Figure 1 shows a gas turbine system with 1MW power generation along with 300 o C superheated steam. Air at ambient temperature of Kolkata city is passed through compressor. At combustion chamber compressed air from compressor and fuel (MSW) are burnt. This burnt gas is sent through turbine and 1 MW power is obtained. The exhaust coming out from turbine is used to produce superheated steam of 300 o C.
Most of the meat shops in India, especially in Kolkata city are unorganized. The meat sellers or butchers lack the knowledge of proper meat handling and slaughter of meat animals. Majority of the people purchase and consume the chicken and mutton meat from such open markets. The butchers and meat traders are less aware of the hazards from meat, i.e. meat borne diseases and lack the knowledge of zoonotic potentials. The wholesomeness of the water used for washing the carcasses after slaughter and dressing is still doubtful. There are very few open meat shops where proper drainage system exist, which acts as the commonest source of different hazards in Kolkata city. Proper hygienic conditions while processing Chicken and mutton meat can reduce the load of Campylobacter on the meat surfaces.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere. The concept of monitoring of air quality by plants is a well-established fact. It is known that some plants are very sensitive to air pollutants; they are thus used as indicator species for bio monitoring of air quality. The use of lichens and moss for air pollution level mapping in urban and industrial area are the finest examples of plant io monitoring of air quality. The use of higher plants for monitoring of air pollution is, however, a recent development. A number of plant parameters either simply or in combination may be used for evaluating the pollution stress. Monitoring and detection by instrument cannot be possible everywhere however, indication from plant species by their alterations in morphological and biochemical parameters may be a suitable and easy screening measurement. The present study aims to detect morphological and biochemical changes in leaves of Alstonia scholaris found in Kolkata city area that are exposed to vehicular emission. The results clearly indicate that vehicular load brought significant changes in foliar morphology, numbers of gall formation and biochemical pa
Transport is the most important parameter of rural, peri urban and urban land use change. Para- transit modes are mostly used for trips with shorter journey length, link trips and marketing and educational trips. They are also essential to feed the main roads with the feeder roads. At the beginning Kolkata was designed on pedestrian movement and mass transit in the form of tram. That time cycle rickshaw and hand puller rickshaw were the principle mode of transport to connect main road. Later on with development of new technologies the use of environment friendly rickshaw got reduced and promotion of taxi and auto rickshaw began. Present study will focuses on the spatial expansion of Kolkata city toward south along the auto rickshaw routes and an emphasis will be given to find out their reciprocal relationship. This study reveals that auto rickshaw is both the boon and bane of Kolkata city, as it can move through both the arterial and major roads. But in congested areas this has created lots of problem. For the transportation development of an area this plays an important role. For the development of smart transportation plan the number of auto rickshaw must be under control which indirectly reduces the externalities of transport of Kolkata city.
