is relevant to identify the differential effects of age on knowledge transfer behaviour.
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Knowledge Economics: Improving Theoretical Framework of Knowledge Transfer

Knowledge Economics: Improving Theoretical Framework of Knowledge Transfer

This paper is developing a theoretical framework, theoretical frame work that would never have existed, impossible to imagine without understanding the concept of time as related to knowledge as well as the need to unitize knowledge, everything must start from the right premise, one can not try to change a model for accounting for example to account for knowledge, one must start right from the beginning and build a sound theoretical frame work. Figure 6 is now demonstrating what occurs when starting with the right premise. To the right of the neutral zone, the risks associated with knowledge transfer become higher, there is now pressure due to competition to find another law of existence, not just any law but a critical level that will open up a whole new world of applicability. Critical levels will discussed thoroughly in the paper “Point X and the Economics of Knowledge.” X i and X i+1 are critical levels of knowledge. However do not
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An Interpretable Knowledge Transfer Model for Knowledge Base Completion

An Interpretable Knowledge Transfer Model for Knowledge Base Completion

In this paper, we propose an interpretable knowledge transfer model (ITransF), which en- courages the sharing of statistic regularities be- tween the projection matrices of relations and al- leviates the data sparsity problem. At the core of ITransF is a sparse attention mechanism, which learns to compose shared concept matrices into relation-specific projection matrices, leading to a better generalization property. Without any ex- ternal resources, ITransF improves mean rank and Hits@10 on two benchmark datasets, over all pre- vious approaches of the same kind. In addition, the parameter sharing is clearly indicated by the learned sparse attention vectors, enabling us to in- terpret how knowledge transfer is carried out. To induce the desired sparsity during optimization, we further introduce a block iterative optimization algorithm.
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Menage a trois! Innovation, digital and knowledge transfer

Menage a trois! Innovation, digital and knowledge transfer

Abstract: Knowledge transfer is often seen as a mechanism to support innovation of this sort, and in this paper, we describe work aimed at developing an understanding of such collaborations. Within this setting we believe that the adoption of digital technologies can lead companies on a path that can take them into new and challenging territories. Our work focuses upon support for digital innovation for Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) aiming to identify alternatives/strategies for establishing effective knowledge transfer based innovation. We analysed existing digital innovation models and instruments in order to develop an understanding of the factors valued in characterising digital innovation. Our findings show that although existing approaches have a useful role in digital innovation, they are however inappropriate for SMEs, who have probably not been involved in such a transformation. In addition, this paper reports on the early instrument developed to identify potential for digital innovation based on collaborative knowledge transfer between SMEs and universities. This study provides a better understanding of the makeup and effectiveness of some of the existing digital innovation models and frameworks.
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Building knowledge based economies: research projects in knowledge management and knowledge transfer

Building knowledge based economies: research projects in knowledge management and knowledge transfer

Knowledge transfer is the diffusion of technical information and expertise. At the macro level this research focuses on information flows among nations, regions, and organizations. Much research in this area is on knowledge gaps between developing and developed countries. Ciolek developed an interesting approach to knowledge network research using the AltaVista search engine to uncover information connections among countries in East Asia [4]. At a more micro level, within organizations the emphasis is on how knowledge moves through an organization. There is a difference between knowledge and information: information can be readily transferred, knowledge cannot. It can be difficult and slow transferring knowledge from one person to another [6]. Increasingly researchers have begun to recognize the importance of human resources in technology transfer, i.e., the capacity of the labor force to use, improve and innovate using technology [14, 20]. Investments in education, training and lifelong learning are needed to develop the knowledge base of the employees. Research is needed to help establish priorities for public investments in education. A second area for research in this area is on the knowledge networks used by SMEs – what are their sources of information and talent? How do they validate information?
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Entrepreneurial learning in practice: The impact of knowledge transfer