The recognition of noise as an environmental problem and its impact both on community and occupational environment is rapidly growing. Every day several thousands of vehicles are moving in and around Kolkata city and it creates immense heavy traffic congestion and severe noise pollution in s in North, South and Central Kolkata are experienced huge vehicular congestion during peak and lean hours and it crosses the permissible limit of standard decibel of noise level as maintained by Central as well as West Bengal Pollution Control 50 decibel in silent zone, 55-60 decibel in Therefore some busiest traffic intersection points of north, south and central Kolkata have been selected to make the research paper evident. While it has been compared among all the megacities in India, Kolkata placed its first position and it is because of immense vehicular traffic, bad condition of road, speed of the vehicles, narrow space of raffic congestion, more prone to accident followed by unscientific diversion of traffic which create positively noise pollution throughout the city. However high level of noise pollution effect on human health and it creates auditory disorder, problem of blood circulation, unconditional effect on brain and hormones followed by some psychological and personological effect Therefore in this research paper an attempt has been made to point and around Kolkata city and its immense effect on body and mind among the civilian of Kolkata followed by some remedial suggestions and mitigation strategies through which this noise level should reduce in coming future and Kolkata will be placed as a
The Kolkata metropolis, the second largest urban agglom- eration in India, bounded by latitudes of 22 ◦ 27 0 –22 ◦ 40 0 N and longitudes of 88 ◦ 18 0 –88 ◦ 28 0 E, has developed primarily along the eastern bank of the River Hooghly about 150 km north of the Bay of Bengal, right over the Ganges delta. The population of Kolkata was 1.5 million in 1901, 11 million in 1991 and a phenomenal 14 million in 2011 according to the census report. Due to enormous population pressure it has encroached into the back swamp and marshy land to the east, filling up extensive areas, especially in the Salt Lake and Rajarhat regions, in an unplanned manner. More than 80 % of the city has built-up areas with high-rise residential buildings, congested business districts, hospitals and schools, etc. (Nandy, 2007), some of which are very old and in di- lapidated condition with unplanned construction adhering to non-seismic safety standards. Demography in some parts of the city exhibits population density above 100 000 km −2 . Figure 1 depicts the study region, which is urban Kolkata with typical urban attributions.
19 Read more
was observed that the mercury content of the fish obtained from these water bodies were below the permissible safe dietary level of 0.5 mg/kg while they purify the water and praised the natural system of the wetlands for accommodating the total sewage flow of one of the five most populated cities of the world . The overall objective of this study is to assess the performance of existing sewage fed fishery under ecologically balanced waste water treatment system including detail auditing of heavy metals of East Kolkata Wetland.
Interest in developing and using environment friendly, or “green,” technology in production process is on the increase. Consequentially use of environment friendly technology as a marketing device is growing. Consumer attitudes towards environmental issues may influence their purchasing patterns and decisions, as well as they may be willing to pay premium prices for products that incorporate green technology. To see if a higher level of concern for environmental issues influences purchasing behavior, a survey of seventy people was conducted in the city of Kolkata. Respondents reported on their concern and awareness levels, their purchasing habits and patterns, and their willingness to pay more for greener products or for products which were relatively more friendlier to environmental concerns. Higher concern-level respondents were found to have a higher frequency of green purchasing behavior, as well as a greater willingness to pay more for green product.
12 Read more
ABSTRACT: A four year long research programme divided into four phases has been designed for the first time to assess the combined Noise-Air quality and combined exposure to Noise-Air pollution at the curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata city, India. The results and the findings of the different phases of study had already been published. The objective of the review work is to fuse the findings of the different phases of studies; to identify the factor(s) influences the degree of correlation between concentration of the air pollutant(s) and traffic noise level at the microenvironment of the city. Incidence of moderate to very strong positive Pearson’s correlation coefficients between concentration of the air pollutant(s) and traffic noise level indicated chances of correlated exposure to these environmental stressors at the microenvironment of the city. Average combined Noise-Air quality and combined exposure to Noise-Air pollution of the microenvironment of the city was very poor (0.17) to fair (0.50) and poor (-0.06) to excellent (3.33) respectively. The best combined Noise-Air quality and the best level of combined exposure to Noise-Air pollution at the microenvironment of the city was prominently evidenced in after-noon, in summer and under variable road geometry. However, the worst combined Noise-Air quality and the worst level of combined exposure to Noise-Air pollution at the microenvironment of the city was prominently evidenced in evening, in winter and under constant road geometry. A principal component analysis revealed that intensity of wind determines the degree of correlation between the environmental stressors at the microenvironment.
13 Read more
Abstract. Green parks and open spaces are indispensable parts of an urban environment as they play important roles in promoting public health, protecting natural ecosystems and improving socioeconomic conditions of the city dwellers. Hence, the information of green and open spaces in a city needs to be provided to its governing authority and people for better management and utilisation. Web enabled geographic information system (WebGIS) is capable in maintaining and disseminating green park information among its users over the web. The availability of open source geospatial software and tools made this technology more cost effective. In present study an interactive and user friendly WebGIS is developed for city dwellers and decision makers to search and visualise green parks of Kolkata city both on map and satellite image along with park information and ground photo. It is an easy deployable solution that can help in urban planning for creating new as well as preserving the existing green spaces.
An Aedes aegypti (larval) survey was conducted by the vector control department of Kolkata Mu- nicipal Corporation (KMC), following an outbreak of dengue in Kolkata City in July 2012. Results obtained are startling. Small discarded items were the major breeding sources of Ae. aegypti (prime vector of dengue). Outdoor containers such as battery shells at market places, old tyres at garages and tyre-retreading centres and wells at construction sites represented the first, second and third categories of preferred breeding sites of this vector mosquito. In the past, Ae. aegypti in Kolkata City was quite photophobic with regard to its breeding habit; it used to breed more in- doors—mostly in small uncovered masonry tanks used for water storage indoors. But the very mosquito now breeds more outdoors; it has become photophilic. Ecological compulsion created by the people of Kolkata through periodic emptying and cleaning of their masonry tanks and other indoor water storage containers following the KMC’s intensive mass awareness campaigns over the past several years, seemed to have compelled Ae. aegypti to shift its breeding sites from in- doors to outdoors for its better survival in the city’s environment. The need for active involvement of some other departments of KMC—besides the health department—such as the departments of solid waste management, building, water supply and drainage, too, was clearly pointed out by the study. Accordingly, multipronged strategies—including prompt destruction of the breeding sources of Ae. aegypti right from the month of January by involving all the concerned departments—were planned and religiously implemented by KMC during 2013. The concerted efforts yielded com- mendable results: the number of dengue cases downslided from a staggering 1852 (with 2 deaths) in 2012 to a comfortable 238 (with no death) in 2013.
The demand for mobility has risen significantly all over the world as a result of the fast pace of urbanization. The situation is no different in India. In India, personal vehicles have increased tre- mendously to take care of this rising need for mobility as provision of public transport has been inadequate. This exponential growth of vehicles has led to traffic congestion which is a hindrance to mobility. Traffic congestion leads to increase in operating cost of vehicles, delay, pollution and stress. The problem is acute in the Indian city of Kolkata as the road space here is only 6% com- pared to 23% in Delhi and 17% in Mumbai. This paper makes an attempt to measure the external cost of congestion on the roads of Kolkata. The method used to measure the cost of congestion fol- lows that of R. J. Smeed (1968). The result obtained or the cost of congestion estimated for the city of Kolkata indicates that there is a considerable monetary loss that is being incurred. An attempt to measure the cost of congestion in the city of Kolkata has not been made before, although studies have tried to estimate congestion in Kolkata city.
10 Read more
The history of Kolkata's Metro rail goes as far back as 1949, when the idea of setting up an underground railway system to solve the burgeoning traffic problem in the city was conceived by the then Chief Minister of West Bengal Dr. B.C. Roy, a great visionary. After detailed studies, the MTP (Rlys) came to the conclusion that there was no other alternative but to construct a Mass Rapid Transit System .
Soil plays a very important role for a building to stand still, it’s quite like human’s feet and the structure of the building is like human’s skeleton. But in nature some disbalance occurs due to the tectonic plate movement, for which disturbance in soil layers can be observed. One of the major phenomenons of disturbance in soil layer due to earthquake is liquefaction. Soil liquefaction occurs due to large earthquakes and it is also termed as ground failure (for flow liquefaction) and sometime it is termed as lateral spreading (cyclic mobility) (Seed, 1979) . Generally soil liquefaction occurs due to less strength of soil. In saturated cohesionless soil due to build-up of pore water pressure due to application of sudden earthquake load, the strength of soil gets decreased and soil liquefaction is occurred (Seed and Lee, 1966) . Several case histories, field and laboratory studies revealed that silty sands (also present in Kolkata sub soil strata) are also prone to liquefaction (Seed et al., 1983; Yamamuro and Lade, 1998) [9, 15]. So on the basis of seismological and geotechnical characteristics; it is necessary to assess liquefaction susceptibility at Kolkata city and also the most suitable ground improvement technique has been proposed to mitigate soil liquefaction.