Entrepreneurial learning in practice: The impact of knowledge transfer

5 is the pursuit and exploitation of new, innovative opportunities and, therefore, the facilitation of learning. The theatre for such activity is, primarily, but not exclusively, small to medium sized firms within the science, engineering and technology sectors. The partnership commonly includes, within KTPs, those within a business venture, an academic or team of academic researchers from a HEI and government agencies. It is essentially about the transfer of tangible and intellectual property, expertise, learning and skills between academia and the non-academic community, particularly business practitioners. The ‘knowledge’ transferred can be formal and clearly expressed, for example, from published research and/or informal in terms of individual experiences and tacit as in residing in the individual without being stated and therefore difficult to articulate in direct communication. Transferring knowledge, particularly tacit knowledge, and facilitating learning, is therefore a complex undertaking. The entrepreneurial business venturer, for example, busy with developing an enterprise, may not be fully aware of, or have thought critically about the wealth of accumulated knowledge that resides within him/her because of years of business experience, therefore distilling this type of knowledge and leveraging value from it can be difficult. The specific challenge to transferknowledge’ is therefore to capture, organize, create, and distribute it from one part of an enterprise to another or indeed throughout an enterprise in ways that effect a step- change in the progress of the business venture and to ensure its legacy remains valid for those within the enterprise into the future though the development of appropriate applied learning. Knowledge transfer is, therefore, both potentially valuable and challenging for those engaged in it.
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Knowledge Transfer Partnerships and the Entrepreneurial University

Knowledge Transfer Partnerships and the Entrepreneurial University

Collaborative relationships between universities and businesses have received growing attention from governments and academics. Within the UK, for example, a number of government commissioned reports and reviews (e.g. Lambert, 2003; Wilson, 2012; Dowling, 2015) have explored ways of extending and enhancing these relationships and have made a wide range of recommendations designed to further that end. At the same time, the organisational and broader economic and social benefits of academic engagement with the business world have been explored within academic literature (e.g. Ankrah et al., 2013; Perkmann et al., 2013). A wide variety of collaborative relationships can be identified, ranging from large scale research projects involving research intensive universities and multinational industrial corporations, to bespoke foundation degrees; but in many ways the theme of knowledge transfer and entrepreneurship lie at the heart of all such collaboration. For the University of Cambridge (2016: webpage), for example, ‘knowledge transfer is a term used to encompass a very broad range of activities to support mutually beneficial collaborations between universities, businesses and the public sector.’ Ka lar and Antoncic (2015: 1) suggested that ‘the mutual relationship between the university and industry through the exchange of knowledge’ has effectively meant that ‘a number of universities have transformed themselves from a
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Knowledge Transfer in German Hospitals

Knowledge Transfer in German Hospitals

and opportunity. Other studies analyzing these factors for knowledge transfer are Minbaeva et al. (2003), Minbaeva and Michailova (2004), and Minbaeva et al. (2010). It is necessary that employees at the individual level are motivated to transfer knowl- edge when there are opportunities for transferring. And also the other way round, it is necessary that they have leeway to transfer knowledge when they are motivated. All in all, in the literature are few hints found how these two knowledge transfer ac- tions may be supported. Husted and Michailova (2002), e.g., list reasons for hoarding knowledge on the transmission side and rejecting knowledge on the receiver’s side. For hoarding knowledge they discuss for example the potential loss of value and bar- gaining power, the reluctance to spend time on knowledge sharing, and the fear of hosting knowledge parasites. For rejecting knowledge they specify barriers like group affiliation or group thinking, and the “general doubt regarding the validity and reliabili- ty of knowledge” (Husted and Michailova 2002: 67). While different barriers are men- tioned, the mechanisms to overcome them seem to be the same for knowledge provid- ing and for knowledge providing, i.e. replacing a selfish individual rationality with a team oriented rationality.
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Assessing the impact of knowledge transfer policies: an international comparison of models and indicators of universities’ knowledge transfer performance

Assessing the impact of knowledge transfer policies: an international comparison of models and indicators of universities’ knowledge transfer performance