Buses contribute as the most important mode of public transport in all cities. Rapid urbanization has generated corresponding increase in the sharp rise in ownership of vehicles in Kolkata. In 2005 ministry of urban development, Govt. of India launched the Jawaharlal Nehru national urban renewal mission (JNNURM). This paper focuses on this transformation.For the purpose of study selected routes of buses are taken between Haora to Garia. The main objectives of this study is to analyse: Present condition of bus transport, the impact of ban of 15 years old bus, the impact of JNNURM bus, the perception of bus owners, the perception of passengers, the perception of labourers.
10 Read more
The percentage distribution of the target pollutant in five well mixed environmental compartment namely air, wa- ter, soil, sediment and vegetation can be predicted along with their long-range transport (LRT) potential and over- all environmental persistence using TaPL3 model (soft- ware copyright 2000, version 3.0, Canadian Environ- mental Modeling Centre). This simulation tool is a fuga- city-based Level III multimedia mass balance model  that uses a default value for the total emission of 1000 kg/h into a single mobile medium (air or water) and re- turns the total environmental load in the system. The probable emission of the target VOCs in the system un- der examination is estimated from the actual environ- mental load as calculated from measured concentration in air assuming a linear relationship between the two. Re- quired input for the model used in the simulation for the target pollutant is given in Table 1.
10 Read more
months after an overwhelming electoral victory for the CPI(M)-led Left Front government of West Bengal. The protest was against land acquisition by the state in Singur, a fertile agricultural area, for transfer to Tata Motors for their car manufacturing plant. In early 2007, there was a conflagration of violence in connection with state plans for land acquisition in Nandigram for a chemical hub. Later in the year, violence erupted in rural areas across the state in protest against the malfunctioning public distribution system. The city of Kolkata was also an epicentre of protest agitations on all these issues, both by the principal opposition party, the Trinamool Congress (TMC), led by Ms Mamata Banerjee, as well as independent, left-leaning activists and intelligentsia. In November 2007, the city saw a major protest rally against the ruling CPI(M)’s violent actions in Nandigram by the intelligentsia and civil society. Later that month, violence suddenly erupted one morning in Kolkata, in protest against the residence in the city of the exiled Bangladeshi writer Tasleema Nasreen.
12 Read more
Above figures shows the present conditions of Kolkata tramways which are almost similar in several areas. Calcutta Tramways Company uses old engine in most of the tram which are low speed in nature, creates noise pollution and irritation. Although very few number of new modelled tram engines have been introduced but it is not sufficient. The Tram line reduces the smoothness of road which creates discomfort to the other vehicle users. In some places the undulation of road is very high which is very dangerous for the two wheelers mainly at rainy season. The manhole system is improper in those areas, which lead some portion of road to go under water making the tram lines slightly invisible. This increases the accidental tendency for the other vehicles.
Materials and Methods: Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures from 70 patients in a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata, India. The growth of Candida spp. on sabouraud dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining, where gram- positive budding fungal cells were observed. The species identification as well as antifungal susceptibility testing were performed with VITEK 2 compact automated system using VITEK-2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast-like organisms (ID-YST card). Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out with VITEK 2 fungal susceptibility card (AST-YS07) kit.
The idea of using Dhapa for agricultural production had been conceived for natural recycling of garbage and sewage water. “The ‘Dhapa Square Mile’ was taken on lease in the 19th Century and the solid waste was used for vegetable farming and the sewage water for pisciculture (Ghosh, 1998). On the basis of a rapid assessment, this garbage farms produce more than 1,500 quintals of vegetables per acre per year, which are marketed in the City of Kolkata.