Instead, we focus on the questions concerning the specific knowledge transfer activities that universities perform. In Table 4, we have mapped each activity included in the surveys onto the three possible models of knowledge transfer, described in section 2: the public model, where knowledge is transferred via open dissemination, the proprietary model where knowledge is transferred via trade of intellectual property rights and the interactive model, where knowledge is transferred via direct interactions. As illustrated in Figure 1, intellectual property- related activities reflect the proprietary model; social, community and cultural engagement activities and regeneration programmes mainly follow the public model (public financing with open dissemination); the transfer of knowledge via education channels (mostly student placements and CPD), and the provision of facilities and equipment-related services follow the interactive model. The other activities combine different models, for example spinoffs combine the exploitation of intellectual property with the setup of stable interactions around its commercialization; collaborations involve the setup of qualified interactions, but sometimes also open dissemination combined with public funding (in the case of collaborative research) or the creation and transfer of intellectual property (contract research, consultancies).
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Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Tacit knowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the pro- cess of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and deter- mination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacit knowledge transfer mode; there are two major strategies for the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM): depict the es- sence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate Tacit Knowledge Trans- fer Method (TKTM) into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledge transfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of De- sign are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Having seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonym- ous), aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) proves the sig- nificant effect of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey re- sults, it was evident that Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.
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The Impact of Training on Knowledge Transfer in Higher Education

The Impact of Training on Knowledge Transfer in Higher Education

presentation. All this is done keeping the teacher in mind and considering a very homogeneous cluster of learners. Before embarking on any teaching, it is important to know the profile of the learners. In an MBA institute, the students are in the adolescent age and above and hence deserve to be treated that way while developing the learning-teaching methodology. In a pilot research survey of faculty members of management schools in the city of Belgaum, it was seen that more than 80% of the teachers were not trained professional teachers. They either emulated their own teachers or did what they felt were the best way of teaching. Most of the teachers were not aware of the composition of the class in terms of language fluency, mother tongue, scores in their degree exams, dominant learning styles and the lower and higher cut offs of multiple intelligence. Most of teachers also did not use a template for the class. The preparation for a class was restricted to the domain content and the time schedule. Many faculty members were not too aware of concepts like Neuro Lingusitic Programming, Bloom’s taxonomy, etc. The faculty members opined that humor and anecdotes are important but they were not using it in the class. For an effective knowledge transfer, we need to go beyond the conventional method of teaching and adopt a more systematic and designed template for effective knowledge transfer.
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Knowledge Transfer and Intra Firm Trade

Knowledge Transfer and Intra Firm Trade

By contrast, we find that foreign affiliates with intra-firm imports are less likely to receive crucial parental assistance in quality upgrading of their staff. Existing empirical evidence shows that the probability of engagement in intra-firm imports is higher in more skill-intensive firms (Corcos et al., 2013; Blanas and Seric, 2017) and in foreign affiliates with a higher intangible to tangible capital ratio (Blanas and Seric, 2017). Therefore, a possible explanation for this finding is that foreign affiliates with intra-firm imports already possess the human capital required to further process the intermediate inputs sourced from their parents. Another possible explanation is that labour skills are incorporated in the inputs imported from the parent and are thus sourced in embodied form (Keller and Yeaple, 2013). This finding, though, and its possible interpretations should be treated with caution as it does not hold when the estimating sample is restricted to foreign affiliates in goods-producing industries. However, even if intra-firm imports substitute for the transfer of this type of knowledge, the complementarity of intra-firm trade with transfer of the other four types of knowledge suggests that the distinction between embodied and disembodied knowledge transfer considered in Keller and Yeaple (2013) is likely to explain only a part of multinational production.
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Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Small business is the most common firm structure in the Canadian economy and accounts for the single largest share of economic activity. As the founders of these firms move to normal retirement age, they begin the transfer of the business to a family or non-family member. When the second generation assumes control of the firm, issues related to generational transfer of knowledge become important. Financial and income and tax considerations have received the bulk of attention in research. This study focuses on knowledge transfer from the founder to successor. Tacit knowledge has been identified as a key strategic resource and passing this knowledge from the founder to the successor is a key element in transition that ensures the business is viable and remains in the family
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Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

However, in the case studies, there is a clear history of tacit knowledge transfer that pre-dates the successor’s entry into the business and is embedded in the family context. This finding challenges Garcia-Alverez, Lopez-Sintas and Gonzalvo ‘s (2002) assumption that business knowledge transfer begins with entry into the business and provides an alternative explanation of the difference in tacit knowledge transfer between family and non-family successor experiences. In fact, in family firms generally, the phases do not seem as distinct in the cases in this study. Although the ‘familiness’ of the firm – the values and norms referred to earlier seemed to pre-date the successor’s formal entry into the firm, the transfer of firm specific business knowledge begins prior to the successor being formally identified as such, again challenging the distinct phases described by Garcia-Alverez, Lopez- Sintas and Gonzalvo (2002). It is unclear whether there is a point where the successor begins the business-specific knowledge transfer before the successor has been openly identified as the successor. It is reasonable to assume, given what we know about entrepreneurial personalities (adaptive, anticipatory), that the founder’s engagement in the business-specific knowledge transfer process commences when the successor views or assumes that their child will be the successor rather than when that is openly acknowledged, although our data does not lead to that as a conclusion. This finding extends this model in showing that the stages are not as distinct as the model suggests and extends our understanding of the family and business
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The knowledge enablers of knowledge transfer: a study in the construction industries in Ghana

The knowledge enablers of knowledge transfer: a study in the construction industries in Ghana

2 Knowledge is a fundamental asset for firms and organizations (Teece, 1998), and a main resource upon which competitive advantage is founded (Albino et al., 1998; Kogut and Zander, 1992; Nonaka, 1994; Reisman, 2005). Successful knowledge transfer (KT) as a critical factor necessary to improve both productivity (Janis, 2003; Martyniuk et al., 2003) and innovation (Albino et al., 2004; Cohen and Levinthal, 1990; Reisman, 2005). Moreover, knowledge is essential for economic progress whilst international technology transfer is noted as being an important prerequisite requirement for economic development (Hedlund and Nonaka, 1993). Both the acquisition and diffusion of technology foster productive growth in both developed and developing countries (Hoekman et al., 2005). However there are inherent characteristics of knowledge, such as tacit and explicit properties, which makes its transfer inherently difficult (Polanyi, 1967; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Boisot, 1998). Technological knowledge refers to a class of knowledge about a specific product or production technique and includes the technical skills necessary to use a product or production technique (Erdilek and Rapoport, 1985). Research in technology dynamics suggests that technology can be seen as a human-constructed means for achieving a particular end (Dosi and Grazzi, 2010). Technology transfer therefore conveys the movement of knowledge for the use of a product or production technique. Derakhshani (1984) affirmed technology transfer between companies involves the acquisition, development and utilizations of technological knowledge by a company other than that in which this knowledge originated.
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Effecting successful knowledge transfer: lessons from the UK Knowledge Transfer Partnership scheme

Effecting successful knowledge transfer: lessons from the UK Knowledge Transfer Partnership scheme

University processes have required rapid and significant change to adapt to the new requirements of knowledge transfer (or knowledge exchange as it is now often termed in the UK), identified in a number of UK Government White Papers as a key third stream of activity, alongside teaching and research (e.g. Lambert, 2003). Experience at the University of Gloucestershire suggests varied levels of progress in the main process areas (Figure 4). Whilst the marketing capability (including a new CRM system) has adapted well, driven and supported by the university’s Centre for Enterprise and Innovation, selling activity has not developed in line, despite the call by the vice-chancellor of another university to ‘embrace, don’t shun, the ethos of business’ (Wilson, 2007). The financial and administrative systems have evolved reasonably well to accommodate KE products and services, including the
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KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN A KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN A KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY

The knowledge economy currently presupposes that each organization manages its knowledge and in doing so intentionally endeavors to achieve a long-term competitive advantage. In other words the key source of success is no longer information as such, but the right knowledge which is associated with a specifi c bearer – employee who must constantly develop this in a currently highly competitive environment. The goal of this article is to identify and evaluate the conditions for the use of the resource approach focused on the management of knowledge in the current knowledge economy across all economic branches. The research is descriptive and empirical by nature, because the primary data has been collected using the survey method, including fact-fi nding techniques such as questionnaires and interviews. According to the results of the quantitative research focused on education in Czech organizations, 66.5% of the surveyed organizations make use of some type of education or training at work. However, one third of Czech organizations still do not educate their employees and do not work with knowledge development and management in any way. The following recommendations can be given to organizations nowadays: (1) identify and overcome the barriers to knowledge sharing through fostering effective relationships, (2) the employees’ willingness to participate in the learning process needs to be enhanced, (3) the organization’s management should introduce a refl ective process and a career development process leading to effective knowledge sharing and (4) the role of the mentor and coach is crucial in effi cient organizational learning. The main areas which affect knowledge development in organizations are based on cooperation and communication. This refers to both the organizational culture and the climate. Those areas are crucial for employee and organizational knowledge transfer and development.
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